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Encyclopedia > Greyhound racing
Several greyhounds before a race.
Several greyhounds before a race.

Greyhound racing is the sport of racing greyhounds. The dogs chase a lure (an artificial hare or rabbit) on a track until they arrive at the finish line. The one that arrives first is the winner. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2211 KB) Summary Several dogs prior to a race. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2211 KB) Summary Several dogs prior to a race. ... This article is about the speed competition. ... This article is about the breed of dog. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... For other uses, see Hare (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ...


In many countries, greyhound racing is purely amateur and conducted for enjoyment. In other countries (particularly the US, UK, Ireland and Australia), greyhound racing is a popular form of parimutuel gambling, similar to horse racing. There is some popular concern in the aforementioned countries regarding the well-being of the dogs; the effectiveness of industry efforts to address these concerns is controversial. A greyhound adoption movement has arisen to assist retired racing dogs in finding homes as pets. Parimutuel betting (from the French language: pari mutuel, mutual betting) is a betting system in which all bets of a particular type are placed together in a pool; taxes and a house take are removed, and payoff odds are calculated by sharing the pool among all placed bets, rounded down... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... A Greyhound Greyhound adoption or Greyhound rescue programs focus on helping Greyhounds move from racing—where they live in kennels on the track—to homes. ...

Contents

History

Modern greyhound racing has its origins in coursing. The first recorded attempt at racing greyhounds on a straight track was made beside the Welsh Harp reservoir, Hendon in 1876, but this experiment did not develop. The sport emerged in its recognizable modern form, featuring circular or oval tracks, with the invention of the mechanical or artificial hare in 1912 by Owen Patrick Smith. O.P. Smith had altruistic aims for the sport to stop the killing of the jack rabbits and see "greyhound racing as we see horse racing". The certificates system led the way to parimutuel betting, as quarry and on-course gambling, in the United States during the 1920s. In 1926, armed with the Smith patents and a hand shake, it was introduced to Britain by an American, Charles Munn, in association with Major Lyne-Dixon, a key figure in coursing, and a Canadian, Brigadier-General Critchley. The deal went sour with Smith never hearing from Munn again. Like the American, International Greyhound Racing Association, the In.G.R.A. Munn and Critchley launched the Greyhound Racing Association, and held the first British meeting at Manchester's Belle Vue. The sport was successful in cities and town throughout the U.K. - by the end of 1927, there were forty tracks operating. The sport was particularly attractive to predominantly male working-class audiences, for whom the urban locations of the tracks and the evening times of the meetings were accessible, and to patrons and owners from various social backgrounds. Betting has always been a key ingredient of greyhound racing, both through on-course bookmakers and the totalisator, first introduced in 1930. Like horse racing, it is popular to bet on the greyhound races as a form of parimutuel gambling. Coursing is the pursuit of game by dogs—chiefly Greyhounds—running by sight, not by scent. ... The Brent Reservoir (popularly called the Welsh Harp) is a reservoir which straddles the boundary between the London Boroughs of Brent and Barnet and is owned by British Waterways. ... For other places with the same name, see Hendon (disambiguation). ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Parimutuel betting (from the French language: pari mutuel, mutual betting) is a betting system in which all bets of a particular type are placed together in a pool; taxes and a house take are removed, and payoff odds are calculated by sharing the pool among all placed bets. ... Caravaggio, The Cardsharps, c. ... The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... Belle Vue is greyhound racing track near Manchester where the very first race around an oval track in Britain was held on July 24, 1926. ... “UK” redirects here. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A totalisator or totalizator (tote board in common parlance) is the name for the computerised system which runs parimutuel betting, calculating payoff odds, displaying them, and producing tickets based on incoming bets. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Parimutuel betting (from the French language: pari mutuel, mutual betting) is a betting system in which all bets of a particular type are placed together in a pool; taxes and a house take are removed, and payoff odds are calculated by sharing the pool among all placed bets, rounded down...


In common with many other sports, greyhound racing enjoyed its highest attendances just after the Second World War—for example, there were 34 million paying spectators in 1946. The sport experienced a decline from the early 1960s, when the 1960 Betting and Gaming Act permitted off-course cash betting, although sponsorship, limited television coverage, and the later abolition of on-course betting tax have partially offset this decline. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ...


Greyhound racing today

Greyhounds rounding a turn
Greyhounds rounding a turn

Today greyhound racing continues in many countries around the world. The main greyhound racing countries are: Image File history File linksMetadata Greyhound_racing_turn. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Greyhound_racing_turn. ...

Smaller scale greyhound racing is ongoing in: This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Largest metro area Little Rock Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Largest metro area Des Moines metropolitan area Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Largest metro area Greater Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to...

Treatment of racing dogs

Living conditions

In the United States, greyhound racing is not governed by the Animal Welfare Act, so treatment of the dogs depends largely on the industry's self-regulation [2]. Kennels are indoor crates stacked two levels high, with the females usually kept on the upper level, and males on the lower level. While the space allocated to each dog varies between locations, typical crate size is 3-1/2 feet wide by 4 feet deep by 3 feet high. While living on the track these dogs will spend most of their time in these kennels. The Animal Welfare Act is a law passed by government to protect the welfare of animals. ...


In addition to state regulation, most tracks adopt their own rules, policies and procedures to ensure greyhound welfare. In exchange for the right to race their greyhounds at the track, kennel owners must sign contracts in which they agree to abide by all track rules, including those pertaining to animal welfare. If kennel owners violate these contract clauses, they stand to lose their track privileges and even their racing licenses.


Greyhounds make wonderful companion animals and are loving and responsive to human contact. Unfortunately, thousands of "retired" greyhounds are not adopted each year. Many greyhound owners use adoption programs as dumping grounds when their dogs are no longer profitable. Although The Humane Society of the United States applauds the efforts of those volunteers who give their time and money to place unwanted greyhounds in loving homes, thousands of these dogs are still destroyed each year because there are not enough homes to accept them. In 2000, an estimated 19,000 greyhounds were killed.*(*As reported by Greyhound Network News and the Greyhound Protection League) This includes 7,600 greyhound puppies who were farm culls, and another 11,400 "retirees" who were not rescued. Other greyhounds are either sold to research labs, returned to breeding facilities to serve as breeding stock, or sent to foreign racetracks, sometimes in developing countries with appalling track conditions.


In several European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland) greyhound racing is carried out by the owners of the dogs without financial interest. This amateur form of the sport is also found in some countries, such as the United States, where professional racing exists. In these countries the dogs often live as pets.


In Australia

In Australia greyhounds live in kennels at night that meet guidelines set by The Greyhound Racing Authorities in Australia, and by day many greyhounds are put into running yards or day yards to keep them entertained and exercised. This is aimed to keep greyhounds as fit, happy, and healthy as possible.


Greyhounds are checked for parasites, malnourishment, or any other medical conditions by an on-course vet before being able to compete.


The Greyhound Racing Authorities in Australia regulates greyhound welfare and living conditions and all racing authorities in Australia finance Greyhound Adoption Groups, which house dozens of greyhounds a month.


In the United Kingdom

In the UK Greyhounds are not kept at the tracks and are instead housed in the kennels of private individuals (usually the trainer, in the case of licensed NGRC tracks - unlicensed greyhound racing is known as "flapping") and transported to the tracks to race. Dogs' health and condition are checked at the track, and drugs tests are conducted to check for tampering with the dogs. Due to the high number of dogs going through the system each year the National Greyhound Racing Club have set up The Retired Greyhound Trust to rehome the Greyhounds who have left or were unable to start racing, it is a charity but is partly funded by the National Greyhound RacingClub and presents a better view of Greyhound racing to the public. There are also many independent organisations who are finding homes for retired Greyhounds. This is the second most popular spectator sport in the UK.


In South Africa

In the Republic of South Africa dogs are kept with their owners. Due to the amateur state of racing, owners are usually also the trainer and rearer of the dogs. Each owner trains and races his own dogs. It is very rare that a dog is kenneled with a trainer. Racing is controlled by a partnership between the United Greyhound Racing and Breeders Society (UGRABS) and the South African Renhond Unie (SARU - South African Racing Dog Union). The studbook is kept by the South African Studbook and organization who keep studbooks for all stud animals. Racing takes place on both oval and straight tracks. Racing is technically illegal in South Africa, which is strange as any other form of animal racing, i.e. horse racing, pigeon racing and even ostrich racing is perfectly legal. Great controversy rages because the use of greyhounds to hunt wild animals is a fairly common occurrence. The supporters of dog racing believe that legal racing, as an industry similar to that of Australia of Great Britain, would cause hunting to eventually stop.


Medical care

Greyhound adoption groups frequently report that the dogs from the tracks have tooth problems the cause of which is debated although it is likely related to damage to the gums from chewing on metal cage bars. The groups often also find that the dogs carry tick-borne diseases and parasites due to the lack of proper preventative treatments. The dogs require regular vaccination to minimize outbreaks of diseases like kennel cough. A Greyhound Greyhound adoption or Greyhound rescue programs focus on helping Greyhounds move from racing—where they live in kennels on the track—to homes. ... Families Ixodidae - Hard ticks Argasidae - Soft ticks Nuttalliellidae - ????? ticks Wikispecies has information related to: Ixodoidea Tick is the common name for the small arachnids that, along with other mites, constitute the order Acarina. ...


After the dogs are no longer able to race (generally, a greyhound's career will end by the age of four to six),many keep dogs as family pets after retirement,owners may keep the dog for breeding, or they can send them to adoption groups,euthanization is a last resort, if no other option is viable.


Recently, doping has also emerged as a problem in Greyhound racing. The racing industry is actively working to prevent the spread of this practice; attempts are made to recover urine samples from all greyhounds in a race, not just the winners. Greyhounds from which samples can not be obtained for a certain number of consecutive races are subject to being ruled off the track. Violators are subject to criminal penalties and loss of their racing licenses by state gaming commissions and a permanent ban from the National Greyhound Association. The trainer of the greyhound is at all times the "absolute insurer" of the condition of the animal. The trainer is responsible for any positive test regardless of how the banned substance has entered the greyhound's system. In sports, doping refers to the use of performance-enhancing drugs, particularly those that are forbidden by the organizations that regulate competitions. ...


Several organizations, such as British Greyhounds Retired Database, Adopt-a-Greyhound and Greyhound Pets of America, and the retired greyhound trust try to ensure that as many of the dogs as possible are adopted. Some of these groups also advocate better treatment of the dogs while at the track and/or the end of racing for profit. In recent years the racing industry has made significant progress in establishing programs for the adoption of retired racers. In addition to actively cooperating with private adoption groups throughout the country, many race tracks have established their own adoption programs at various tracks.


In recent years, several state governments in the United States have passed legislation to improve the treatment of racing dogs in their jurisdiction. During the 1990's seven states banned live greyhound racing, though racing has never been banned in a state that has had active racing.[3]


In venues where greyhound racing does not involve gambling, the dogs are almost invariably pets and are, therefore, generally well treated.


References

  1. ^ A listing of US Tracks
  2. ^ Charity Guide discussion of greyhound rescue.
  3. ^ Greyhound Racing Facts from the Humane Society of the United States

See also

Dog sports are activities that involve dogs. ... This article is about the breed of dog. ... A Greyhound Greyhound adoption or Greyhound rescue programs focus on helping Greyhounds move from racing—where they live in kennels on the track—to homes. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

External links

Racing websites


  Results from FactBites:
 
Greyhound Racing Facts (1378 words)
Greyhound racing constitutes animal abuse because of the industry's excessive surplus breeding practices, the often cruel methods by which unwanted dogs are destroyed, the daily conditions in which many dogs are forced to live, and the killing and maiming of bait animals, such as rabbits, during training exercises.
Racing greyhounds spend the majority of their adult lives in crates or pens or in fenced enclosures.
Greyhound racing is a form of gaming in which the amount of money a dog generates determines his or her expendability.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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