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Encyclopedia > Grinding wheel
Grinding wheel
Grinding wheel

A grinding wheel is an expendable wheel that carries an abrasive compound on its periphery. These wheels are used in grinding machines. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Abrasives are extremely commonplace and are used very extensively in a wide variety of industrial, domestic, and technological applications. ... Rotating abrasive wheel on a bench grinder. ...


The wheel is generally made from a matrix of coarse particles pressed and bonded together to form a solid, circular shape, various profiles and cross sections are available depending on the intended usage for the wheel. They may also be made from a solid steel or aluminium disc with particles bonded to the surface.


Materials used are generally silicon carbide and diamond with a vitrified bonding agent. In production grinding, a wide array of materials are used. Wheels with different abrasives, structure, bond, grade, and grain sizes are available. The abrasive is the actual cutting material, such as cubic boron nitride, zirconia aluminum oxide, manufactured diamonds, ceramic aluminum oxide, aluminum oxide, and others. The abrasive is selected based on the hardness of the material being cut. The structure of the wheel refers to the density of the wheel (bond and abrasive versus airspace). A less-dense wheel will cut freely, and has a large effect on surface finish. A less dense wheel is able to take a deeper or wider cut with less coolant, as the chip clearance on the wheel is greater. The grade of the wheel determines how tightly the bond holds the abrasive. Grade affects almost all considerations of grinding, such as wheel speed, coolant flow, maximum and minimum feed rates, and grinding depth. Grain size determines the physical abrasive size in the wheel. A larger grain will cut freely, allowing fast cutting but poor surface finish. Ultra-fine grain sizes are for precision finish work, where a fine surface finish is required. The wheel bonding agent determines how the wheel holds the abrasives. This affects finish, coolant, and minimum/maximum wheel speed. Silicon carbide (SiC) is a ceramic compound of silicon and carbon that is manufactured on a large scale for use mainly as an abrasive but also occurs in nature as the extremely rare mineral moissanite. ... This article is about the gemstone. ...


The manufacture of these wheels is a precise and tightly controlled process, due not only to the inherent safety risks of a spinning disc, but also the composition and uniformity required to prevent that disc from exploding due to the high stresses produced on rotation.


Grinding wheels are self sharpening to a small degree, for optimal use they may be dressed and trued by the use of grinding dressers. Dressing the wheel refers to removing the current layer of abrasive, so that a fresh and sharp surface is exposed to the work surface. Truing the wheel makes the grinding surface parallel to the grinding table or other reference plane, so the entire grinding wheel is even and produces an accurate surface. A grinding dresser or wheel dresser is a tool to dress the surface of a grinding wheel. ...


The wheel type (eg:- cup or plain wheel below) fit freely on their supporting arbors, the necessary clamping force to transfer the rotary motion being applied to the wheels side by identically sized flanges (metal discs). The paper blotter shown in the images is intended to distribute this clamping force evenly across the wheels surface.

Contents

Safety

Safety is extremely important at all times, especially when grinding wheels are involved. They are a mainstay of the engineering and construction industry and the risks involved with them may tend to be taken for granted. Safety awareness and an understanding of the materials and processes involved is essential. Appropriate safety gear must be worn and all safety procedures must be followed. Always err on the side of caution. Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Before mounting and balancing a grinding wheel, the wheel must be sounded. Sounding is loosely suspending the wheel by a bit of twine or other material so that it hangs free, and giving the wheel a very light tap with a hard object. Care must be taken not to damage the wheel when sounding. A wheel that is safe to use will ring clearly and solidly, like a bell or tuning fork. A damaged wheel will not make any resonating sound. Damaged wheels must not be used under any circumstances and are best discarded or returned to the manufacturer. This process is critically important for surface and diameter grinding, where frequent handling, storage, and changing of wheels increases the risk of fatal wheel damage.


Contact with a spinning grinding wheel will produce a cut. Because of the heat generated in the grinding process, a burn might also be produced. Wood should never be ground on a wheel, as it can clog the wheel's pores and cause the wheel to burst, with fatal results. Superficial bullet wounds In medicine, a wound is a type of physical trauma wherein the skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Types of Grinding Wheels

Cup wheel

Cup wheel

A cup wheel as pictured to the right is predominantly used in Tool and Cutter grinders where orientation of the wheel and a slim profile are required. These wheels are used (and dressed) on the side face and have the advantage of producing a truly flat surface on the side of lathe tools. They are used in jig grinders to produce flat surfaces or counterbores.
Image File history File links Size of this preview: 607 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1467 × 1449 pixel, file size: 491 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Glenn McKechnie on the 26th March 2005. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 607 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1467 × 1449 pixel, file size: 491 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Glenn McKechnie on the 26th March 2005. ... A tool and cutter grinder is used to sharpen milling cutters and tool bits along with a host of other cutting tools. ... A tool bit generally refers to a plain High Speed Steel (HSS) tool. ... A jig grinder is a machine tool used for grinding complex shapes and holes where the highest degrees of accuracy and finish are required. ...


Straight wheel

Straight wheel
Straight wheel

To the left is an image of a straight wheel. These are by far the most common style of wheel and can be found on bench or pedestal grinders. They are used on the periphery only and therefore produce a slightly concave surface (hollow ground) on the part. This can be used to advantage on many tools such a chisels.
Image File history File links Size of this preview: 606 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1053 × 1041 pixel, file size: 287 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Glenn McKechnie on the 26th March 2005. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 606 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1053 × 1041 pixel, file size: 287 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Glenn McKechnie on the 26th March 2005. ... An electrically driven abrasive wheel (normally a pair of wheels) mounted securely on a pillar or a bench. ...


Cylinder wheel

Cylinder wheels provide a long, wide surface with no center mounting support (hollow). They can be very large, up to 12" in width. They are used only in vertical or horizontal spindle grinders.


Tapered wheel

A straight wheel that tapers outward towards the center of the wheel. This arrangement is stronger than straight wheels and can accept higher lateral loads.


Straight cup

Straight cup wheels are an alternative to cup wheels in tool and cutter grinders, where having an additional radial grinding surface is beneficial.


Dish cup

A very shallow cup-style grinding wheel. The thinness allows grinding in slots and crevaces. It is used primarily in cutter grinding and jig grinding.


Saucer wheel

A special grinding profile that is used to grind milling cutters and twist drills. It is most common in non-machining areas, as sawfilers use saucer wheels in the maintenance of sawblades.


Diamond wheel

Diamond wheel
Diamond wheel

Diamond wheels are grinding wheels with industrial diamonds bonded to the periphery. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 593 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1419 × 1434 pixel, file size: 392 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Glenn McKechnie on the 26th March 2005. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 593 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1419 × 1434 pixel, file size: 392 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Glenn McKechnie on the 26th March 2005. ... This article is about the gemstone. ...


They are used for grinding extremely hard materials such as carbide tips, gemstones or concrete. The saw pictured to the right is a slitting saw and is designed for slicing hard materials, typically gemstones.
A tool bit generally refers to a plain High Speed Steel (HSS) tool. ... A selection of gemstone pebbles made by tumbling rough rock with abrasive grit, in a rotating drum. ...


Diamond Mandrels

Diamond mandrels are very similar to their counterpart, a diamond wheel. They are tiny diamond rasps for use in a jig grinder doing profiling work in hard material. A jig grinder is a machine tool used for grinding complex shapes and holes where the highest degrees of accuracy and finish are required. ...


Cut off wheels

Cut off or parting wheels are self-sharpening wheels that are thin in width and often have radial fibres reinforcing them. They are often used in the construction industry for cutting reinforcement steel (rebar), protruding bolts or anything that needs quick removal or trimming. Most handymen would recognise an angle grinder and the discs they use. A radial is a line drawn along a vector. ... A tied rebar beam cage. ... The terms handyperson, handywoman, or handyman, describe someone competent in a variety of small skills or inventive or ingenious in repair or maintenance work; somebody who earns money by the experience and skill to perform a variety of small jobs and/or odd jobs in and around your home. ... An angle grinder is a handheld tool powered by an electric motor, petrol engine or compressed air. ...


Grinding wheel flanges clamping force

The clamping force of the grinding wheel flanges is an important safety parameter of a grinding operation:


- it must be high enough to drive the wheel without slippage under the most severe operating conditions of the machine.


- it must not apply to the wheel an excessive compression stress which could weaken the wheel.


- it must not distort the flanges.


This clamping force can be calculated by the formula detailed in the EN13218 standard, Annex C.


When flanges are clamped by screws it is essential to know the torque to use when tightening these screws to make sure that the needed clamping force is obtained and that each screw is loaded enough to avoid loosening. For multiple screw flanges this torque calculation is also detailed in the EN13218 standard Annex C.


The design of the flanges and their tightening parameters are their manufacturer's responsibility.



Metalworking:

 Grinding and lapping: Image File history File links Blacksmith-hammer-anvil-50x50. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ...

Abrasive | Angle grinder | Bench grinder | Coated abrasives | Diamond plate | Flick grinder | Grindersparks | Dresser | Grinding machine | Grinding wheel | Jig grinder | Lapping | Emery paper | Spark test | Surface grinder | Tool and Cutter grinder | Whetstone Abrasives are extremely commonplace and are used very extensively in a wide variety of industrial, domestic, and technological applications. ... An angle grinder is a handheld tool powered by an electric motor, petrol engine or compressed air. ... An electrically driven abrasive wheel (normally a pair of wheels) mounted securely on a pillar or a bench. ... Coated abrasives are made of abrasive grains adhered to the surface of flexible or semi-flexible backings such as paper, cloth, vulcanized fiber, plastic films. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sharpening stone. ... A flick grinder is a rough and ready surface grinder or tool and cutter grinder, its usage is varied but it may be used where great accuracy is not required, but a machine better than a bench grinder is required. ... Grinder sparks are the debris caused by the rubbing of a piece of metal against a grinder wheel. ... A grinding dresser or wheel dresser is a tool to dress the surface of a grinding wheel. ... Rotating abrasive wheel on a bench grinder. ... A jig grinder is a machine tool used for grinding complex shapes and holes where the highest degrees of accuracy and finish are required. ... Lapping is an abrasive machining operation. ... sheets of sandpaper Sandpaper is a form of paper where an abrasive material has been fixed to its surface; it is part of the coated abrasives family of abrasive products. ... By noting the type of sparks that issue from a piece of steel that has been put to a grinding wheel, one can deduce with some accuracy the type of alloy present (for instance; percentage carbon, vanadium, chromium). ... A surface grinder is a machine tool used to provide precision ground surfaces, either to a critical size or for the surface finish. ... A tool and cutter grinder is used to sharpen milling cutters and tool bits along with a host of other cutting tools. ... A whetstone is a stone used for sharpening knives and other cutting tools and is usually made out of ceramic or a hard mineral such as quartz or novaculite. ...


Metalworking topics:   Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ...

Casting | CNC | Cutting tools | Drilling and threading | Fabrication | Finishing | Grinding | Jewellery | Lathe (tool) | Machining | Machine tooling | Measuring | Metalworking | Hand tools | Metallurgy | Milling | Occupations | Press tools | Smithing | Terminology | Welding Casting may be used to create artistic sculptures Casting is a manufacturing process by which a molten material such as metal or plastic is introduced into a mold, allowed to solidify within the mold, and then ejected or broken out to make a fabricated part. ... A CNC Turning Center A CNC Milling Machine The abbreviation CNC stands for computer numerical control, and refers specifically to a computer controller that reads G-code instructions and drives the machine tool, a powered mechanical device typically used to fabricate metal components by the selective removal of metal. ... a Cutting Tool, in the context of Metalworking is any tool that is used to remove metal from the workpiece by means of shear deformation. ... Drilling is the process of using a drill bit in a drill to produce holes. ... A typical steel fabrication shop Fabrication, when used chas an industrial term, applies to the building of machines and structures by cutting, shaping and assembling components made from raw materials. ... Metalworking finishing is the activity of making things out of metal in a skillful manner. ... Rotating abrasive wheel on a bench grinder. ... Amber jewellery in the form of pendants Jewellery (also spelled jewelry, see spelling differences) is a personal ornament, such as a necklace, ring, or bracelet, made from jewels, precious metals or other substance. ... Conventional metalworking lathe In woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, and glassworking, a lathe is a machine tool which spins a block of material so that when abrasive, cutting, or deformation tools are applied to the block, it can be shaped to produce an object which has rotational symmetry about an axis... A lathe is a common tool used in machining. ... A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by the selective removal of metal. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ... Metalworking hand tools are hand tools that are used in the metalworking field. ... Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and of materials engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... Endmills for a milling machine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Smith (metalwork). ... Power press with a fixed barrier guard A press, or a machine press is a tool used to work metal (typically steel) by changing its shape and internal structure. ... A smith, or metalsmith, is a person involved in the shaping of metal objects. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Grinding wheel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1125 words)
A grinding wheel is an expendable wheel that carries an abrasive compound on its periphery.
Grinding wheels are self sharpening to a small degree, for optimal use they may be dressed and trued by the use of grinding dressers.
Diamond wheels are grinding wheels with industrial diamonds bonded to the periphery.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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