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Encyclopedia > Grey matter
Grey matter
The formation of the spinal nerve from the dorsal and ventral roots. (Grey matter labeled at center right.)
Latin substantia grisea
Dorlands/Elsevier s_27/12766773

Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of nerve cell bodies, glial cells (astroglia and oligodendrocytes), capillaries, and short nerve cell extensions/processes (axons and dendrites). Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of nerve cell bodies, glial cells (astroglia and oligodendrocytes), capillaries, and short nerve cell extensions/processes (axons and dendrites). ... Image File history File links Spinal_nerve. ... Image File history File links Medulla_spinalis_-_Substantia_grisea_-_English. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Elseviers logo. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Astrocytes (also known collectively as astroglia) are characteristic star-shaped glial cells in the brain. ... These are a variety of neuroglias that wrap around neurons in Central Nervous System to for the mtolin sheath, increasing impulse speed. ... An axon or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. ... In biology, a dendrite is a slender, typically branched projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, which conducts the electrical stimulation received from other cells to the body or soma of the cell from which it projects. ...

Contents

Composition

It is composed of cell bodies as opposed to white matter (cell axons). It has a grey brown color which comes from the capillary blood vessels and the neuronal cell bodies. White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. ... Blood flows from digestive system heart to arteries, which narrow into arterioles, and then narrow further still into capillaries. ...


Distribution

Grey matter is distributed at the surface of the cerebral hemispheres (cerebral cortex) and of the cerebellum (cerebellar cortex), as well as in the depth of the cerebral (thalamus; hypothalamus; subthalamus, basal ganglia - putamen, globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens; septal nuclei), cerebellar (deep cerebellar nuclei - dentate nucleus, globose nucleus, emboliform nucleus, fastigial nucleus), brainstem (substantia nigra, red nucleus, olivary nuclei, cranial nerve nuclei) and spinal grey matter (anterior horn, lateral horn, posterior horn). The human brain as viewed from above, showing the cerebral hemispheres. ... For other uses, see Cortex. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος = bedroom, chamber, IPA= /ˈθæləməs/) is a pair and symmetric part of the brain. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... The subthalamus, or ventral thalamus, is part of the diencephalon. ... The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of nuclei in the brain interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. ... The putamen is a structure in the middle of the brain, forming the striatum together with the caudate nucleus. ... The globus pallidus (Latin for pale body) is a sub-cortical structure in the brain. ... The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus or as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus leaning against the septum), is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum. ... The septal nuclei are structures in the middle anteroventral cerebrum that are composed of medium-sized neurons and which are grouped into medial, lateral, and posterior groups. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ... The substantia nigra, (Latin for black substance, Soemering) or locus niger is a heterogeneous portion of the midbrain, separating the pes (foot) from the tegmentum (covering), and a major element of the basal ganglia system. ... The red nucleus is a structure in the rostral midbrain involved in motor coordination. ... In anatomy, the olivary bodies or simply olives (Latin oliva and olivae, singular and plural, respectively) are a pair of prominent oval structures in the medulla oblongata, the lower portion of the brainstem. ... A cranial nerve nucleus is a collection of neurons (gray matter) in the brain stem that is associated with one or more cranial nerves. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... The anterior horn is the anterior division of the lateral ventricle of the brain. ... In the thoracic region, the postero-lateral part of the anterior column projects lateralward as a triangular field, which is named the lateral column (lateral cornu, lateral horn). ... The posterior horn of the spinal cord is dorsal(more towards the back) to the anterior horn. ...


Function

The function of grey matter is to route sensory or motor stimulus to interneurons of the CNS in order to create a response to the stimulus through chemical synapse activity. Research has shown that the amount of gray matter in a brain is positively correlated with human intelligence. (Narr, 2006)[1] An interneuron is a neuron that communicates only to other neurons. ... Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical synapse. ...


Grey matter structures (cortex, deep nuclei) process information originating in the sensory organs or in other grey matter regions. This information is conveyed via specialized nerve cell extensions (long axons), which form the bulk of the cerebral, cerebellar, and spinal white matter. Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... An axon, or nerve fiber, is a long slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, which conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. ...


See also

Grey Matter Heterotopia (singular heterotopion)[1] is a neurological disorder caused by clumps of grey matter being located in the wrong part of the brain. ... Neuropil is the feltwork of unmyelinated neuronal processes (axonal and dendritic) within the gray matter of the central nervous system Traditionally, when pathologists looked at brain tissue they concentrated on neurons (the active functioning cells of the brain), glial cells and axons (especially in white matter, which is mostly composed... Medulla spinalis - Substantia grisea The Rexed laminae comprise a system of ten layers of grey matter (I-X), identified in the early 1950s by Bror Rexed to label portions of the spinal cord. ... The substantia nigra, (Latin for black substance, Soemering) or locus niger is a heterogeneous portion of the midbrain, separating the pes (foot) from the tegmentum (covering), and a major element of the basal ganglia system. ... White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Grey matter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (233 words)
Grey matter is the major part of the nervous system in which the nerve impulses for all kinds of mental functions are produced and then sent away to be carried to their target organs by white matter.
The cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia, such as the putamen and the caudate nucleus, are composed of grey matter.
In addition, grey matter - unlike white matter - does not have a myelin sheath and does not regenerate after injury.
Encyclopedia4U - Grey matter - Encyclopedia Article (232 words)
Grey matter is a category of nervous tissue with many nerve cell bodies and few myelinated axons.
Gray matter is the major part of the nervous system in which the nerve impulses for all kinds of mental functions are produced and then sent away to be carried to their target organs by white matter.
The cerebrum and the subcortical nuclei, such as the putamen and the caudate, are composed of grey matter.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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