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Encyclopedia > Grodno Sejm
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New Castle in Grodno, where the Grodno Sejm took place.
The Second Partition (1793)
The Second Partition (1793)

Grodno Sejm was the last Sejm (session of parliament) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Grodno Sejm, held in fall of 1793 in Grodno, Grand Duchy of Lithuania (now Hrodno, Belarus) is infamous because its deputies, bribed or coerced by the Russian Empire, passed the act of Second Partition of Poland. It started on 17 June and ended on 23 November 1793. Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 285 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 285 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the lower chamber of Polish parliament. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Hrodna (or Grodno; Belarusian: Го́радня, Гро́дна; Grodno in Polish, Гродно in Russian, Gardinas in Lithuanian) is a city in Belarus on the Nemunas river, close to the borders of Poland and Lithuania (about 15 km and 30 km away respectively). ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... Bribery is the practice of offering a professional money or other favours in order to circumvent ethics in a variety of professions. ... Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to act by employing threat of harm (usually physical force, sometimes other forms of harm). ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...


The Sejm was called to Grodno by the Russian Empire after the Polish-Russian War of 1792 ended with the victory of Russia and its allies, Targowica Confederation to confirm the Russian demands[1]. Grodno was chosen as Warsaw, Commonwealth capital was deemed to unsafe for Russians (and indeed it would prove so during the Warsaw Uprising next year). Many of the deputies were Russian supporters (like marshal of the Sejm, Stanisław Kostka Bieliński), with Russian representatives bribing some deputies and Russian armies forcing the election of their favoured candidate at local sejmiks[2]. The Sejm was held in New Castle in Grodno in presence of Russian garrison stationed in and around the New Castle and commanded by Russian ambassador, Jakub Johann Sievers, to ensure the obedience of all deputies; dissidents were threaten with beatings, arrests, sequestration or exile[3]. Many deputies were not allowed to speak, and the main issue on the agenda was the project of 'Eternal[4] Alliance of Poland and Russia', sent to the Sejm by Russian Tsarina Catherine the Great, and presented to the Sejm as the 'request of Polish people' by the Polish supporters of Russia. Nonetheless out of 140 deputies present about 25 vocally protested against the proposal, especially against the Prussian territorial demands. However with further threats and actions by Russians, on 14 October 1793 the alliance was passed by "acclamation". In fact, after a long debate, around 4 a.m., with Russian forces present and preventing anybody from leaving the room, the marshal of the Sejm asked three times if there is agreement to pass the act. When not a single deputy spoke, Józef Ankwicz, another known supporter of foreign powers, declared that it was as unanonimous vote of support[5] ("He who is silent means agreement"[6]). It was not the first time Russian Empire used such strategy: the fate of the Grodno Sejm resembled that of the Sejm Niemy of 1717 - where the only person allowed to speak was the marshal of the Sejm or the Repnin Sejm of 1767-1768, where opponents of Russian intervention were arrested and exiled to Russia[7]. War in Defense of the Constitution or Polish-Russian War of 1792 took place in 1792 between Polish-Luthuanian Commonwealth on one side, and the Russian Empire on the other. ... Categories: Stub | Polish confederations ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Combatants Poland Imperial Russia Commanders Jan KiliÅ„ski, StanisÅ‚aw Mokronowski Iosif Igelström Strength 3,500 soldiers, unknown number of civilians 6,000 soldiers Casualties ? 2,000[1]-4,000[2] 2000 POW[3] The Warsaw Uprising of 1794 (otherwise called the Warsaw Insurrection, Polish: ) was an armed struggle... Marszałek sejmu (Sejm Marshal, Marshal of the Sejm) is the title of the Speaker (chair) of Sejm the lower house of Polish parliament since the 15th century. ... A sejmik (diminutive of the Polish sejm, or parliament) was a regional sejm in the pre-partition Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and earlier in the Kingdom of Poland. ... Sequestration, the act of removing, separating or seizing anything from the possession of its owner, particularly in law, of the taking possession of property under process of law for the benefit of creditors or the state. ... EXILE is a 6-member Japanese pop music band. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is the official Slavonic title designating Emperor in the following states: Bulgaria in 913–1422 (for later usage in 1908–1946, see below) Serbia in... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from June 28, 1762, to her death on November 6, 1796. ... Politics An acclamation is a form of election not using a ballot. ... Silent Sejm (Polish: Sejm Niemy) is the name given to the session of the Sejm (parliament) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth of 1 February 1717. ... Marszałek sejmu (Sejm Marshal, Marshal of the Sejm) is the title of the Speaker (chair) of Sejm the lower house of Polish parliament since the 15th century. ... Repnin Sejm (Polish: ) was a Sejm (session of the Polish parliament) that took place from 1767 to 1768 in Warsaw, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...


The Sejm has passed the following acts:

  • the Eternal Alliance of Poland and Russia: Poland became a subservient Russian ally[8], in effect a Russian protectorate. Russian Empire was granted the right to have bases in Poland and the right to move forces through Polish territory at will. Poland was not to sign any alliances without Russian approval and to have sent diplomatic missions to foreign countries only together with Russians ones[9]
  • territorial changes granting parts of former Commonwealth territory to Russian Empire and Prussia[10]
  • Constitution of May 3 was abolished, although some it its provisions granting rights to burghers were retained
  • certain cardinal laws (free election, liberum veto) were reestabilished, together with the Permanent Council[11] [12][13]. The head of the Permanet Council was not the Russian ambassador. Russian Tsarina Catherine the Great became the guarantor of the cardinal laws.
  • Polish army was reduced to 15,000
  • Polish award of Virtuti Militari was abolished

One of the consequences of the Second Partition was the Kościuszko Uprising, and the Third Partition of Poland. A protectorate is, in international law, a political entity (a sovereign state or a less developed native polity, such as a tribal chiefstainship or feudal princely state) that formally agrees (voluntarily or under pressure) by treaty to enter into an unequal relationship with another, stronger state, called the protector, which... Seal on the building of German Embassies. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). ... Burgher can refer to: A title. ... Election of Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki as king of Poland at Wola, outside Warsaw ( 1669). ... Liberum veto (Latin: free veto) was a parliamentary device in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that allowed any deputy to a Sejm to force an immediate end to the current session and nullify all legislation already passed at it. ... The Permanent Council (Polish Rada Nieustająca) was the highest administrative authority in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth between 1775 and 1789 and the first modern government in Europe. ... Virtuti Militari The Virtuti Militari (Latin: For Military Virtue) is Polands highest military decoration for valor in the face of the enemy. ... KoÅ›ciuszko Uprising 1794 The KoÅ›ciuszko Uprising took place in Poland in 1794. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ...


See also

Silent Sejm (Polish: Sejm Niemy) is the name given to the session of the Sejm (parliament) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth of 1 February 1717. ... Repnin Sejm (Polish: ) was a Sejm (session of the Polish parliament) that took place from 1767 to 1768 in Warsaw, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text translated from the corresponding Polish Wikipedia article as of 06 July 2006.

Further reading

  • Jones, Robert E., Provincial Development in Russia. Catherine II and Jacob Sievers, Rutgers University Press 1984
  • Robert Howard Lord, The Second Partition of Poland: A Study in Diplomatic History, Harvard University Press, 1915
  • (Polish) Henryk Kocój, Targowica i sejm grodzieński 1793 w relacjach posła pruskiego Ludwiga Buchholtza, Wydawnictwo UJ, 2004, ISBN 8323318409
  • (Polish) Volumina Legum, T.X. Konstytucje Sejmu Grodzieńskiego z 1793 r. Wydał Z. Kaczmarczyk przy współudziale J. Matuszewskiego, M. Sczanieckiego i J. Wąsickiego, Poznań 1952.
  • (Polish) J. E. Sievers, Jak doprowadziłem do drugiego rozbioru Polski, Warszawa 1992;
  • (Polish) W. Smoleński, Ze studiów nad historią Sejmu Grodzieńskiego z 1793 r., "Przegląd Historyczny" t. VIII, Warszawa 1919;
  • (Polish) J. Wąsicki, Diariusze Sejmu Grodzieńskiego 1793 roku, "Czasopismo prawno- historyczne" III, Poznań 1951, s. 356-364;
  • (Polish) J. Wąsicki, Konfederacja Targowicka i ostatni Sejm Rzeczypospolitej z 1793 r. Studium historyczno-prawne, Poznań 1952;
  • (Polish) L. Wegner, Sejm Grodzieński ostatni, Poznań 1866.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sejm - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1691 words)
Sejm or Seym (pronounced: [sɛjm]) is the name of the lower house of the Polish parliament.
Sejm of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
The General Sejm (Polish Sejm Generalny or Sejm Walny), first convoked by the king John I Olbracht in 1493 near Piotrków, evolved from earlier regional and provincial meetings (sejmiks, especially from sejmik generaly), which arose from the 1454 statute of Nieszawa, granted to the szlachta by King Casimir IV the Jagiellonian.
Liberum veto - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (389 words)
This rule evolved from a unanimity principle, and the latter from the federative character of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which was essentially a federation of countries.
Each deputy to a Sejm was elected at a local regional sejm (sejmik) and represented the entire region.
In the first half of the 18th century, it became increasingly common for Sejm sessions to be broken up by liberum veto, as the Commonwealth's neighbors — chiefly Russia and Prussia — found this a useful tool to frustrate attempts at reforming and strengthening the Commonwealth.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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