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Encyclopedia > Groat

Groat is the traditional name of an English silver coin worth four English pennies, and also a Scottish coin originally worth fourpence, with later issues being valued at eightpence and a shilling. Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen (King) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For silver pennies produced after 1820 see Maundy money The silver penny was introduced to England around the year 785 by King Offa of Mercia, in the English midlands. ... The first coins in Scotland appear to have been introduced by the Romans, but it was at least the 19th century before a currency economy took hold of most of the country (the Highland Clearances have been part explained by the transition from barter to a cash economy). ... Before decimalisation in 1971, a shilling had a value of 12d (old pence), and was equal to 1/20th of a pound: there were 240 (old) pence to the pound. ...

Contents

Name

The name has also been applied to any thick or large coin, as the Groschen (grosso), a silver coin issued by Tyrol in 1271 and Venice in the 13th century, was the first of this general size to circulate in the Holy Roman Empire and other parts of Europe. The immediate ancestor to the groat was the French gros tournois, which was known as the groot (Dutch for "great" or "large") in the Netherlands. The groschen was a coin used in various German speaking states. ... Coat of arms of Tyrol: *[1] The Tyrol is a historical region in Western Central Europe, which includes the Austrian state of Tyrol (consisting of North Tyrol and East Tyrol) and the Italian regions known as the South Tyrol and Trentino. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia, Latin: Venetia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ...


History

It was after the French silver coin had circulated in England that an English groat was first minted under King Edward I. Scots groats were not issued until the reign of James I. Scots groats were originally also worth fourpence, but later issues were valued at eightpence and a shilling. Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... James I (December 10, 1394 – February 21, 1437) reigned as King of Scots from April 4, 1406 until February 21, 1437. ... The first coins in Scotland appear to have been introduced by the Romans, but it was at least the 19th century before a currency economy took hold of most of the country (the Highland Clearances have been part explained by the transition from barter to a cash economy). ... Before decimalisation in 1971, a shilling had a value of 12d (old pence), and was equal to 1/20th of a pound: there were 240 (old) pence to the pound. ...


While strictly speaking, the English groat should have contained four pennyweights or 96 grains (6.2 grams) of sterling silver, the first ones issued weighed 89 grains (5.8 g) and later issues became progressively lighter. The weight was reduced to 72 grains (three pennyweights or 4.7 g) under Edward III, 60 grains (3.9 g) under Henry IV, and 48 grains (3.1 g) under Edward IV. From 1544 to 1560 (the weight being reduced to 32 grains (2.1 g) in 1559) the silver fineness was less than sterling, and after the 1561 issue they were not generally issued for circulation again for about a hundred years. A pennyweight (symbol dwt) is an obsolete unit of mass which is the same as 24 grains, 1/240th of a troy pound, 1/20th of a troy ounce, or approximately 1. ... A grain is a unit of mass equal to 0. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92. ... Unsolved problems in physics: What causes anything to have mass? The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. Mass is the property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ...


From the reigns of Charles II to George III, groats (by now often known as fourpences) were issued on an irregular basis for general circulation, the only years of mintage after 1786 being in 1792, 1795, and 1800. After this the only circulating issues were from 1836 to 1855, with proofs known from 1857 and 1862 and a colonial issue of 1888. These last coins had the weight further reduced to about 27 grains (1.9 grams) and were the same diameter as the silver threepenny pieces of the day although thicker. They also had Britannia on the reverse, while all other silver fourpenny pieces since the reign of William and Mary have had a crowned numeral "4" as the reverse, including the silver fourpenny Maundy money coins of the present. Some groats continued to circulate in Scotland until the 20th century. Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... Britannia on a 2005 £2 coin. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... Maundy Money is a special British coinage given to deserving poor people in a religious ceremony performed by Anglicans on Maundy Thursday, the Thursday before Easter. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Since 1971, the fourpenny coins have been denominated in new pence and thus represent 1/25th rather than 1/60th of a Pound sterling unlike the traditional groats. 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... ISO 4217 Code GBP User(s) United Kingdom, Crown Dependencies Inflation 2. ...


At times in the past, silver twopenny coins have been called half-groats.


Cultural references

The word "groat" has entered into a number of English and Scottish expressions, many of them now archaic.


In the north of England, there is the saying "Blood without groats is nothing" meaning "family without fortune is worthless." The allusion is to black-pudding, which consists chiefly of blood and oats formed into a sausage. "Not worth a groat" is an old saying meaning "not worth a penny", i.e. worthless. Black pudding or blood pudding is a sausage made by cooking animal blood with a filler until it is thick enough to congeal when cooled. ... Species References ITIS 41455 2002-09-22 Oats are the seeds of any of several cereal grains in the genus Avena. ... Plate with German Wurst (liver-, blood- and hamsausage) A sausage consists of ground meat, animal fat, herbs and spices, and sometimes other ingredients, usually packed in a casing (historically the intestines of the animal, though now generally synthetic), and sometimes preserved in some way, often by curing or smoking. ...


Benjamin Franklin, in his book, Necessary Hints gives the following thrifty advice: Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ...

He that spends a groat a day idly, spends idly above six pounds a year."

In Beatrix Potter's The Tale of Squirrel Nutkin, there is the following riddle: (Helen) Beatrix Potter (28 July 1866 – 22 December 1943) was an English childrens book author and illustrator, renowned for creating Peter Rabbit and other animal characters. ... The Tale of Squirrel Nutkin is a childrens story written and illustrated by Beatrix Potter, first published by Frederick Warne in 1903. ... A riddle is a statement or question having a double or veiled meaning, put forth as a puzzle to be solved. ...

"Riddle me, riddle me, rot-tot-tote! A little wee man in a red red coat! A staff in his hand, and a stone in his throat; If you'll tell me this riddle, I'll give you a groat."

The answer is a cherry. “Cherry tree” redirects here. ...


According to Hawkins' History of the Silver Coinage of England, groats were also known as "Joeys",

"so called from Joseph Hume, M.P., who strongly recommended the coinage for the sake of paying short cab-fares, etc."

This refers to the Victorian four-penny piece. The mention of cab fares is related to the fact that the standard minimum was four pence, so many passengers paid with a six-penny piece, allowing the cabby to keep the two pence change as a tip. The slang name "Joey" was transferred to the silver / cupronickel three-penny pieces in use in the first third of the twentieth century. Joseph Hume (January 22, 1777 - February 20, 1855) was a British doctor and politician, born in Montrose, Scotland. ...


John o' Groats, the most northerly part of the Scottish mainland, in Caithness despite its appearance has nothing to do with the coin, but is in fact a corruption of "Jan de Groot", the name of a Dutchman who migrated there, in the reign of James IV [1] [2] John o Groats location within the British Isles John o Groats (Taigh Iain Ghròt in Scottish Gaelic) (grid reference ND380734) is a village in the traditional county of Caithness, in the Highland region of Scotland, and is usually regarded as the most northerly settlement on the mainland of... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ... The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ... James IV (March 17, 1473-September 9, 1513) was King of Scots from 1488 to his death. ...


See also

This article concerns British coinage, the coinage of the United Kingdom. ... The first coins in Scotland appear to have been introduced by the Romans, but it was at least the 19th century before a currency economy took hold of most of the country (the Highland Clearances have been part explained by the transition from barter to a cash economy). ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Groat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (424 words)
Groat is the traditional name of the British silver coin worth four pennies.
While strictly speaking the English groat should have contained four pennyweights or 96 grains (6.2 grams) of sterling silver, the first ones issued weighed 89 grains (5.8 g) and later issues became progressively lighter.
From the reigns of Charles II to George III groats (by now often known as fourpences) were issued on an irregular basis for general circulation, the only years of mintage after 1786 being in 1792, 1795, and 1800.
Lee A. Groat - Recent Publications (1551 words)
Groat, L.A., Hawthorne, F.C., Lager, G.A., Schultz, A.J., and Ercit, T.S. (1996) X-ray and neutron crystal-structure refinements of a boron-bearing vesuvianite.
Groat, L.A., Hawthorne, F.C., Rossman, G.R., and Ercit, T.S. (1995) The infrared spectroscopy of vesuvianite in the OH region.
T.S., Groat, L.A., Chakomakous, B.C., Hawthorne, F.C., and Rossman, G.R. (1993) Metamictization and alteration of vesuvianite.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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