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Encyclopedia > Grizzly bear
Grizzly bear
Ursus arctos horribilis
Ursus arctos horribilis
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Ursidae
Genus: Ursus
Species: U. arctos
Subspecies: U. a. horribilis
Trinomial name
Ursus arctos horribilis
(Ord, 1815)
Range map
Range map

The grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis), also known as the silvertip bear, is a subspecies of brown bear (Ursus arctos) that lives in the uplands of western North America. Grizzly Bear is a Brooklyn-based indie rock band on Warp Records. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... For other meanings, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Species Ursus arctos Ursus americanus Ursus maritimus Ursus thibetanus,or Selenarctos thibetanus Asiatic black bear might be classified with Kinowagma belonging Selenarctos. ... Bears are big and have big ass, thats why bears are hot, and thats why cats are not. ... Trinomial nomenclature is a taxonomic naming system that extends the standard system of binomial nomenclature by adding a third taxon. ... George Ord (1781 - January 24, 1866) was an American ornithologist. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... Bears are big and have big ass, thats why bears are hot, and thats why cats are not. ... North American redirects here. ...


Normally solitary active animal, in coastal areas the grizzly congregates alongside streams, lakes, and rivers during the salmon spawn. Every other year, females (sows) produce one to four young (most commonly two) which are small and weigh only about 500 grams (one pound). A sow is very protective of her offspring and will attack if she thinks she is being threatened. The salmon run is the time at which salmon swim back up the rivers in which they were born to spawn and die. ... For other meanings of gram, see gram (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Description

Grizzly bears reach weights of 180–680 kilograms (400–1,500 pounds) and stand 2.44 m (8 ft) tall on their hind legs; males are on average 38% larger than females.[1] This sexual dimorphism suggests that size is an important factor in the male's ability to successfully compete for and attract breeding opportunities. Their coloring ranges widely across geographic areas, from blond to deep brown or red. These differences, once attributed to subspeciation, are now thought to be primarily due to the different environments these bears inhabit, particularly with regard to diet and temperature. Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ...


The grizzly has a large hump over the shoulders, which is a muscle mass used to power the forelimbs in digging. The hind legs are more powerful, however. The muscles in the lower legs provide enough strength for the bear to stand up on its hind legs, giving it a better view of its surroundings. The head is large and round with a concave facial profile. In spite of their massive size, these bears can run at speeds of up to 40 kilometers per hour (25 miles per hour). However, they are slower running downhill rather than uphill because of the large hump of muscle over the shoulders. Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ...

A grizzly bear skull
A grizzly bear skull

Grizzlies can be distinguished from most other brown bear subspecies by their proportionately longer claws and cranial profile which resembles that of the polar bear.[2] Compared to other North American brown bear subspecies, a grizzly's pelt is silver tipped and is smaller in size. This size difference is due to the lesser availability of food in the grizzlies landlocked habitats.[3] They are similar in size, color and behavior to the Siberian Brown Bear (Ursus arctos collaris).[4] This article is about the animal. ...


Range

The current range of the grizzly bear extends from Alaska, south through much of western Canada, and into portions of the northwestern United States including Idaho, Montana, Washington and Wyoming, extending as far south as Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, but is most commonly found in Canada. It is argued by some that there still remains a small population in southern Colorado in the southern San Juan Mountains. In September of 2007 a hunter produced evidence of grizzly reinhabitation in the Selway-Bitterroot ecosystem by killing a male grizzly.[5] Its original range also included much of the Great Plains and the southwestern states, but it has been extirpated in most of those areas. The grizzly currently enjoys legal protection in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and European countries. However, it is expected that its repopulation of its former range will be a slow process, due equally to the ramifications of reintroducing such a large animal to areas which are prized for agriculture and livestock and also to the bear's slow reproductive habits (bears invest a good deal of time in raising young). There are currently about 60,000 wild grizzly bears located throughout North America. For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Yellowstone redirects here. ... Grand Teton National Park is a United States National Park located in northwestern Wyoming, south of Yellowstone National Park. ... For other uses, see September (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Binomial name Lewisia rediviva Pursh The bitterroot (Lewisia rediviva Pursch) is a small, low, pink flower with yellow center that is the state flower of Montana in the United States. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ... Extirpation is the localized extinction of a species. ... The aim of this page is to act as a comparison between European countries in many different aspects, such as population, GDP, life expectancy, etc. ...


Brown bears (of which the grizzly bear is a subspecies) can live up to thirty years in the wild, though twenty to twenty-five is normal.[6]


Diet

A mother grizzly with a cub
A mother grizzly with a cub

Although grizzlies are of the order Carnivora, they are actually omnivores since their diet consists of both plants and animals. They have been known to prey on humans, large mammals such as moose, deer, sheep, elk, bison, caribou and even black bears. Grizzly bears will feed on fish such as salmon, trout, and bass, and those with access to a more protein-enriched diet in coastal areas potentially grow larger than interior individuals. Grizzly bears will readily scavenge food, behavior that can lead them into conflict with other species, such as wolves and humans. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 553 pixelsFull resolution (3624 × 2503 pixel, file size: 7. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 553 pixelsFull resolution (3624 × 2503 pixel, file size: 7. ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Pigs are omnivores. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Elk (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus The reindeer, known as caribou in North America, is an Arctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... Binomial name Pallas, 1780 Synonyms Euarctos americanus The American Black Bear (Ursus americanus) is the most common bear species native to North America. ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Trout (disambiguation). ... Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) Bass (IPA /bæs/) is a name shared by many different species of popular game fish. ...


The grizzly bears that reside in the American northwest are not as large as Canadian or Alaskan sub-species. This is due, in part, to the richness of their diet which in Yellowstone consists of whitebark pine nuts, roots, tubers, grasses, various rodents, army cutworm moths and scavenged carcasses, none of which match the fat content of the salmon available in Alaska and British Columbia. During early spring, as the bears emerge from their dens, elk and bison calves are actively sought. The bear will move in a zig-zag pattern, nose to the ground, hoping to find unsuspecting animals to feed on.


In preparation for winter, bears will gain hundreds of kilograms of fat, during a period of hyperphagia, before going into a state of false hibernation. The bear will often wait for a substantial snowstorm before it enters its den. Presumably, this behavior lessens the chances that predators will be able to locate the den. The dens themselves are typically located at elevations above 6,000 feet on northern-facing slopes. There is some debate amongst professionals as to whether grizzly bears technically hibernate. Much of the debate revolves around body temperature and the ability of the bears to move around during hibernation on occasion. Grizzly bears have the ability to "partially" recycle their body wastes during this period. In some areas where food is plentiful year round, grizzly bears skip hibernation altogether. For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... This article refers to the process of hibernation in biology. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ...


Interspecies competition

Female grizzly bear in Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.
Female grizzly bear in Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.

Most notable in Yellowstone have been the interactions between gray wolves and grizzly bears. Since the reintroduction of gray wolves to Yellowstone, many lucky visitors have witnessed a once common struggle between a keystone species, the grizzly bear, and its historic rival, the gray wolf. The interactions of U. arctos horribilis with the wolves of Yellowstone have been under considerable study. Typically, the conflict will be over a carcass, which is commonly an elk killed by wolves. The grizzly bear will use its strong sense of smell to locate the kill first. Then the wolves and grizzly will play a game of cat and mouse. One wolf may try to distract the bear while the others feed. The bear then may retaliate by chasing the wolves. If the wolves become aggressive with the bear it is normally in the form of careful nips at its hind legs. Thus, the bear will sit down and ease its ability to protect itself in a full circle. Rarely do interactions such as these end in death or serious injury to either animal. One carcass simply isn't usually worth the risk to the wolves if the bear has the upper hand (due to strength and size) or to the bear (if the wolves are too numerous or persistent). Over time, it seems the grizzly bears have benefited from the presence of the gray wolf because of increased food availability. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1050x750, 571 KB) Summary Source: NATIONAL CONSERVATION TRAINING CENTER-PUBLICATIONS AND TRAINING MATERIALS Creator: Terry Tollefsbol From the source webpage: Reaching weights of about 400- 1500 lbs, the grizzly bear is mainly nocturnal and in preparation for winter will put on... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1050x750, 571 KB) Summary Source: NATIONAL CONSERVATION TRAINING CENTER-PUBLICATIONS AND TRAINING MATERIALS Creator: Terry Tollefsbol From the source webpage: Reaching weights of about 400- 1500 lbs, the grizzly bear is mainly nocturnal and in preparation for winter will put on... For other uses, see Wolf (disambiguation), Gray Wolves (disambiguation), or Timber Wolf (comics). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Yellowstone National Park is a U.S. National Park located in the states of Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. ...

Attacks on humans

Grizzlies are considered by some experts to be the most aggressive bears, even by the standards of brown bears.[7] Aggressive behavior in grizzly bears is favored by numerous selection variables. Unlike the smaller black bears, adult grizzlies are too large to escape danger by climbing trees, so they respond to danger by standing their ground and warding off their attackers. Increased aggressiveness also assists female grizzlies in better ensuring the survival of their young to reproductive age.[8] Mothers defending cubs are the most prone to attacking, being responsible for 70% of grizzly caused human fatalities.[9] Historically, bears have competed with other large predators for food, which also favors increased aggression.


Precautionary measures

Campers are warned to hang food, garbage, and toiletries out of reach of bears, or to use a secure bear cache
Campers are warned to hang food, garbage, and toiletries out of reach of bears, or to use a secure bear cache

Grizzly bears normally avoid contact with people. In spite of their obvious physical advantages and many opportunities, they almost never view humans as prey. Even so, they can be extremely dangerous animals. Most grizzly bear attacks result from a bear that has been surprised at very close range, especially if it has a supply of food to protect, or female grizzlies protecting their offspring. In recent years, some grizzly bears appear to have learned to home in on the sound of hunters' gunshots in late fall as a source of potential food, and inattentive hunters have been attacked by bears trying to appropriate their kills. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 1. ...


It is imperative for all campers in areas inhabited by grizzly to maintain a clean campsite. Reports have indicated that something as innocuous as a tube of chapstick can entice a bear to come near a campsite in search of food. Any bear that is conditioned to finding food around campsites, will almost always return and expect the same reward. The bear is then a threat to campers and itself, and park rangers may be forced to kill it. For backcountry campers, hanging food between trees at a height unreachable to bears is a common procedure, although some grizzlies can climb and reach hanging food in other ways. An alternative to hanging food is to use a bear canister. A tube of ChapStick ChapStick Flava-Craze ChapStick is the brand name adopted in the United States, Australia, Canada, and United Kingdom by Wyeth Consumer Healthcare for its range of lip balms produced to be used on chapped lips. ... A captive bear tests a canister Bear-resistant food storage containers, commonly called bear canisters or simply bear cans, are usually hard-sided containers used by backpackers to protect their food from theft by bears. ...


Since most grizzlies prefer to avoid people, it is a good idea to make noise when travelling in dense brush or other places where visibility is limited. High pitched shouts or whistles will alert nearby bears and give them a chance to get out of the way. "Bear bells" are generally useless as their sound does not travel far.


Pepper-based bear sprays (containing at least 1% of the active ingredient capsaicin) have proven effective in deterring bears, both grizzly and black, that attacked after being surprised at close range. The spray causes instant irritation of exposed mucous membranes in the eyes, nose and mouth, and in the great majority of cases where it has been used, immediately diverts the bear. Recent research has shown that bear spray is significantly more effective than guns, which can wound or miss a charging bear. The further advantage of bear spray is that it leaves the bear alive and less likely to attack in the future, an important consideration for an animal like the grizzly that is threatened in most of its range.


In the event of a surprise attack that cannot be repelled, it is important not to make eye contact with the bear as eye contact can be seen as aggression. Adopt a submissive posture and remain still; often a charging grizzly will turn away at the last moment. Never run from a bear - uphill, downhill or into water. Grizzlies can outrun humans. Some say that climbing a tree can be a good defense, if there is time, as the long curved digging claws of a grizzly makes it hard for the bear to grip a tree and climb it.[citation needed] Others argue that climbing trees is not a good idea since many bears can and will climb up after you.[citation needed] If you do take to a tree, you should get at least two to three times as high as the bear can reach.[citation needed]


Where grizzlies do follow through on a charge and actually attack, they will usually bite at the head. The best defense is to lie prone, face down, legs spread to make it harder for the bear to flip you over, and hands gripped around the neck. Normally, once a grizzly is sure you are no longer a threat, it will leave. This is why most wildlife agencies in grizzly country advise that people play dead if attacked. Struggling or fighting back will almost certainly intensify and prolong the attack.


Grizzlies are driven by the need to find high-calorie food, especially first thing in the spring after hibernation and from late August through to their hibernation season in November. For this reason, people who live in bear country or camp, hunt or hike there, are well-advised to ensure that nothing that might smell edible to a bear is left exposed, especially overnight. Food and garbage should be locked securely in a hard-bodied structure or double-wrapped in plastic bags and suspended from a line at least 10 feet from the ground in campsites.


When travelling in grizzly territory, hikers should be aware of their surroundings at all times, recognizing the signs of bear presence in the area. Fresh diggings can indicate a grizzly recently feeding on vegetation or hunting rodents. A grizzly track is unlike that of a black bear in that one can trace a single line from the innermost point on the left toe to the innermost point on the right toe without intersecting the pad of the foot. Claws are normally more than an inch from the end of the toe. Other signs include: talus slopes that appear raked, fallen logs which have been torn up, and high claw marks on trees. The smell of decomposing flesh is a danger sign, as bears will take possession of animal carcasses and defend these rich food supplies aggressively; hikers should always give a wide berth to any area where there is a strong odour. Binomial name Pallas, 1780 Synonyms Euarctos americanus The American Black Bear (Ursus americanus) is the most common bear species native to North America. ...


Legal status

The grizzly bear is listed as threatened in the contiguous United States, and endangered in parts of Canada. In May 2002, the Canadian Species at Risk Act listed the Prairie population (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba range) of grizzly bears as being extirpated in Canada[10]. In Alaska and parts of Canada however, the grizzly is still legally shot for sport by hunters. On January 9, 2006, the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed to remove Yellowstone grizzlies from the list of threatened and protected species. In March 2007, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service "de-listed"the population, effectively removing Endangered Species Act protections for grizzlies in the Yellowstone National Park area. The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... The continental United States is a term referring to the United States situated on the North American continent. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Saskatchewan (disambiguation). ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... The Endangered Species Act (, et seq. ... Yellowstone redirects here. ...


Protection

All national parks, such as Banff National Park, Yellowstone and Grand Teton, and Theodore Roosevelt National Park have laws and regulations in place to protect the bears. Even so, grizzlies are not always safe in parks. In Glacier National Park in Montana and Banff National Park in Alberta, grizzlies are regularly killed by trains as they scavenge for grain that has leaked from poorly maintained grain cars. This causes 9% of human-caused grizzlies, together with other human-related causes. Roadkills on park roads are another problem. The primary limiting factors for grizzly bears in Alberta and elsewhere are human-caused mortality, unmitigated road access, and habitat loss, alienation and fragmentation. In the Central Rockies Ecosystem most bears died within a few hundred metres of roads and trails[11]. This article is about national parks. ... Moraine Lake, and the Valley of the Ten Peaks Banff National Park is Canadas oldest national park, established in 1885, in the Canadian Rockies. ... Yellowstone redirects here. ... Grand Teton National Park is a United States National Park located in northwestern Wyoming, south of Yellowstone National Park. ... There are two places in the Rocky Mountains of North America named Glacier National Park: Glacier National Park (U.S.) in Montana Glacier National Park (Canada) in British Columbia. ... Moraine Lake, and the Valley of the Ten Peaks Banff National Park is Canadas oldest national park, established in 1885, in the Canadian Rockies. ...


On March 22, 2007, The US Federal Government stated that Grizzly bears in and around Yellowstone National Park (Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem) no longer need Endangered Species Act protection. Several environmental organizations including the NRDC have since brought legal suit against the federal government to relist the grizzly bear. Farther north, in Alberta, intense DNA hair-snagging studies on 2000 showed the grizzly population to be increasing faster than what it was formerly believed to be, and Alberta Sustainable Resource Development calculated a population of 841 bears[11]. In 2002, the Endangered Species Conservation Committee recommended that the Alberta grizzly bear population be designated as Threatened due to recent estimates of grizzly bear mortality rates that indicated that the population was in decline. A recovery plan released by the Provincial government in March 2008 indicates that the grizzly population is lower than previously believed.[12]. The Provincial government has so far resisted efforts to designate its declining population of about 700 grizzlies (previously estimated at as high as 842) as endangered[citation needed]. is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Environment Canada consider the Grizzly bear to a "special concern" species, as it is particularly sensitive to human activities and natural threats. In Alberta and British Columbia, the species is considered to be at risk[13].


Recently moved to "Lower Risk Least Concern" status, see IUCN Red List. [14]


The Mexican Grizzly bear is extinct. [15].


Reintroduction in North America

Grizzly bears engaged in a play fight at San Francisco Zoo
Grizzly bears engaged in a play fight at San Francisco Zoo

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 512 pixelsFull resolution (3492 × 2236 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 512 pixelsFull resolution (3492 × 2236 pixel, file size: 5. ... The San Francisco Zoo, (previously Fleishhacker Zoo) is a zoo in San Francisco, California housing more than 250 different animal species. ...

Historic range

The present range of grizzly bears in the United States has significantly decreased within the past 200 years. In the mid 1800s, populations were distributed throughout the western United States including all of Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado, and most of Idaho, Washington, Oregon, California, Arizona, Alaska, New Mexico, Utah, North Dakota and South Dakota, and parts of Nebraska, Kansas, Nevada, Oklahoma, and Texas. The following is a table of reported Grizzly Bear populations in Canadian jurisdictions from 1991 to 2001/2002: // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Demonym South Dakotan Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th in the US  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...

Population estimates by jurisdiction[citation needed]
1991 2001-2002
Alberta 575 to 660 750 to 841
BC 1300 to 1340 1375 to 1400
Yukon 6300 to 6300 6300 to 6350
NWT 5050 to 5065 5080 to 5100
Nunavut 900 950 to 1000
Alb.nat. 205 to 215 185 to 193
Totals 14330 to 14480 14640 to 14884

Human threat of extinction

The primary explanation for the range and population decreases of grizzly bears in North America has been anthropogenic. With the gold rush beginning in the late 1840s, people began to establish settlements throughout the indigenous ranges of the grizzly bear. People killed the bears for their meat, fur, and because they were seen as a threat to humans. Additional contact between bears and settlers increased with western expansion, which led to a rapid decline in grizzly bear populations. By 1870, grizzly bears were scarce, even in the state of California where they were once plentiful. In biology, the range of an species is the geographical area within which that species can be found. ... North American redirects here. ... Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other meanings, see Gold rush (disambiguation) A gold rush is a period of feverish migration of workers into the area of a dramatic discovery of commercial quantities of gold. ...


Rewilding

The ideas of rewilding and reintroducing species to their natural environment are concepts based in conservation biology with the purpose of recovering lost biodiversity. Grizzly bears are just one of many species that have been diminished by the activities of humans, and reintroducing them to wilderness areas inside their historic ranges is a significant step in improving the natural biodiversity within the United States. Rewilding is the process of undoing domestication. ... Conservation biology, or conservation ecology, is the science of analyzing and protecting Earths biological diversity. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...


Ecological effects

The reintroduction of grizzly bears in habitats where they have naturally lived in the past has many positive effects on the surrounding ecosystem. As terrestrial predators, grizzly bears indirectly influence their ecological community from the top-down, causing a cascade effect which impacts the trophic levels within the community structure, and other organisms within the area. In the absence of grizzly bears, ungulate populations can increase beyond natural levels, dramatically altering vegetation structure and decreasing avian species richness, which both vary inversely with ungulate abundance. Grizzly bears also directly influence plant communities through digging habits. As they dig and forage for selective vegetation, grizzly bears disturb the nutrient structure in the soil which increases the available ammonium and nitrate levels for other plant species. In these ways, grizzly bears can increase the natural diversity of their habitat and help bring the ecosystem dynamics closer to a stable equilibrium. A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Orders & Clades Order Perissodactyla Eparctocyona Order Arctostylonia (extinct) Order Mesonychia (extinct) Cetartiodactyla Order Cetacea Order Artiodactyla Bulbulodentata (extinct) Family Hyopsodontidae Meridiungulata (extinct) Order Litopterna Notoungulata (extinct) Order Toxodontia Order Typotheria Ungulates (meaning roughly being hoofed or hoofed animal) are several groups of mammals most of which use the tips of... The word Avian can refer to different things: .. Most commonly it is used referring to the class of animals named birds. Avians are a fantasy race in several fantasy settings. ... Look up equilibrium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Social effects

Communities of farmers and people who live adjacent to designated grizzly bear reintroduction reserves will be more susceptible to bear attacks and property damage. This is one of the main problems with reintroduction practices. People can feel threatened by animals such as the grizzly bear appearing in their neighborhoods. This may lead to protests against the implementation of the reintroduction project. Therefore, the chosen wilderness area must be as remote as possible in order to limit grizzly bear encounters with human populations and prevent the occurrence of any negative social impacts. Reintroduction is the deliberate release of animals from captivity into the wild. ...


Steps involved

When an adequate wilderness area of historical grizzly bear range is selected for the reintroduction, grizzly bears must be transported from one of the remaining populations within North America. Existing historical samples of preserved skin from grizzly bears who previously lived in the chosen area can be analyzed for their DNA properties. DNA samples from the remaining grizzly bear populations in North America can then be compared to the historical samples in order to determine the best possible match. The DNA analysis will provide the most precise method for selecting grizzly bears from populations that will have the highest probability of survival in the selected area of reintroduction. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


Minimum viable populations

After a site is chosen for reintroduction, the number of grizzly bears released into the area must be large enough for the population to survive in the long run. A minimum number of 200-250 grizzly bears on a reserve ranging from 8,556 to 17,843 square kilometers (3,303 to 6,889 mi²) is required for a low probability of species decline and an average extinction time greater than 20 years. A smaller group of individuals will result in a certain population decline or extinction and reintroduction efforts will result in failure. For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ...


See also

This is a list of known fatal bear attacks that occurred in North America by decade in reverse chronological order. ... A grizzly-polar bear hybrid is a rare ursid hybrid that has occurred both in captivity and in the wild. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Brown, Gary (1996). Great Bear Almanac, pp.340. ISBN 1558214747. 
  2. ^ (1923) Hutchinson's animals of all countries; the living animals of the world in picture and story Vol.I, pp.384. 
  3. ^ Brown bear, Grizzly bear or Kodiak bear?
  4. ^ Brown Bear Hunting in Russia
  5. ^ missoulian.com, grizzly shot in Selway-Bitterroot
  6. ^ Defenders of wildlife - Grizzly Bear
  7. ^ Interspecies conflict. Which animal is the ultimate carnivore?
  8. ^ Why are grizzly bears more aggressive than our black bears?
  9. ^ How Dangerous are Black Bears
  10. ^ Species at Risk - Grizzly Bear Prairie population. Environment Canada (2006-05-08). Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
  11. ^ a b Wildlife Status - Grizzly bear - Population size and trends. Fish and Wildlife Division of Alberta Sustainable Resource Development. Retrieved on 2008-04-06.
  12. ^ Alberta Grizzly Bear Recovery Team. [http://www.srd.gov.ab.ca/fishwildlife/wildlifeinalberta/grizzlybearmanagement/pdf/GrizzlyRecovPlan_FINAL_March_31_2008.pdf Alberta Grizzly Bear Recovery Plan 2008-2013, Alberta Species at Risk Recovery Plan No. 15]. Retrieved on 2008-04-06.
  13. ^ Species at Risk - Grizzly Bear Northwestern population. Environment Canada (2006-05-08). Retrieved on 2008-04-06.
  14. ^ Bear Specialist Group 1996. Ursus arctos. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved on 2008-04-09.
  15. ^ Bear Specialist Group 1996. Ursus arctos ssp. nelsoni. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved on 2008-04-09.

Environment Canada is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and conservation of wildlife. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Environment Canada is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and conservation of wildlife. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Banfield, A.W.F. The Mammals of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, University of Toronto Press, 1987. ISBN 0-8020-92298.
  • CBC News article on possible "grolar bear" (Polar Bear/Grizzly Bear hybrid)
  • Committee On The Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) Assessment and Update Status Report on the Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos) in Canada, 2002 2.1 MB PDF file.
  • Cronin, M.A., Amstrup, S.C., Garner, G.W., and Vyse, E.R., 1991. Interspecific and specific mitochondrial DNA variation in North American bears (Ursus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 69: 2985-2992.
  • Herrero, Stephen, Bear Attacks. Piscataway N.J: New Centuries Publishers, 1985. ISBN 0-8329-0377-9.
  • Waits, L.P., Talbot, S.L., Ward, R.H., and Shields, G.F., 1998. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the North American brown bear and implications for conservation. Conservation Biology 12: 408-417.
  • Snyder, Susan. The California Grizzly Bear in Mind. The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, 2003.
  • Berger, J., B. Stacey, L. Bellis, and M. P. Johnson. 2001. A Mammalian Predator-Prey Imbalance: Grizzly Bear and Wolf Extinction Affect Avian Neotropical Migrants. Ecological Applications 11(4): 947-960
  • Mattson, J. and Troy Merrill 2001. Extirpations of Grizzly Bears in the Contiguous United States, 1850-2000. Conservation Biology 16(4): 1123-1136.
  • Wielgus, R. B. 2002. Minimum viable population and reserve sizes for naturally regulated grizzly bears in British Columbia. Biological Conservation 106: 381-388.
  • Tardiff, S. E. and J. Stanford 1998. Grizzly Bear Digging: Effects on Subalpine Meadow Plants in Relation to Mineral Nitrogen Availability. Ecology 70(7): 2219-2228.
  • Groom, M. J., G. K. Meffe, and C. R. Carroll. Principles of Conservation Biology. Third Edition. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, 2006.
    • Berger, J., B. Stacey, L. Bellis, and M. P. Johnson. 2001. A Mammalian Predator-Prey Imbalance: Grizzly Bear and Wolf Extinction Affect Avian Neotropical Migrants. Ecological Applications 11(4): 947-960

The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Grizzly Bear - Defenders of Wildlife (699 words)
The grizzly bear is a large predator that is different from fl bears due to a distinctive hump on its shoulders.
Grizzly bears are found in a variety of habitats, from dense forests, to subalpine meadows and arctic tundra.
The biggest threat to grizzly bear survival in the lower 48 is human-caused mortality.
Brown Bear - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3291 words)
The grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis), the Kodiak Bear (Ursus arctos middendoriffi), and the Mexican brown bear are North American subspecies of the Brown Bear.
The largest subspecies of the brown bear are the Kodiak bear and the bears from coastal Russia and Alaska.
Bears eat an enormous number of moths during the summer, sometimes as many as 20,000 to 40,000 in a day, and may derive up to a third of their food energy from these insects.
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