FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Gregorio Cortez

Gregorio Cortez Lira (born June 22, 1875 near Matamoros, TamaulipasFebruary 28, 1916) was a Mexican American who became a hero to some Mexican American Texans and a symbol of the willingness to fight for equal rights. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Matamoros is a city in the north of the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The ethnonym Mexican-American describes United States citizens of Mexican ancestry (14 million in 2003) and Mexican citizens who reside in the US (10 million in 2003). ... It has been suggested that American folk hero be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Background

Cortez's parents were itinerant laborers who brought their family to Manor, Texas (near Austin) in 1887. That year, his brother Romaldo was charged with horse theft but the charges were dropped for lack of evidence. Another brother, Tomás, was also charged in a separate horse-theft incident, but received a pardon from Texas governor Lawrence Ross. Nevertheless, Tomás Cortez served time in the state penitentiary in the 1900s. The oral historian Richard Mertz discovered that he may have been involved in horse theft (a crime equivalent to today's grand theft auto) with members of his family during the 1880s. In 1889 he began working as a farmhand in various Texas counties, becoming familiar with much of the area. In 1890 he was wed, and the couple had four children. His wife divorced him in 1903, alleging he abused and intimidated her. He remarried the next year and again in 1916. It is known that he spoke English and owned horses. Manor is a city located in Travis County, Texas. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas, the county seat of Travis County, and home to the University of Texas at Austin. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Lawrence Sullivan Ross (Sul Ross) (September 27, 1838 – January 3, 1898) was a Confederate States Army general during the American Civil War. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Motor vehicle theft is a crime of theft. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The incident

On June 12, 1901, while investigating a horse theft, Karnes County sheriff W.T. "Brack" Morris went to the Thulemeyer ranch outside of Kenedy, where Gregorio and Romaldo Cortez were tenant maize farmers, after learning that Gregorio had acquired a mare from a Mexican Kenedy resident by way of trade. After misunderstandings between Morris and the Cortez brothers resulting from poor translation by a deputy--in which Cortez was supposedly asked if he had recently acquired a caballo, or a stallion, and Cortez answered he had acquired a yegua, or a mare, a word which the deputy did not understand--Morris shot and wounded Romaldo, prompting Gregorio to shoot and kill Morris.[1] is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Karnes County is a county located in the state of Texas. ... Kenedy is a city located in Karnes County, Texas. ... This article is about the maize plant. ...


Flight and capture

Cortez, now a fugitive from the law, spent ten days on the lam, repeatedly evading authorities (including the Texas Rangers), and at times aided by compatriots. During his flight, Texas newspapers were highly critical of Cortez, some lamenting that he hadn't been lynched. Popular hatred for Cortez among Anglos provoked violence against Mexican communities in Gonzales, Refugio, Hays, and other counties. Cortez was finally apprehended on June 22, 1901, when an acquaintance turned him in. For other uses, see Texas Rangers. ... Lynching is a form of violence, usually execution, conceived of by its perpetrators as extrajudicial punishment for offenders or as a terrorist method of enforcing social domination. ... Gonzales County is a county located in the state of Texas. ... Refugio County is a county located in the state of Texas. ... Hays County is a county located in the state of Texas. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Trial, conviction, and exoneration

Immediately following Cortez's capture, his supporters began forming organizations to publicize the case and raise money for his defense. At his first trial (in Gonzales), he was sentenced to fifty years' imprisonment for second-degree murder. While appeals were being denied, a lynch mob of three hundred attempted to hang him. He was also tried and convicted in Karnes City and Pleasanton. However, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals overturned all the verdicts. His last trial was in Corpus Christi in 1904, after which he began serving a life sentence. Efforts to have him pardoned began with his incarceration and finally succeeded in 1913, when governor Oscar Colquitt issued him a conditional pardon. Gonzales is a city located in Gonzales County, Texas. ... Karnes City is a city located in Karnes County, Texas. ... Pleasanton is a city in Atascosa County, Texas, United States. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Counties Government  - Mayor Henry Garrett Area  - City 1,192. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Oscar Branch Colquitt was governor of Texas from January 17, 1911 to January 19, 1915. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Post-prison life and death

Upon his release, he thanked those who worked for his freedom, joining the Huertist forces of the Mexican Revolution in Nuevo Laredo. Shortly after remarrying for the fourth time, he died of pneumonia. A graphical timeline is available here: Timeline of the Mexican Revolution José Victoriano Huerta Márquez (December 23, 1850 – January 13, 1916) was a Mexican military officer and President of Mexico. ... This article is about the Mexican Revolution of 1910. ... Motto: Siempre Con La Patria Settled 1847 Government  - Presidente Municipal Daniel Peña Area  - City 1,334. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ...


The legend

Like many folk heroes who have acquired legendary status, many of the facts about his life have been obscured by time, embellishments, and the variation inherent in oral histories. According to legend, he was an excellent marksman and had a way with animals that allowed him to track and find them with uncommon aplomb, qualities which alleged to have helped him evade law enforcement. Legend also ascribes to him the values of respectfulness, temperance, and obedience, which are contrasted with his brother's laziness, disrespectfulness, and short temper. (In some versions of the story, his brother is called "Ramón".) Legends also dramatize his many narrow escapes, his humiliation of the Texas Rangers, and his impassioned courtroom pleas to simply be tried by the law of the land rather than prejudicially because of racist attitudes. For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ...


In song, literature, and film

The story of Cortez was popularized and disseminated through various ballads called El Corrido de Gregorio Cortez, starting as early as 1901. Writing in the 1950's, folklorist Américo Paredes exposed a wider audience to the legend with his With His Pistol In His Hand, originally published in 1958. The work angered a Texas Ranger who threatened to shoot Paredes. The legend was turned into the film The Ballad of Gregorio Cortez, starring Edward James Olmos, in 1982.[1] The corrido is a popular narrative song and poetry form, a ballad, of the mestizo Mexican cultural area (which includes the Southwestern states of the United States, taken from Mexican sovereignty in the mid 19th Century). ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward James Olmos (born February 24, 1947) is an Emmy-winning and Oscar-nominated American actor, of Mexican descent. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


References

  1. ^ Rosales, F. Arturo. Pobre Raza! Violence, Justice, and Mobilization among Mexico Lindo Immigrants, 1900-1936. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999: 93.

Sources

  • Paredes, Américo (1958). With His Pistol In His Hand. Austin: University of Texas Press, 275. ISBN 978-0-292-70128-1. 

See also

Juan Nepomuceno Cortina. ... Joaquin Murietta (sometimes spelled Murieta or Murrieta) (b. ... Tiburcio Vasquez Tiburcio Vasquez (August 11, 1839–March 19, 1875) was a Mexican bandit who was active in California from as early as 1857 to his last capture in 1874. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Handbook of Texas Online: CORTEZ LIRA, GREGORIO (1473 words)
Leonor began divorce proceedings against Gregorio in early 1903, alleging as part of her petition that Gregorio had physically and verbally abused her during the early years of their marriage and that she had remained with him only out of fear.
Cortez was finally captured when Jesús González, one of his acquaintances, located him and led a posse to him on June 22, 1901, ten days after the encounter between Cortez and Sheriff Morris.
Cortez also enjoyed the empathy of some of his jailers, who provided him the entire upper story of the jail as a "honeymoon suite" when he married Estéfana Garza.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m