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Encyclopedia > Grid computing

Grid computing is a phrase in distributed computing which can have several meanings: Distributed computing is a method of computer processing in which different parts of a program are run simultaneously on two or more computers that are communicating with each other over a network. ...

  • Multiple independent computing clusters which act like a "grid" because they are composed of resource nodes not located within a single administrative domain. (formal)
  • Offering online computation or storage as a metered commercial service, known as utility computing, computing on demand, or cloud computing.
  • The creation of a "virtual supercomputer" by using spare computing resources within an organization.
  • The creation of a "virtual supercomputer" by using a network of geographically dispersed computers. Volunteer computing, which generally focuses on scientific, mathematical, and academic problems, is the most common application of this technology.

These varying definitions cover the spectrum of "distributed computing", and sometimes the two terms are used as synonyms. This article focuses on distributed computing technologies which are not in the traditional dedicated clusters; otherwise, see computer cluster. An example of a Computer cluster A computer cluster is a group of tightly coupled computers that work together closely so that in many respects they can be viewed as though they are a single computer. ... Node(Latin nodus ‘knot’) is critical element of any computer network. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Volunteer computing is a type of distributed computing in which computer owners donate their computing resources (such as processing power and storage) to one or more projects. It is distinct from Grid computing, which involves sharing of managed computing resources within and between organizations. ... An example of a Computer cluster A computer cluster is a group of tightly coupled computers that work together closely so that in many respects they can be viewed as though they are a single computer. ...


Functionally, one can also speak of several types of grids:

  • Computational grids (including CPU scavenging grids) which focuses primarily on computationally-intensive operations.
  • Data grids or the controlled sharing and management of large amounts of distributed data.
  • Equipment grids which have a primary piece of equipment e.g. a telescope, and where the surrounding Grid is used to control the equipment remotely and to analyze the data produced.

During 2007 the term cloud computing came into popularity. It is conceptually identical to the canonical Foster definition of grid computing below. In practice all clouds are grids, but not all grids manage a cloud. It has been suggested that In Memory Data Grid be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Remote control (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Virtual Organizations accessing different and overlapping sets of resources
Virtual Organizations accessing different and overlapping sets of resources

Contents

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (829x552, 29 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Grid computing ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (829x552, 29 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Grid computing ...

Grids versus conventional supercomputers

"Distributed" or "grid" computing in general is a special type of parallel computing which relies on complete computers (with onboard CPU, storage, power supply, network interface, etc.) connected to a network (private, public or the Internet) by a conventional network interface, such as Ethernet. This is in contrast to the traditional notion of a supercomputer, which has many processors connected by a local high-speed computer bus. Parallel computing is the simultaneous execution of the same task (split up and specially adapted) on multiple processors in order to obtain results faster. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... For other uses, see Supercomputer (disambiguation). ... In computer architecture, a bus is a subsystem that transfers data or power between computer components inside a computer or between computers and typically is controlled by device driver software. ...


The primary advantage of distributed computing is that each node can be purchased as commodity hardware, which when combined can produce similar computing resources to a multiprocessor supercomputer, but at lower cost. This is due to the economies of scale of producing commodity hardware, compared to the lower efficiency of designing and constructing a small number of custom supercomputers. The primary performance disadvantage is that the various processors and local storage areas do not have high-speed connections. This arrangement is thus well-suited to applications in which multiple parallel computations can take place independently, without the need to communicate intermediate results between processors. Commodity computing is computing done on commodity computers as opposed to supermicrocomputers or boutique computers. ... Multiprocessing is traditionally known as the use of multiple concurrent processes in a system as opposed to a single process at any one instant. ... The increase in output from Q to Q2 causes a decrease in the average cost of each unit from C to C1. ...


The high-end scalability of geographically dispersed grids is generally favorable, due to the low need for connectivity between nodes relative to the capacity of the public Internet. Conventional supercomputers also create physical challenges in supplying sufficient electricity and cooling capacity in a single location. Both supercomputers and grids can be used to run multiple parallel computations at the same time, which might be different simulations for the same project, or computations for completely different applications. The infrastructure and programming considerations needed to do this on each type of platform are different, however. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Scale (computing). ...


There are also some differences in programming and deployment. It can be costly and difficult to write programs so that they can be run in the environment of a supercomputer, which may have a custom operating system, or require the program to address concurrency issues. If a problem can be adequately parallelized, a "thin" layer of "grid" infrastructure can allow conventional, standalone programs to run on multiple machines (but each given a different part of the same problem). This makes it possible to write and debug programs on a single conventional machine, and eliminates complications due to multiple instances of the same program running in the same shared memory and storage space at the same time. Concurrency has several meanings: Concurrent programming, also known as parallel programming. ...


Design considerations and variations

One feature of distributed grids is that they can be formed from computing resources belonging to multiple individuals or organizations (known as multiple administrative domains). This can facilitate commercial transactions, as in utility computing, or make it easier to assemble volunteer computing networks. Administrative domain is when all the networks and network devices under the control of one particular organization. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Volunteer computing is a type of distributed computing in which computer owners donate their computing resources (such as processing power and storage) to one or more projects. It is distinct from Grid computing, which involves sharing of managed computing resources within and between organizations. ...


One disadvantage of this feature is that the computers which are actually performing the calculations might not be entirely trustworthy. The designers of the system must thus introduce measures to prevent malfunctions or malicious participants from producing false, misleading, or erroneous results, and from using the system as an attack vector. This often involves assigning work randomly to different nodes (presumably with different owners) and checking that at least two different nodes report the same answer for a given work unit. Discrepancies would identify malfunctioning and malicious nodes.


Due to the lack of central control over the hardware, there is no way to guarantee that nodes will not drop out of the network at random times. Some nodes (like laptops or dialup Internet customers) may also be available for computation but not network communications for unpredictable periods. These variations can be accommodated by assigning large work units (thus reducing the need for continuous network connectivity) and reassigning work units when a given node fails to report its results as expected. In telecommunication, the term dial-up has the following meanings: Dial-up access, typically to the Internet A service feature in which a user initiates service on a previously arranged trunk or transfers, without human intervention, from an active trunk to a standby trunk. ...


The impacts of trust and availability on performance and development difficulty can influence the choice of whether to deploy onto a dedicated computer cluster, to idle machines internal to the developing organization, or to an open external network of volunteers or contractors. An example of a Computer cluster A computer cluster is a group of tightly coupled computers that work together closely so that in many respects they can be viewed as though they are a single computer. ...


In many cases, the participating nodes must trust the central system not to abuse the access that is being granted, by interfering with the operation of other programs, mangling stored information, transmitting private data, or creating new security holes. Other systems employ measures to reduce the amount of trust "client" nodes must place in the central system such as placing applications in virtual machines.


Public systems or those crossing administrative domains (including different departments in the same organization) often result in the need to run on heterogeneous systems, using different operating systems and hardware architectures. With many languages, there is a tradeoff between investment in software development and the number of platforms that can be supported (and thus the size of the resulting network). Cross-platform languages can reduce the need to make this tradeoff, though potentially at the expense of high performance on any given node (due to run-time interpretation or lack of optimization for the particular platform). Look up Heterogeneous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In computing, an operating system (OS) is the system software responsible for the direct control and management of hardware and basic system operations. ... A typical vision of a computer architecture as a series of abstraction layers: hardware, firmware, assembler, kernel, operating system and applications (see also Tanenbaum 79). ... A cross-platform (or platform independent) programming language, software application or hardware device works on more than one system platform (e. ...


Various middleware projects have created generic infrastructure, to allow diverse scientific and commercial projects to harness a particular associated grid, or for the purpose of setting up new grids. BOINC is a common one for academic projects seeking public volunteers; more are listed at the end of the article This article is about integration software. ... The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) is a distributed computing infrastructure intended to be useful to fields beyond SETI. It is being developed by a team based at the University of California, Berkeley led by the project director of [email protected], David Anderson. ...


CPU scavenging

CPU-scavenging, cycle-scavenging, cycle stealing, or shared computing creates a "grid" from the unused resources in a network of participants (whether worldwide or internal to an organization). Typically this technique uses desktop computer instruction cycles that would otherwise be wasted at night, during lunch, or even in the scattered seconds throughout the day when the computer is waiting for user input or slow devices. The instruction cycle is the time period during which one instruction is fetched from memory and executed when a computer is given an instruction in machine language. ...


Volunteer computing projects use the CPU scavenging model almost exclusively. Volunteer computing is a type of distributed computing in which computer owners donate their computing resources (such as processing power and storage) to one or more projects. It is distinct from Grid computing, which involves sharing of managed computing resources within and between organizations. ...


In practice, participating computers also donate some supporting amount of disk storage space, RAM, and network bandwidth, in addition to raw CPU power. Since nodes are apt to go "offline" from time to time, as their owners use their resources for their primary purpose, this model must be designed to handle such contingencies.


History

The term Grid computing originated in the early 1990s as a metaphor for making computer power as easy to access as an electric power grid in Ian Foster and Carl Kesselmans seminal work, "The Grid: Blueprint for a new computing infrastructure". This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... Transmission towers Transmission lines in Lund, Sweden Electric power transmission, or more accurately Electrical energy transmission, is the second process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. ...


CPU scavenging and volunteer computing were popularized beginning in 1997 by distributed.net and later in 1999 by [email protected] to harness the power of networked PCs worldwide, in order to solve CPU-intensive research problems. Volunteer computing is a type of distributed computing in which computer owners donate their computing resources (such as processing power and storage) to one or more projects. It is distinct from Grid computing, which involves sharing of managed computing resources within and between organizations. ... The distributed. ... [email protected] logo [email protected] (SETI at home) is a distributed computing project using Internet-connected computers, hosted by the Space Sciences Laboratory, at the University of California, Berkeley, in the United States. ...


The ideas of the grid (including those from distributed computing, object oriented programming, cluster computing, web services and others) were brought together by Ian Foster, Carl Kesselman and Steve Tuecke, widely regarded as the "fathers of the grid[1]." They led the effort to create the Globus Toolkit incorporating not just computation management but also storage management, security provisioning, data movement, monitoring and a toolkit for developing additional services based on the same infrastructure including agreement negotiation, notification mechanisms, trigger services and information aggregation. While the Globus Toolkit remains the defacto standard for building grid solutions, a number of other tools have been built that answer some subset of services needed to create an enterprise or global grid. Ian Foster is known as the Father of grid computing. ... Carl Kesselman is a project leader at the University of Southern Californias Information Sciences Institute and a Research Associate Professor in Computer Science, also at the University of Southern California. ... The Globus Alliance is an association dedicated to developing fundamental technologies needed to build grid computing infrastructures. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Fastest virtual supercomputers

Seminal work done: The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) is a distributed computing infrastructure intended to be useful to fields beyond SETI. It is being developed by a team based at the University of California, Berkeley led by the project director of [email protected], David Anderson. ... ... [email protected] (also known as FAH or [email protected]) is a distributed computing project designed to perform computationally intensive simulations of protein folding and other molecular dynamics. ... ...


Current projects and applications

Grids offer a way to solve Grand Challenge problems like protein folding, financial modeling, earthquake simulation, and climate/weather modeling. Grids offer a way of using the information technology resources optimally inside an organization. They also provide a means for offering information technology as a utility for commercial and non-commercial clients, with those clients paying only for what they use, as with electricity or water. A list of distributed computing projects. ... A Grand Challenge Problem is a general category of unsolved problems. ... Protein before and after folding. ... An abstract model (or conceptual model) is a theoretical construct that represents something, with a set of variables and a set of logical and quantitative relationships between them. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Grid computing is presently being applied successfully by the National Science Foundation's National Technology Grid, NASA's Information Power Grid, Pratt & Whitney, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Co., and American Express.[citation needed]


One of the most famous cycle-scavenging networks is [email protected], which was using more than 3 million computers to achieve 23.37 sustained teraflops (979 lifetime teraflops) as of September 2001 [3]. [email protected] logo [email protected] (SETI at home) is a distributed computing project using Internet-connected computers, hosted by the Space Sciences Laboratory, at the University of California, Berkeley, in the United States. ... For other uses, see Flop. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of the Volunteer The United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations Events January January 1 - A black monolith measuring approximately nine feet tall appears in Seattles Magnuson Park, placed by an anonymous...


As of March 2008, [email protected] had achieved peaks of 1502 teraflops on over 270,000 machines. [email protected] (also known as FAH or [email protected]) is a distributed computing project designed to perform computationally intensive simulations of protein folding and other molecular dynamics. ...


Another well-known project is distributed.net, which was started in 1997 and has run a number of successful projects in its history. The distributed. ...


The NASA Advanced Supercomputing facility (NAS) has run genetic algorithms using the Condor cycle scavenger running on about 350 Sun and SGI workstations. The NASA Advanced Supercomputing facility (often abbreviated as NAS) is located at the NASA Ames Research Center, located in Moffett Field, California (near Mountain View, California). ... A genetic algorithm (GA) is a search technique used in computing to find exact or approximate solutions to optimization and search problems. ... Condor is a software framework for coarse-grained distributed parallelization of computationally intensive tasks. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... Silicon Graphics, Inc. ...


Until April 27, 2007, United Devices operated the United Devices Cancer Research Project based on its Grid MP product, which cycle scavenges on volunteer PCs connected to the Internet. As of June 2005, the Grid MP ran on about 3,100,000 machines [4]. is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... United Devices, Inc. ... UD Agent The United Devices Cancer Research Project, is one of several distributed computing projects that have been operated on the website by United Devices. ... Grid MP is a commercial distributed computing computer software package developed and sold by United Devices, a privately held company based primarily in Austin, Texas. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project, which is based in the European Union and includes sites in Asia and the United States, is a follow up project to the European DataGrid (EDG) and is arguably the largest computing grid on the planet. This, along with the LHC Computing Grid [4] (LCG) have been developed to support the experiments using the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The LCG project is driven by CERN's need to handle huge amounts of data, where storage rates of several gigabytes per second (10 petabytes per year) are required. A list of active sites participating within LCG can be found online[5] as can real time monitoring of the EGEE infrastructure.[6] The relevant software and documentation is also publicly accessible.[7] // The EGEE project Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) is project funded by the European Commissions Sixth Framework Programme through Directorate F: Emerging Technologies and Infrastructures, of the Directorate-General for Information Society and Media. ... , The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a particle accelerator and Hadron collider located at CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ...


Definitions

Today there are many definitions of Grid computing: Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

  • Plaszczak/Wellner[9] define grid technology as "the technology that enables resource virtualization, on-demand provisioning, and service (resource) sharing between organizations."
  • IBM defines grid computing as "the ability, using a set of open standards and protocols, to gain access to applications and data, processing power, storage capacity and a vast array of other computing resources over the Internet. A grid is a type of parallel and distributed system that enables the sharing, selection, and aggregation of resources distributed across 'multiple' administrative domains based on their (resources) availability, capacity, performance, cost and users' quality-of-service requirements" [10]
  • An earlier example of the notion of computing as utility was in 1965 by MIT's Fernando Corbató. Fernando and the other designers of the Multics operating system envisioned a computer facility operating "like a power company or water company". http://www.multicians.org/fjcc3.html
  • Buyya defines a grid as "a type of parallel and distributed system that enables the sharing, selection, and aggregation of geographically distributed autonomous resources dynamically at runtime depending on their availability, capability, performance, cost, and users' quality-of-service requirements".[11]
  • CERN, one of the largest users of grid technology, talk of The Grid: "a service for sharing computer power and data storage capacity over the Internet." [12]

Grids can be categorized with a three stage model of departmental grids, enterprise grids and global grids. These correspond to a firm initially utilising resources within a single group i.e. an engineering department connecting desktop machines, clusters and equipment. This progresses to enterprise grids where non-technical staff's computing resources can be used for cycle-stealing and storage. A global grid is a connection of enterprise and departmental grids which can be used in a commercial or collaborative manner. Ian Foster is known as the Father of grid computing. ... A resource, also referred to as system resource, is any physical or virtual system component of a computer system with limited availability. ... Open standards are publicly available specifications for achieving a specific task. ... In the fields of packet-switched networks and computer networking, the traffic engineering term Quality of Service, abbreviated QoS, refers to resource reservation control mechanisms. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ...


See also

Concepts and related technology

Distributed computing is a method of computer processing in which different parts of a program are run simultaneously on two or more computers that are communicating with each other over a network. ... A list of distributed computing projects. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Supercomputing. ... Network Agility is an architectural discipline for computer networking. ... A render farm (also termed a render wall)[1] is a computer cluster to render computer generated imagery (CGI), typically for film and television visual effects. ... The Semantic Grid refers to an approach to Grid computing in which information, computing resources and services are described in standard ways that can be processed by computer. ... For other uses, see Supercomputer (disambiguation). ... An example of a Computer cluster A computer cluster is a group of tightly coupled computers that work together closely so that in many respects they can be viewed as though they are a single computer. ... A computon is a combined unit of computing power, including processor cycles, memory, disk storage and bandwidth. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Metacomputing is all computing and computing-oriented activitiy which involves computing knowledge (science and technology) common for the research, development and application of different types of computing. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Space-Based Architecture (SBA) is a software architecture pattern for achieving linear scalability of stateful, high-performance applications using the tuple space paradigm. ...

Alliances and organizations

The Open Grid Forum (OGF) is the community of users, developers, and vendors leading the global standardization effort for grid computing. ... The Global Grid Forum (GGF) is the community of users, developers, and vendors leading the global standardization effort for grid computing. ... Object Management Group (OMG) is a consortium, originally aimed at setting standards for distributed object-oriented systems, and is now focused on modeling (programs, systems and business processes) and model-based standards in some 20 vertical markets. ...

Production grids

  • INFN Production Grid [5]
  • UC Grid [6]

// The EGEE project Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) is project funded by the European Commissions Sixth Framework Programme through Directorate F: Emerging Technologies and Infrastructures, of the Directorate-General for Information Society and Media. ... NorduGrid is a Grid Research and Development collaboration aiming at development, maintenance and support of the free Grid middleware, known as the Advanced Resource Connector (ARC). ... The Open Science Grid is a national production-quality grid computing infrastructure for large scale science, built and operated by a consortium of U.S. universities and national laboratories. ... OurGrid is a free-to-join peer-to-peer grid that has been in production since December 2004. ... Sun Microsystems created history of sorts by launching on demand super computing see Sun Grid. ... In computers, Xgrid is software (Apple Computer, Inc. ...

International Grid Projects

Name Region Start End Link
Open Middleware Infrastructure Institute Europe (OMII-Europe) Europe May 2006 May 2008
Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) Europe March 2004 March 2006
Enabling Grids for E-sciencE II (EGEE II) Europe April 2006 April 2008
Business Experiments in GRID (BEinGRID) Also see [Gridipedia] Europe June 2006 November 2009 [7]
BREIN Europe September 2006 August 2009 [8]
KnowARC Europe June 2006 August 2009 [9]
Nordic Data Grid Facility Scandinavia and Finland June 2006 December 2010 [10]
DataTAG Europe and North America January 2001 January 2003 [11]
European DataGrid (EDG) Europe March 2001 March 2004 [12]
BalticGrid Europe (Baltic States) November 2005 April 2008 [13]
EUFORIA (EU Fusion fOR Iter Applications) Europe January 2008 December 2010 [14]
XtreemOS Europe June 2006 June 2010 [15]

OMII-Europe is short for the Open Middleware Infrastructure Institute for Europe. ... ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ...

National Grid Projects

  • D-Grid (German)
  • Grid5000 (French)
  • GARUDA (Indian)
  • National Grid Service (UK)
  • Open Science Grid (USA)
  • VECC (Calcutta, India)
  • China Grid Project
  • INFN Grid (Italian)
  • KnowledgeGrid Malaysia
  • NAREGI Project
  • Singapore National Grid Project
  • Thai National Grid Project
  • LitGRID (Lithuanian)
  • BELNET Grid, Belgium [16]
  • Hellasgrid (Greek) [17]
  • Swiss National Grid Association [18]
  • Swegrid (Swedish National computational resource) [19]
  • RDIG - Russian Data Intensive Grid [20]
  • NorGrid - Norwegian Grid Initiative [21]
  • Rogrid - Romanian Grid Initiative [22]
  • Austrian Grid - Austrian Grid Initiative [23]
  • TR-Grid - Turkish National Grid Initiative [24]

The D-Grid Initiative (German Grid Initiative) builds a sustainable Grid-Computing-infrastructure for education and research (e-Science) in Germany. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In the United Kingdom, the National Grid Service (NGS) provides free grid computing resources and additional services for UK academics. ... The Open Science Grid is a national production-quality grid computing infrastructure for large scale science, built and operated by a consortium of U.S. universities and national laboratories. ... The Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC) a research and development unit of the Indian Department of Atomic Energy, that performs research in basic and applied nuclear sciences. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ...

Standards and APIs

This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... In computing, Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is a standard for software componentry, created and controlled by the Object Management Group (OMG). ... DRMAA or Distributed Resource Management Application API is a high-level Global Grid Forum API specification for the submission and control of jobs to one or more Distributed Resource Management (DRM) systems within a Grid architecture. ... Grid Security Infrastructure is a specification for secret, tamper-proof, delegatable communication between software in the grid computing environment. ... lalalalalalala ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Software implementations and middleware

  • Alchemi [25]
  • GridGain [26]
  • gridGISTICS [27]
  • Gridbus Middleware [28]
  • Java Parallel Processing Framework (JPPF) [29]
  • Vishwa [30]
  • UGP [31]
  • GRIA [32]
  • iRODS [33] (data grid)

Advanced Resource Connector, or ARC, is a Grid middleware developed by NorduGrid. ... NorduGrid is a Grid Research and Development collaboration aiming at development, maintenance and support of the free Grid middleware, known as the Advanced Resource Connector (ARC). ... The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) is a non-commercial middleware system for volunteer computing, originally developed to support the [email protected] project, but intended to be useful for other applications in areas as diverse as mathematics, medicine, molecular biology, climatology, and astrophysics. ... The Globus Alliance is an association dedicated to developing fundamental technologies needed to build grid computing infrastructures. ... Load Sharing Facility (or simply LSF) is a commercial computer software job scheduler sold by Platform Computing. ... Message Passing Interface (MPI) is computer software that allows many computers to communicate with one another. ... The Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) is a software tool for parallel networking of computers. ... Freeware Grid Computing package. ... Sun Grid Engine (SGE), earlier known as CODINE (COmputing in DIstributed Networked Environments) or GRD (Global Resource Director) is an open source batch-queuing system, supported by Sun Microsystems. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary using the Transwiki process. ... UNICORE (UNiform Interface to COmputing REsources) is a Grid computing technology that provides seamless, secure, and intuitive access to distributed Grid resources such as supercomputers or cluster systems and information stored in databases. ... Storage Resource Broker (SRB) is a data grid middleware software system produced by the San Diego Supercomputer Center and commercialized by Nirvana that is operating in many national and international computational science research projects. ... ... GridWay is an open source meta-scheduling technology that enables large-scale, secure, reliable and efficient sharing of computing resources (clusters, computing farms, servers, supercomputers. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ Father of the Grid.
  2. ^ [1], accessed 26 February 2008
  3. ^ [2], accessed 23 Sept 2007
  4. ^ Large Hadron Collider Computing Grid offical homepage
  5. ^ GStat: 02:05:55 03/25/08 GMT - @wgoc01
  6. ^ Real Time Monitor @ Imperial College London HEP e-Science
  7. ^ LCG - Deployment
  8. ^ What is the Grid? A Three Point Checklist (pdf).
  9. ^ P Plaszczak, R Wellner, Grid computing, 2005, Elsevier/Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco
  10. ^ IBM Solutions Grid for Business Partners: Helping IBM Business Partners to Grid-enable applications for the next phase of e-business on demand.
  11. ^ A Gentle Introduction to Grid Computing and Technologies (pdf). Retrieved on 2005-05-06.
  12. ^ The Grid Café - What is Grid?. CERN. Retrieved on 2005-02-04.

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Davies, Antony (June 2004). "Computational Intermediation and the Evolution of Computation as a Commodity" (pdf). Applied Economics. 
  • Foster, Ian; Carl Kesselman. The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. ISBN 1-55860-475-8. 
  • Plaszczak, Pawel; Rich Wellner, Jr. Grid Computing "The Savvy Manager's Guide". Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. ISBN 0-12-742503-9. 
  • Berman, Fran; Anthony J. G. Hey, Geoffrey C. Fox. Grid Computing: Making The Global Infrastructure a Reality. Wiley. ISBN 0-470-85319-0. 
  • Li, Maozhen; Mark A. Baker. The Grid: Core Technologies. Wiley. ISBN 0-470-09417-6. 
  • Catlett, Charlie; Larry Smarr (June 1992). "Metacomputing". Communications of the ACM 35 (6). 
  • Smith, Roger (2005). Grid Computing: A Brief Technology Analysis. CTO Network Library.
  • Buyya, Rajkumar (July 2005). "Grid Computing: Making the Global Cyberinfrastructure for eScience a Reality". CSI Communications 29 (1). Mumbai, India: Computer Society of India (CSI). ISSN 0970-647X. 
  • Berstis, Viktors. Fundamentals of Grid Computing. IBM.
  • Ferreira, Luis; et.al.. Grid Computing Products and Services. IBM.
  • Ferreira, Luis; et.al.. Introduction to Grid Computing with Globus. IBM.
  • Jacob, Bart; et.al.. Enabling Applications for Grid Computing. IBM.
  • Ferreira, Luis; et.al.. Grid Services Programming and Application Enablement. IBM.
  • Jacob, Bart; et.al.. Introduction to Grid Computing. IBM.
  • Ferreira, Luis; et.al.. Grid Computing in Research and Education. IBM.
  • Ferreira, Luis; et.al.. Globus Toolkit 3.0 Quick Start. IBM.
  • Surridge, Mike; et.al.. Experiences with GRIA – Industrial applications on a Web Services Grid. IEEE.
  • Stockinger, Heinz; et al. (to be published in 2007). "Defining the Grid: A Snapshot on the Current View" (pdf). Supercomputing. 
  • Global Grids and Software Toolkits: A Study of Four Grid Middleware Technologies

Ian Foster is known as the Father of grid computing. ... Carl Kesselman is a project leader at the University of Southern Californias Information Sciences Institute and a Research Associate Professor in Computer Science, also at the University of Southern California. ... Charlie Catlett is currently a Senior Fellow in the Computation Institute at Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago, and Director of the TeraGrid Project. ... Larry Smarr is a physicist and leader in scientific computing, supercomputer applications, and Internet infrastructure. ...

External links

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

News Sites

  • GridComputingPlanet - Part of the JupiterMedia empire
  • GridToday
  • International Science Grid This Week
  • Primeur magazine - HPC and Grid computing news

Information sites

  • Gridipedia - The European Grid Marketplace Contains reports and software componetns relating to Grid computing
  • Grid Computing Info Center
  • IEEE Distributed Systems Online, Grid Computing Section

Portals and grid projects

  • World Community Grid: Focuses on advancing scientific projects to benefit humanity, such as researching possible cures for cancer and muscular dystrophy, sequencing human genomes, finding better drug molecular structures to combat AIDS, etc. Open to anyone who wants to contribute idle PC processing time.
  • Wikipedia article on the World Community Grid: Contains additional links for each project being conducted on the World Community Grid.
  • 3tera AppLogic
  • Appistry
  • DataSynapse
  • GridGain Systems
  • EnterTheGrid directory on Grid computing
  • EELA: E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America
  • Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE)
  • BREIN: Business objective driven reliable and intelligent grids for real business.
  • Fura GPL Ready to use grid
  • IBM Grid Computing website
  • ICEAGE: International Collaboration to Extend and Advance Grid Education
  • Java Parallel Processing Framework
  • ParadisEO, a C++ framework coupled with Globus and Condor-G for combinatorial and continuous optimization on grid support
  • GridSphere Portal Framework (JSR-168 compliant)
  • GridSummit.com
  • Gridalogy
  • BigBlueRiver
  • Grid Computing Now!: Knowledge Transfer Network
  • NICE EnginFrame: Grid computing portals for research and industry
  • Nivio: Virtual Desktop Based on Grid Computing
  • Rechenkraft.net (German)
  • gridGistics: service virtualization and grid computing.
  • myGrid: bioinformatics and eScience research project built by several UK universities and EMBL-EBI.
  • Consortsium SIRENE (Sharing Infrastructure and REsources iN Europe)
  • ECSS: European Community for Software and Software Services - Architectures, Infrastructures, Engineering
  • Vendor-independent documentation on Grid-compliant open source portals

World Community Grid (WCG) is an effort to create the worlds largest public computing grid to tackle scientific research projects that benefit humanity. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... The term e-Science (or eScience) is used to describe computationally intensive science that is carried out in highly distributed network environments, or science that uses immense data sets that require grid computing. ... The European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) is a molecular biology research institution supported by 17 European countries. ... Ebrahim Hamedi (born June 19, 1949) better known by the name Ebi is a famous Iranian singer. ...

Grid Simulators

  • SimGrid
  • GridSim
  • GangSim
  • Bricks
  • Grid Matrix Simulator

Grid Emulators

  • MicroGrid
  • Grid eXplorer

Articles

  • O'Reilly article about grid computing software
  • Grid Café, the place for everyone to learn about the Grid
  • Describing the Elephant: The Different Faces of IT as Service, positions grid in a broader context

Associations and conferences

  • Open Grid Forum
  • Israeli Association of Grid Technologies (IGT)
  • International Conference on Grid Computing (Grid XY)
  • International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid (CCGrid XY)

Past events

  • GridWorld Washington 2006
  • IEEE Richmond Section Blog. Meeting — 5 October 2006: "Autonomic Grid Computing: Concepts, Infrastructure and Applications"PDF (3.61 MiB).


  Results from FactBites:
 
Grid computing: Information from Answers.com (2711 words)
Grid computing evolved from the parallel processing systems of the 1970s, the large-scale cluster computing systems of the 1980s, and the distributed processing systems of the 1990s, and is often referred to by these names.
Grid computing can make a more cost-effective use of computer resources, can be applied to solve problems that require large amounts of computing power, and may be the forerunner of pervasive computing—computer applications that pervade our environment without our being aware of their presence.
Grid computing is an emerging computing model that provides the ability to perform higher throughput computing by taking advantage of many networked computers to model a virtual computer architecture that is able to distribute process execution across a parallel infrastructure.
grid computing (2852 words)
Grid computing, which is already being used in some academic and research communities, is making its way to the life insurance industry.
Grid computing allows us to access servers and desktops simultaneously so that we can harness that power in a way that makes it easy for us, that doesn’t force us to engineer something so complex that it could be unstable.
Grid computing is still new, especially in the insurance industry, and while it is very viable as a technology there isn’t a lot of external help, but that will probably change in the next two or three years.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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