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Encyclopedia > Gregorian calendar
Calendars
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Common use Astro · Gregorian · Islamic · ISO · Julian
Calendar Types
Lunisolar · Solar · Lunar

Selected usage Armenian · Bahá'í · Bengali · Berber · Bikram Samwat · Buddhist · Chinese · Coptic · Ethiopian · Germanic · Hebrew · Hindu · Indian · Iranian · Irish · Japanese · Javanese · Chuch'e · Korean · Malayalam · Maya · Minguo · Nanakshahi · Nepal Sambat · Tamil · Thai (LunarSolar) · Tibetan · Turkish · Vietnamese· Yoruba · Zoroastrian
Calendar Types
Original Julian · Runic

The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world today. It is a reform of the Julian calendar, first proposed by the Calabrian doctor Aloysius Lilius, and decreed by Pope Gregory XIII, for whom it was named, on 24 February 1582 by papal bull Inter gravissimas. A Tunisian calendar showing Gregorian, Islamic and Berber dates // Afghan calendar (Afghan Calendar Project) Armenian calendar Astronomical year numbering Baháí calendar Bengali calendar Berber calendar Buddhist calendar Chinese calendar Coptic calendar Ethiopian calendar Fiscal year Germanic calendar (still in use by Ásatrúar) Gregorian calendar Hebrew calendar Hindu calendars Indian... Astronomical year numbering is based on BCE/CE (or BC/AD) year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... The ISO week date system is a leap week calendar system that is part of the ISO 8601 date and time standard. ... The Revised Julian calendar is a calendar that was considered for adoption by the Eastern Orthodox churches at a synod in Istanbul in May 1923. ... A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... A lunar calendar is a calendar in many cultures that is oriented at the moon phase. ... The Baháí calendar, also called the Badí‘ calendar, used by the Baháí Faith, is a solar calendar with regular years of 365 days, and leap years of 366 days. ... The Bengali calendar (Bengali: ) is a traditional solar calendar used in Bangladesh and the states of West Bengal, Assam and Tripura in eastern India. ... The Berber calendar is the annual calendar used by Berber people in North Africa. ... Bikram Samwat (Bikram Sambat, Devnagari:बिक्रम संवत, abbreviated B.S.) is the calendar established by Indian emperor Vikramaditya. ... The Buddhist calendar is used on mainland southeast Asia in the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar (formerly Burma) in several related forms. ... The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church. ... The Hebrew calendar (‎) or Jewish calendar is the calendar used by Jews for religious purposes. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... The Javanese calendar is a calendar used by the Javanese people. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects The Chuche Idea (also Chuche Sasang or Juche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... Malayalam calendar (also known as Malayalam Era or Kollavarsham) is a solar Sideral calendar used in the state of Kerala in South India. ... The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... A calendar that commemorates the first year of the Republic as well as the election of Sun Yat-sen as the provisional President. ... The Nanakshahi (Punjabi: , ) calendar is a solar calendar that was adopted by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee to determine the dates for important Sikh events. ... Nepal Sambat (Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत) is a lunar calendar. ... The Tamil Calendar is followed by the Tamil speaking state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in India, and by the Tamil population in Malaysia, Singapore & Sri Lanka. ... The Thai lunar calendar or Patitin Chantarakati (Thai: ปฏิทินจันทรคติ) was replaced by the Patitin Suriyakati (ปฎิทินสุริยคติ) Thai solar calendar in AD 1888 2431 BE for most purposes, but the Chantarakati still determines most Buddhist feast or holy days, as well as a day for the famous Loy Krathong festival. ... The Thai solar, or Suriyakati (สุริยคติ), calendar is used in traditional and official contexts in Thailand, although the Western calendar is sometimes used in business. ... The Tibetan calendar is a lunisolar calendar, that is, the Tibetan year is composed of either 12 or 13 lunar months, each beginning and ending with a new moon. ... The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith, and it is an approximation of the (tropical) solar calendar. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Runic calendar - Norwegian - carved wood. ... The month of October from a liturgical calendar for Abbotsbury Abbey. ... For other uses, see Calendar (disambiguation) A page from the Hindu calendar 1871–1872. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For other uses, see Calabria (disambiguation). ... Aloysius Lilius (Luigi Lilio, 1510 – 1576) was a physician from Calabria in Italy (at that time part of the kingdom of Naples). ... Pope Gregory XIII (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585), born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope from 1572 to 1585. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... A Papal bull is a particular type of patent or charter issued by a pope. ... Inter gravissimas is a papal bull issued by Pope Gregory XIII on February 24, 1582. ...


Years in the reformed calendar continue the numbering system of the Julian calendar, which are numbered from the traditional birth year of Jesus, which has been labeled the "anno Domini" (AD) era,[1] and is sometimes labeled the "common era" (CE), otherwise known as "Christian Era" . This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... AD redirects here. ... BCE redirects here. ...


The changes made by Gregory also corrected the drift in the civil calendar which arose because the mean Julian calendar year was slightly too long, causing the vernal equinox, and consequently the date on which Easter was being celebrated, to slowly drift forward in relation to the civil calendar and the seasons. The civil calendar is any calendar in use in any country at any point in time which is used for civil, official or administrative purposes. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ... Computus (Latin for computation) is the calculation of the date of Easter in the Christian calendar. ...


The Gregorian calendar system dealt with these problems by dropping 10 days to bring the calendar back into synchronization with the seasons, and adopting the following leap year rule:

Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100; the centurial years that are exactly divisible by 400 are still leap years. For example, the year 1900 is not a leap year; the year 2000 is a leap year.[2]

In the Julian calendar, all years exactly divisible by 4 were leap years.

Contents

Description

The Gregorian calendar is an arithmetical solar calendar. It counts days as the basic unit of time, grouping them into years of 365 or 366 days. The solar calendar repeats completely every 146,097 days, which fill 400 years, and which also happens to be 20,871 seven-day weeks. Of these 400 years, 303 (the "common years") have 365 days, and 97 - the leap years - have 366 days. This gives an average year length of exactly 365.2425 days - or 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes and 12 seconds. For more details on each day of the week, see days of the week. ... For the 1921 film starring Fatty Arbuckle, see Leap Year (film). ...


A Gregorian year is divided into twelve months of irregular length (but note that there is a period of 153 days divided over 5 months in an alternating pattern from March to July that repeats from August to December): Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Detail of the tomb of Pope Gregory XIII celebrating the introduction of the Gregorian Calendar.
Detail of the tomb of Pope Gregory XIII celebrating the introduction of the Gregorian Calendar.
No. Name Days
1 January 31
2 February 28 or 29
3 March 31
4 April 30
5 May 31
6 June 30
7 July 31
8 August 31
9 September 30
10 October 31
11 November 30
12 December 31

A calendar date is fully specified by the year (numbered by some scheme beyond the scope of the calendar itself), the month (identified by name or number), and the day of the month (numbered sequentially starting at 1). Image File history File links Gregorianscher_Kalender_Petersdom. ... Image File history File links Gregorianscher_Kalender_Petersdom. ... For other uses, see January (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see February (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see March (disambiguation). ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... For other uses, see August (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see September (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see November (disambiguation). ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Leap years are all years divisible by 4, with the exception of those divisible by 100, but not by 400. These 366-day years add a 29th day to February, which normally has 28 days. Thus, the essential ongoing differential feature of the Gregorian calendar, as opposed to the Julian calendar, is that the Gregorian omits 3 leap days every 400 years. This difference would have been more noticeable in modern memory were it not for the fact that the year 2000 was a leap year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendar systems. For the 1921 film starring Fatty Arbuckle, see Leap Year (film). ...


The intercalary day in a leap year is known as a leap day. Since Roman times 24 February (bissextile) was counted as the leap day, but nowadays 29 February is regarded as the leap day in most countries. Intercalation is the insertioffn of an extra day, week or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons. ... A leap year (or intercalary year) is a year containing an extra day or month in order to keep the calendar year in sync with an astronomical or seasonal year. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A leap year (or intercalary year) is a year containing an extra day, week or month in order to keep the calendar year synchronised with the astronomical or seasonal year. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although the calendar year runs from 1 January to 31 December, sometimes year numbers were based on a different starting point within the calendar. Confusingly, the term "Anno Domini" is not specific on this point, and actually refers to a family of year numbering systems with different starting points for the years. (See the section below for more on this issue.) is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


History

Gregorian reform

The motivation of the Catholic Church in adjusting the calendar was to celebrate Easter at the time it thought the First Council of Nicaea had agreed upon in 325. Although a canon of the council implies that all churches used the same Easter, they did not. The Church of Alexandria celebrated Easter on the Sunday after the 14th day of the Moon (computed using the Metonic cycle) that falls on or after the vernal equinox, which they placed on 21 March. However, the Church of Rome still regarded 25 March as the equinox and used a different cycle to compute the day of the Moon. By the tenth century all churches (except for some on the eastern border of the Byzantine Empire) had adopted the Alexandrian Easter, which still placed the vernal equinox on 21 March, although Bede had already noted its drift in 725—it had drifted even further by the sixteenth century. Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... The Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris in astronomy and calendar studies is a particular approximate common multiple of the year (specifically, the seasonal tropical year) and the synodic month. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ...


Worse, the reckoned Moon that was used to compute Easter was fixed to the Julian year by a 19 year cycle. However, that approximation built up an error of one day every 310 years, so by the sixteenth century the lunar calendar was out of phase with the real Moon by four days. Computus (Latin for computation) is the calculation of the date of Easter in the Christian calendar. ... The Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris in astronomy and calendar studies is a particular approximate common multiple of the year (specifically, the seasonal tropical year) and the synodic month. ...


The Council of Trent approved a plan in 1563 for correcting the calendrical errors, requiring that the date of the vernal equinox be restored to that which it held at the time of the First Council of Nicaea in 325 and that an alteration to the calendar be designed to prevent future drift. This would allow for a more consistent and accurate scheduling of the feast of Easter. The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ...


The fix was to come in two stages. First, it was necessary to approximate the correct length of a solar year. The value chosen was 365.2425 days in decimal notation. This is 365°14'33 days in sexagesimal notation—the length of the tropical year, rounded to two sexagesimal positions; this was the value used in the major astronomical tables of the day. Although close to the mean tropical year of 365.24219 days, it is even closer to the vernal equinox year of 365.2424 days; this fact made the choice of approximation particularly appropriate as the purpose of creating the calendar was to ensure that the vernal equinox would be near a specific date (21 March). (See Accuracy). The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ... A tropical year is the length of time that the Sun, as viewed from the Earth, takes to return to the same position along the ecliptic (its path among the stars on the celestial sphere). ... A tropical year is the length of time that the Sun, as viewed from the Earth, takes to return to the same position along the ecliptic (its path among the stars on the celestial sphere). ... A tropical year is the length of time that the Sun, as viewed from the Earth, takes to return to the same position along the ecliptic (its path among the stars on the celestial sphere). ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The second stage was to devise a model based on the approximation which would provide an accurate yet simple, rule-based calendar. The formula designed by Aloysius Lilius was ultimately successful. It proposed a 10-day correction to revert the drift since Nicaea, and the imposition of a leap day in only 97 years in 400 rather than in 1 year in 4. To implement the model, it was provided that years divisible by 100 would be leap years only if they were divisible by 400 as well. So, in the last millennium, 1600 and 2000 were leap years, but 1700, 1800 and 1900 were not. In this millennium, 2100, 2200, 2300 and 2500 will not be leap years, but 2400 will be. This theory was expanded upon by Christopher Clavius in a closely argued, 800 page volume. He would later defend his and Lilius's work against detractors. Aloysius Lilius (Luigi Lilio, 1510 – 1576) was a physician from Calabria in Italy (at that time part of the kingdom of Naples). ... For the 1921 film starring Fatty Arbuckle, see Leap Year (film). ... Christopher Clavius, (March 25, 1538 – February 12, 1612) was a German Jesuit mathematician and astronomer who was the main architect of the modern Gregorian calendar. ...


The 19-year cycle used for the lunar calendar was also to be corrected by one day every 300 or 400 years (8 times in 2500 years) along with corrections for the years (1700, 1800, 1900, 2100 et cetera) that are no longer leap years. In fact, a new method for computing the date of Easter was introduced. Computus (Latin for computation) is the calculation of the date of Easter in the Christian calendar. ...


Lilius originally proposed that the 10-day correction should be implemented by deleting the Julian leap day on each of its ten occurrences during a period of 40 years, thereby providing for a gradual return of the equinox to 21 March. However, Clavius's opinion was that the correction should take place in one move and it was this advice which prevailed with Gregory. Accordingly, when the new calendar was put in use, the error accumulated in the 13 centuries since the Council of Nicaea was corrected by a deletion of ten days. The last day of the Julian calendar was Thursday October 4, 1582 and this was followed by the first day of the Gregorian calendar, Friday October 15, 1582 (the cycle of weekdays was not affected). is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Adoption

William Hogarth (c. 1755) painting which is the main source for "Give us our Eleven Days"
William Hogarth (c. 1755) painting which is the main source for "Give us our Eleven Days"

Though Gregory's reform was "enacted" in the most solemn of forms available to the Church, in fact the bull had no authority of its own. The changes which he was "proposing" were changes to the civil calendar over which he had no authority. The changes required "adoption" by the civil authorities in each country to have legal effect. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1607, 264 KB) Painting by William Hogarth, ca. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1607, 264 KB) Painting by William Hogarth, ca. ... William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A Papal bull is a particular type of patent or charter issued by a pope. ... The civil calendar is any calendar in use in any country at any point in time which is used for civil, official or administrative purposes. ...


The Nicene Council of 325 sought to devise rules whereby all Christians would celebrate Easter on the same day. In fact it took a very long time before Christians achieved that objective (see Easter for the issues which arose). However, the bull Inter gravissimas, became the law of the Catholic Church. It was not recognised, however, by Protestant Churches nor by Orthodox Churches and others. Consequently, the days on which Easter and related holidays were celebrated by different Christian Churches again diverged. The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... Inter gravissimas is a papal bull issued by Pope Gregory XIII on February 24, 1582. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


Adoption in Europe

Only four (Catholic) countries adopted the new calendar on the date specified by the bull. Other Catholic countries experienced some delay before adopting the reform; and non-Catholic countries, not being subject to the decrees of the Pope, initially rejected or simply ignored the reform altogether, although they all eventually adopted it. Hence, the dates "October 5, 1582" to "14 October 1582" (inclusive) are still valid dates in many countries. For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Spain, Portugal, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and most of Italy implemented the new calendar on Friday, 15 October 1582, following Julian Thursday, October 4, 1582. The Spanish and Portuguese colonies adopted the calendar later due to the slowness of communication in those days. France adopted the new calendar on Monday, 20 December 1582, following Sunday, December 9, 1582.[3] The Protestant Dutch provinces of Holland and Zeeland also adopted it in December of that year. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Most non-Catholic countries initially objected to adopting a Catholic invention, especially during the Counter-Reformation (of which Gregory was a leading proponent); some Protestants feared the new calendar was part of a plot to return them to the Catholic fold. In the Czech lands, Protestants resisted the calendar imposed by the Hapsburg Monarchy. In parts of Ireland, Catholic rebels till their defeat in the Nine Years' War kept the "new" Easter in defiance of the English-loyal authorities; later Catholics practising in secret petitioned the Propaganda Fide for dispensation from observing the new calendar, as it signalled their disloyalty.[4] The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Although the Bohemian Kingdom and the Margravate of Moravia were all under Habsburg rule, they followed different paths of development. ... The Habsburg Monarchy included the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1745 and 1867/1918. ... Combatants Alliance of Irish Chiefs under Hugh ONeill, centred in Ulster England Allied Irish lords Commanders Hugh ONeill Hugh Roe ODonnell Earl of Essex Lord Mountjoy Strength 8,000 men in Ulster at the start of the war. ... This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ... The headquarters of the Propaganda fide in Rome, housed by architects Borromini and Bernini: etching by Giuseppe Vasi, 1761 The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples (Congregatio pro Gentium Evangelizatione) is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsibile for missionary work and related activities. ... Dispensation is a term used in the Canon Law of the Catholic Church referring to the suspension by competent authority of general rules of law in particular cases. ...


Denmark, Norway and the Protestant states of Germany adopted the solar portion of the new calendar on Monday, 1 March 1700,[5] following Sunday, 18 February 1700, due to the influence of Ole Rømer, but did not adopt the lunar portion. Instead, they decided to calculate the date of Easter astronomically using the instant of the vernal equinox and the full moon according to Kepler's Rudolphine Tables of 1627. They finally adopted the lunar portion of the Gregorian calendar in 1776. The remaining provinces of the Dutch Republic also adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1700. is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Ole Rømer. ... Kepler redirects here. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ...


Sweden's relationship with the Gregorian Calendar had a difficult birth. Sweden started to make the change from the OS calendar and towards the NS calendar in 1700, but it was decided to make the (then 11 day) adjustment gradually, by excluding the leap days (29 February) from each of 11 successive leap years, 1700 to 1740. In the meantime, not only would the Swedish calendar be out of step with both the Julian calendar and the Gregorian calendar for 40 years, but also the difference would not be static but would change every 4 years. This strange system clearly had great potential for endless confusion when working out the dates of Swedish events in this 40 year period. To make matters worse, the system was poorly administered and the leap days that should have been excluded from 1704 and 1708 were not excluded. The Swedish calendar should by now have been 8 days behind the Gregorian, but it was still in fact 10 days behind. King Charles XII wisely recognised that the gradual change to the new system was not working and he abandoned it. However, rather than now proceeding directly to the Gregorian calendar (as in hindsight seems to have been the sensible and obvious thing to do), it was decided to revert to the Julian calendar. This was achieved by introducing the unique date 30 February in the year 1712, adjusting the discrepancy in the calendars from 10 back to 11 days. Sweden finally adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1753, when Wednesday, 17 February was followed by Thursday, 1 March. Since Finland was under Swedish rule at that time, it did the same.[6] February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles XII redirects here. ... February 30 occurs in some calendars, unlike the Gregorian calendar, where February contains only 28 or 29 days. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Britain and the British Empire (including the eastern part of what is now the United States) adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1752 (see the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750) by which time it was necessary to correct by 11 days. Wednesday, September 2, 1752 was followed by Thursday, September 14, 1752 to account for February 29, 1700 (Julian). After 1753, the British tax year in Britain continued to operate on the Julian calendar and began on 5 April, which was the "old style" new tax year of 25 March. A 12th skipped Julian leap day in 1800 changed its start to 6 April. It was not changed when a 13th Julian leap day was skipped in 1900, so the tax year in the United Kingdom still begins on 6 April. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 (also known as Chesterfields Act after Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield) is an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (statute chapter book number ), the long title of which is It reformed the calendar of England and British Dominions so that a... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Alaska, the change took place when Friday, October 6, 1867 was followed again by Friday, October 18 after the US purchase of Alaska from Russia, which was still on the Julian calendar. Instead of 12 days, only 11 were skipped, and the day of the week was repeated on successive days, because the International Date Line was shifted from Alaska's eastern to western boundary along with the change to the Gregorian calendar. For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Date line” redirects here. ...


In Russia the Gregorian calendar was accepted after the October Revolution (so named because it took place in October 1917 in the Julian calendar). On 24 January 1918 the Council of People's Commissars issued a Decree that Wednesday, 31 January 1918 was to be followed by Thursday, 14 February 1918. For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Decrees (Russian: ) were legislative acts of the highest Soviet institutions, primarily of the Council of Peoples Commissars (the highest executive body) and of the Supreme Soviet or VTsIK (the highest legislative body), [1] issued between 1917 and 1924. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


The last country of Eastern Orthodox Europe to adopt the Gregorian calendar was Greece on Thursday, 1 March 1923, following Wednesday, 15 February 1923. is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Adoption in Eastern Asia

The Republic of China (ROC) formally adopted the Gregorian calendar at its founding on 1 January 1912, but China soon descended into a period of warlordism with different warlords using different calendars. With the unification of China under the Kuomintang in October 1928, the Nationalist Government decreed that effective 1 January 1929 the Gregorian calendar would be used thenceforth. However, China retained the Chinese traditions of numbering the months and a modified Era System, backdating the first year of the ROC to 1912; this system is still in use in Taiwan where this ROC government retains control. Upon its foundation in 1949, the People's Republic of China continued to use the Gregorian calendar with numbered months, but abolished the ROC Era System and adopted the Western fashion of naming years. For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... The Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: 中華民國; Pinyin: Zhōng huá mín guó) succeeded the Qing Dynasty in 1912, ending 2,000 years of imperial rule. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chinese era name. ...


Japan replaced the traditional lunisolar calendar with the Gregorian calendar on 1 January 1873, but, like China, continued to number the months, and used reign names instead of the Common Era: Meiji 1=1868, Taisho 1=1912, Showa 1=1926, Heisei 1=1989, and so on. The "Western calendar" (西暦, seireki) using western year numbers, is also widely accepted by civilians and to a lesser extent by government agencies. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... BCE redirects here. ...


Korea started using the Gregorian calendar on 1 January 1896 due to Japanese influence. The lunisolar Korean calendar used immediately before that day was based on the lunisolar Chinese calendar.[7] This article is about the Korean civilization. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... The traditional Korean calendar is directly derived from the Asian calendar. ... The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ...


Adoption by Orthodox Churches

However, notwithstanding all the civil adoptions, none of the national Orthodox Churches recognised it.


Instead, a Revised Julian calendar was proposed in May 1923 which dropped 13 days in 1923 and adopted a different leap year rule that resulted in no difference between the two calendars until 2800. The Orthodox churches of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Greece, Cyprus, Romania, Poland, and Bulgaria adopted the Revised Julian calendar, so these New calendarists would celebrate the Nativity along with the Western churches on 25 December in the Gregorian calendar until 2800. The Revised Julian calendar is a calendar that was considered for adoption by the Eastern Orthodox churches at a synod in Istanbul in May 1923. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... The Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Greek: ) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church of Antioch and All the East, also known as Antiochian Orthodox Church, the Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, and Orthodox Church of Antioch,(Arabic,بطريركية أنطاكية وسائر المشرق للروم الأرثوذكس), claims to be one of the five churches that composed the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church before the... The New calendarists are those Eastern Orthodox Churches that adopted the Revised Julian calendar, namely the Greek and Syrian Orthodox Churches and some others. ... For the Nativity of Jesus, see Nativity of Jesus. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Orthodox churches of Jerusalem, Russia, Serbia, Georgia and the Greek Old Calendarists did not accept the Revised Julian calendar. These Old Calendarists continue to celebrate the Nativity on 25 December in the Julian calendar, which is 7 January in the Gregorian calendar until 2100. Patriarch Theophilus III of Jerusalem. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church Unknown flag, seen offten in public. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Old calendarists are those Eastern Orthodox Churches that continue to use the Julian calendar, namely the Russian and Serbian Orthodox Churches and some others. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


All of the other Eastern churches, the Oriental Orthodox churches (Coptic, Ethiopian, Eritrean, Syrian, Armenian) and the Assyrian Church, continue to use their own calendars, which usually result in fixed dates being celebrated in accordance with the Julian calendar. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Assyrian Church of the East...


All Eastern churches continue to use the Julian Easter with the sole exception of the Finnish Orthodox Church, which has adopted the Gregorian Easter. The Finnish Orthodox Church is the national jurisdiction of the Eastern Orthodox Church in Finland. ...


Timeline


Difference between Gregorian and Julian calendar dates

Since the introduction of the Gregorian calendar, the difference between faster Gregorian (New Style) and slower Julian (Old Style) calendar dates has increased by three days every four centuries:

Gregorian range Julian range Difference
From 15 October 1582
to 28 February 1700
From 5 October 1582
to 18 February 1700
10 days
From 1 March 1700
to 28 February 1800
From 19 February 1700
to 17 February 1800
11 days
From 1 March 1800
to 28 February 1900
From 18 February 1800
to 16 February 1900
12 days
From 1 March 1900
to 28 February 2100
From 17 February 1900
to 15 February 2100
13 days

is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2100 can refer to either: The first year of the 2100s decade. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2100 can refer to either: The first year of the 2100s decade. ...

Beginning of the year

The Ancient Romans had begun their years on 1 January. During the Middle Ages under the influence of the Christian Church, many countries moved the start of the year to one of several important Christian festivals — 25 December (the Nativity of Jesus), 1 March, 25 March (the Annunciation), or even Easter.[6] Eastern European countries (most of them with populations showing allegiance to the Orthodox Church) began their numbered year on 1 September from about 988.[citation needed] History - Ancient history - Ancient Rome This is a List of Ancient Rome-related topics, that aims to include aspects of both the Ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nativity by Caravaggio, 1609. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Annunciation (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... “Orthodox” redirects here. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Vladimir I, Prince of Kiev marries Anna, sister of Byzantine emperor Basil II and converts to Christianity. ...


In England 1 January was celebrated as the New Year festival,[8] but from the 12th century to 1751 the year in England began on 25 March (Lady Day). [9] So for example the Parliamentary record records the execution of Charles I occurring in 1648, (as the year did not end until 24 March,)[10] although modern histories adjust the start of the year to January 1 and record the execution as occurring in 1649.[11] is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Christian calendar, Lady Day is the Feast of the Annunciation (25 March) and the first of the four traditional Irish Quarter days and English quarter days. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ...


Most Western European countries changed the start of the year to 1 January before they adopted the Gregorian calendar. For example Scotland changed the start of the Scottish New Year to 1 January in 1600 (this means that 1599 was a short year). England, Ireland and the British colonies changed the start of the year to 1 January in 1752, (so 1751 was a short year with only 282 days). Later that year in September the Gregorian calendar was introduced throughout Britain and the British colonies (See the section Adoption). These two reforms were implemented by the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750.[9] is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 (also known as Chesterfields Act after Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield) is an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (statute chapter book number ), the long title of which is It reformed the calendar of England and British Dominions so that a...

Country Start numbered year
on 1 January[6][12]
Adoption of
Gregorian Calendar
Venice 1522 1582
Holy Roman Empire 1544 from 1583
Spain, Portugal, and
Southern Netherlands
1556 1582
Prussia 1559 1700
Denmark 1559[13] 1700
Sweden 1559 1753
France 1564 1582
Lorraine 1579 1682
Dutch Republic 1583 from 1582
Scotland 1600 1752
Russia 1700 1918
Tuscany 1721 1750
Britain and
British Empire
except Scotland
1752 1752

Neither the papal bull nor its attached canons explicitly fix such a date, though it is implied by two tables of saint's days, one labeled 1582 which ends on 31 December, and another for any full year that begins on 1 January. It also specifies its epact relative to 1 January, in contrast with the Julian calendar, which specified it relative to 22 March. These would have been the inevitable result of the above shift in the beginning of the Julian year. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The Southern Netherlands were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain (Spanish Netherlands, 1579-1713), Austria (Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1794) and France (1794-1815). ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Lorraine coat of arms location of the Lorraine province Lorraine (French: Lorraine; German: Lothringen) is a historical area in present-day northeast France. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... For other uses, see Saint (disambiguation). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The epact (from Greek: epaktai hèmerai = added days) is, as the second Canon of the Gregorian Calendar reform puts it, nothing else than the number of days which the common solar year of 365 days surpasses the common lunar year of 354 days (Latin: Epacta nihil aliud est quam... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


During the period between 1582, when the first countries adopted the Gregorian calendar, and 1923, when the last European country adopted it, it was often necessary to indicate the date of some event in both the Julian calendar and in the Gregorian calendar, for example, "10/21 February 1750/51", where the dual year accounts for some countries already beginning their numbered year on 1 January while others were still using some other date. Even before 1582, the year sometimes had to be double dated because of the different beginnings of the year in various countries. Woolley, writing in his biography of John Dee (1527-1608/9), notes that immediately after 1582 English letter writers "customarily" used "two dates" on their letters, one OS and one NS.[14] is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the American college basketball coach, see John Dee (basketball coach). ...


Old Style and New Style dates

"Old Style" (OS) and "New Style" (NS) are sometimes added to dates to identify which system is used in the British Empire and other countries that did not immediately change. Because the Calendar Act of 1750 altered the start of the year,[15] and also aligned the British calendar with the Gregorian calendar, there is some confusion as to what these terms mean. They can indicate that the start of the Julian year has been adjusted to start on 1 January (NS) even though contemporary documents use a different start of year (OS); or to indicate that a date conforms to the Julian calendar (OS), formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar (NS).[11][16][17][6] More details and examples are available in the Old Style and New Style dates article . Old Style redirects here. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... A Julian year is on average 365. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ...


Proleptic Gregorian calendar

The Gregorian calendar can, for certain purposes, be extended backwards to dates preceding its official introduction, producing the proleptic Gregorian calendar. However, this proleptic calendar should be used with great caution. The proleptic Gregorian calendar is produced by extending the Gregorian Calendar to dates preceding its official introduction in 1582. ...


For ordinary purposes, the dates of events occurring prior to 15 October 1582 are generally shown as they appeared in the Julian calendar, with the year starting on January 1, and no conversion to their Gregorian equivalents. The Battle of Agincourt is universally known to have been fought on 25 October 1415 which is Saint Crispin's Day. is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Martyrdom of SS. Crispin and Crépinien - From a window in the Hôpital des Quinze-Vingts (Fifteenth Century). ...


Usually, the mapping of new dates onto old dates with a start of year adjustment works well with little confusion for events which happened before the introduction of the Gregorian Calendar. But for the period between the first introduction of the Gregorian calendar on 15 October 1582 and its introduction in Britain on 14 September 1752, there can be considerable confusion between events in continental western Europe and in British domains in English language histories. Events in continental western Europe are usually reported in English language histories as happening under the Gregorian calendar. For example the Battle of Blenheim is always given as 13 August 1704. However confusion occurs when an event affects both. For example William III of England arrived at Brixham in England on 5 November (Julian calendar), after setting sail from the Netherlands on 11 November (Gregorian calendar). is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants England, Dutch Republic, Holy Roman Empire, Denmark Kingdom of France, Electorate of Bavaria Commanders Duke of Marlborough, Prince Eugène of Savoy Duc de Tallard, Maximilian II Emanuel, Ferdinand de Marsin Strength 52,000, 60 guns[3] 56,000, 90 guns Casualties 4,542 killed, 7,942 wounded 34... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... William III of England, II of Scotland and III of Orange (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702) was a Dutch aristocrat, the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King... Brixham (IPA: ) is a small town in the county of Devon, in the south-west of England. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Shakespeare and Cervantes apparently died on exactly the same date (23 April 1616), but in fact Cervantes predeceased Shakespeare by ten days in real time (for dating these events, Spain used the Gregorian calendar, but Britain used the Julian calendar). This coincidence however has allowed UNESCO to make 23 April the World Book and Copyright Day. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Cervantes redirects here. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1616 (MDCXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... World Book Day 2006 logo in the UK and Ireland World Book and Copyright Day (also known as International Day of the Book or World Book Day) is a yearly event on 23 April, organised by UNESCO to promote reading, publishing and the protection of intellectual property through copyright. ...


Astronomers avoid this ambiguity by the use of the Julian day number. The Julian day or Julian day number (JDN) is the number of days that have elapsed since 12 noon Greenwich Mean Time (UT or TT) on Monday, January 1, 4713 BC (in the proleptic Julian calendar; or November 24, 4714 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar). ...


For dates before the year 1, unlike the proleptic Gregorian calendar used in the international standard ISO 8601, the traditional proleptic Gregorian calendar (like the Julian calendar) does not have a year 0 and instead uses the ordinal numbers 1, 2, … both for years AD and BC. Thus the traditional timeline is 2 BC, 1 BC, AD 1, and AD 2. ISO 8601 uses astronomical year numbering which includes a year 0 and negative numbers before it. Thus the ISO 8601 timeline is -0001, 0000, 0001, and 0002. Standards are produced by many organizations, some for internal usage only, others for use by a groups of people, groups of companies, or a subsection of an industry. ... ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... For the political notion, see Year Zero (political notion). ... Astronomical year numbering is based on BCE/CE (or BC/AD) year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly. ...


Months of the year

See also: Thirty days hath September

English speakers sometimes remember the number of days in each month by the use of the traditional mnemonic verse:[18] Thirty days hath September is an ancient mnemonic rhyme, of which many variants are commonly used in English-speaking countries to remember the lengths of the months in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ...

Thirty days hath September,
April, June, and November.
All the rest have thirty-one,
excepting February alone,
which hath twenty-eight.
Leap year cometh one year in four,
in which February hath one day more.

(The hath in the first line of the poem is also given as has or have.)


Alternate endings include:

except for February alone,
which has twenty-eight days each year,
and twenty-nine days each leap year.
excepting February alone,
which has twenty-eight days or,
in a leap year, adds one more.
which has but twenty-eight, in fine,
till leap year gives it twenty-nine.
which has eight and a score,
until leap year gives it one day more.
which hath twenty-eight days clear,
and twenty-nine in each leap year.
in each leap we assign,
February twenty-nine.
When short February's done,
all the rest have thirty-one.
(except February,)
February alone don't hold the line,
for three years it has twenty-eight,
and the fourth year twenty-nine.
but February, it is done
at twenty-eight, but add one more
whenever the year divides by four.

A shorter, satirical modern alternate ending is:

but silly old February spoils the fun.

A language-independent alternative used in many countries is to hold up your two fists with the index knuckle of your left hand against the index knuckle of your right hand. Then, starting with January from the little knuckle of your left hand, count knuckle, space, knuckle, space through the months. A knuckle represents a month of 31 days, and a space represents a short month (a 28- or 29-day February or any 30-day month). The junction between the hands is not counted, so the two index knuckles represent July and August. This method also works by starting the sequence on the right hand's little knuckle, and continue toward to the left. You can also use just one hand; after counting the fourth knuckle as July, start again counting the first knuckle as August. A similar mnemonic can be found on a piano keyboard: starting on the key F for January, moving up the keyboard in semitones, the black notes give the short months, the white notes the long ones. The layout of a typical musical keyboard A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers on a musical instrument which cause the instrument to produce sounds. ... A semitone (also known in the USA as a half step) is a musical interval. ...


The Origins of English naming used by the Gregorian calendar:

  • January: Janus (Roman god of gates, doorways, beginnings and endings)
  • February: Februus (Etruscan god of death) Februarius (mensis) (Latin for "month of purification (rituals)" it is said to be a Sabine word, the last month of ancient pre-450 BC Roman calendar). It is related to fever.[19][20][21]
  • March: Mars (Roman god of war)
  • April: Aprilis (mensis) (Latin for "month of Venus," second month of ancient Roman calendar)
  • May: Maia Maiestas (Roman goddess)
  • June: Juno (Roman goddess, wife of Jupiter)
  • July: Julius Caesar (Roman dictator) (month was formerly named Quintilis, the fifth month of the calendar of Romulus)
  • August: Augustus (first Roman emperor) (month was formerly named Sextilis, the sixth month of Romulus)
  • September: septem (Latin for seven, the seventh month of Romulus)
  • October: octo (Latin for eight, the eighth month of Romulus)
  • November: novem (Latin for nine, the ninth month of Romulus)
  • December: decem (Latin for ten, the tenth month of Romulus)

Roman bust of Janus, Vatican. ... In Etruscan mythology, Februus was the god of the dead and purification. ... The Etruscans were a race of unknown origin from North Italy who were eventually integrated into Rome. ... The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Mars was the Roman god of war, the son of Juno and either Jupiter or a magical flower. ... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ... The Greek Maia was identified in Roman mythology with Maia Maiestas (also called Fauna, Bona Dea (the Good Goddess) and Ops), a goddess who may be equivalent to an old Italic goddess of spring. ... IVNO REGINA (Queen Juno) on a coin celebrating Julia Soaemias. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... This page describes the ancient heroes who founded the city of Rome. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ...

Week

Main article: Days of the week

In conjunction with the system of months there is a system of weeks. A physical or electronic calendar provides conversion from a given date to the weekday, and shows multiple dates for a given weekday and month. Calculating the day of the week is not very simple, because of the irregularities in the Gregorian system. When the Gregorian calendar was introduced, the week cycle was continued unbroken. So Thursday, 4 October 1582 was followed by Friday 15 October. This article is about days of the week. ... For more details on each day of the week, see days of the week. ... Weekdays are the days of the week which are not part of the weekend, i. ... This article details various mathematical algorithms to calculate the day of the week for any particular date in the past or future. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The ISO week date connects Gregorian years and weeks, defining a leap week calendar with so-called "ISO years" deviating at the beginning and end up to 3 days from Gregorian years, and with week numbers by year. The ISO week date system is a leap week calendar system that is part of the ISO 8601 date and time standard. ... The leap week calendar is a reformed calendar system with a whole number of weeks every year, and with every year starting on the same weekday. ...


Origins of English week day names used by the Gregorian Calendar:

  • Monday - moon day (celestial), a modernization of "Monnendaeg"
  • Tuesday - Tyr's day (Old Norse god - Tiw in Old English, Teiw in Proto-Germanic)
  • Wednesday - Woden's day (Old English god - Norse Odin, German Wotan)
  • Thursday - Thor's day (Old Norse god)
  • Friday - Frigg's day (Old Norse goddess) (Friday is often erroneously associated with Freyja)
  • Saturday - Saturn's day (Roman god)
  • Sunday - sun day (celestial), a modernization of "Sunnendaeg"

This article is about Earths moon. ... Týr, depicted here with both hands intact, is identified with Mars in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... This is the article about the belief in Odin among West Germanic peoples, for other uses see Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Odin,Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Odin and Wotan see Odin (disambiguation) Odin (Old Norse Óðinn, Swedish Oden) is usually considered the supreme god of Germanic and Norse mythology. ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ... Frigg spinning the clouds, by J C Dollman In Norse mythology, Frigg (Eddas) or Frigga (Gesta Danorum) was said to be foremost among the goddesses,[1] the wife of Odin, queen of the Æsir, and goddess of the sky. ... A statue of Freyja at DjurgÃ¥rden, Stockholm, Sweden. ... Saturnus, Caravaggio, 16th c. ... Sol redirects here. ...

Distribution of dates by day of the week

Since the 400-year cycle of the Gregorian calendar consists of a whole number of weeks, each cycle has a fixed distribution of weekdays among calendar dates. It then becomes possible that this distribution is not even.


Indeed, because there are 97 leap years in every 400 years in the Gregorian Calendar, there are on average 1367 for each starting weekday in each cycle. This already shows that the frequency is not the same for each weekday, which is due to the effects of the "common" centennial years (1700, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2200 etc.).


The absence of an extra day in such years causes the following leap year (1704, 1804, 1904, 2104 etc.) to start on the same day of the week as the leap year twelve years before (1692, 1792, 1892, 2092 etc.). Similarly, the leap year eight years after a "common" centennial year (1708, 1808, 1908, 2108 etc.) starts on the same day of the week as the leap year immediately prior to the "common" centennial year (1696, 1796, 1896, 2096 etc.). Thus, those days of the week on which such leap years begin gain an extra year or two in each cycle. In each cycle there are:

Note that as a cycle, this pattern is symmetric with respect to the low Saturday value. This is a calendar for a leap year starting on Monday (dominical letter GF). ... This is the calendar for a leap year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter FE) January February March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 1 6 7 8 9... This is the calendar for any leap year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter ED), e. ... This is a calendar for any leap year starting on Thursday (dominical letter DC), e. ... This is the calendar for any leap year starting on Friday (dominical letter CB), e. ... This is the calendar for any leap year starting on Saturday (dominical letter BA), e. ... Here is a calendar for any leap year starting on Sunday (dominical letter AG). ...


A leap year starting on Sunday means the next year does not start on Monday, so more leap years starting on Sunday means fewer years starting on Monday, etc. Thus the pattern of number of years starting on each day is inverted and shifted by one weekday: 56, 58, 57, 57, 58, 56, 58 (symmetric with respect to the high Sunday value).


The number of common years starting on each day is found by subtraction: 43, 44, 43, 44, 43, 43, 43.


The frequency of a particular date being on a particular weekday can easily be derived from the above (for dates in March and later, relate them to the next New Year).


See also the cycle of Doomsdays. For any year, Doomsday is the day of the week on which the last day of February falls. ...


Accuracy

The Gregorian calendar improves the approximation made by the Julian calendar by skipping three Julian leap days in every 400 years, giving an average year of 365.2425 mean solar days long, which has an error of about one day per 3300 years with respect to the mean tropical year of 365.24219 days but less than half this error with respect to the vernal equinox year of 365.24237 days. Both are substantially more accurate than the one day in 128 years error of the Julian calendar (average year 365.25 days). The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Solar time is based on the idea that when the sun reaches its highest point in the sky, it is noon. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... A tropical year is the length of time that the Sun, as viewed from the Earth, takes to return to the same position along the ecliptic (its path among the stars on the celestial sphere). ... A tropical year is the length of time that the Sun, as viewed from the Earth, takes to return to the same position along the ecliptic (its path among the stars on the celestial sphere). ...


In the 19th century, Sir John Herschel proposed a modification to the Gregorian calendar with 969 leap days per 4000 years, instead of 970 leap days that the Gregorian calendar would insert over the same period. This would reduce the average year to 365.24225 days. Herschel's proposal would make the year 4000 common instead of leap. While this modification has often been proposed since, it has never been officially adopted. John Herschel Sir John Frederick William Herschel (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English mathematician and astronomer. ...


On timescales of thousands of years, the Gregorian calendar falls behind the seasons drastically because the slowing down of the Earth's rotation makes each day slightly longer over time (see tidal acceleration and leap second) while the year maintains a more uniform duration. It was calculated that the equinox will occur earlier than now by a number of days approximately equal to left(frac{text{years into future}}{5000}right)^{2}. This is a problem that the Gregorian calendar shares with any rule-based calendar with a fixed cycle. (However, recent evidence suggests that melting of glaciers (resulting from global warming) may create sufficient movement of water from high altitudes to the oceans to reverse the slowing, to satisfy the law of conservation of angular momentum.[citation needed]) It has been suggested that Tidal friction be merged into this article or section. ... A leap second is a one-second adjustment to civil time in order to keep it close to the mean solar time. ...


Calendar seasonal error

Gregorian calendar seasons difference Seasonal error of Gregorian calendar Originally created by Tom Ruen, 2003, using MSExcel graph, labeled with MSPaint Converted from Image:Gregoriancalendarleap. ...


This image shows the difference between the Gregorian calendar and the seasons.


The y-axis is "days error" and the x-axis is Gregorian calendar years.


Each point represents a single date on a given year. The error shifts by about a quarter of a day per year. Centurial years are ordinary years, unless they are divisible by 400, in which case they are leap years. This causes a correction on years 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2200, and 2300.


For instance, these corrections cause 23 December 1903 to be the latest December solstice, and 20 December 2096 to be the earliest solstice—2.25 days of variation compared with the seasonal event. is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2096 has the earliest occurring equinox and solstice dates in the Gregorian calendar in 400 years. ...


Numerical facts

When leap years and common years are taken into account, there are a total of 14 possible Gregorian calendars.


When different dates of Easter are also taken into account, there are a total of 70 possible Gregorian calendars.


An average year is 365.2425 days = 52.1775 weeks = 8,765.82 hours = 525,949.2 minutes = 31,556,952 seconds. All these numbers are exact, apart from leap seconds.


A common year is 365 days = 8,760 hours = 525,600 minutes = 31,536,000 seconds.


A leap year is 366 days = 8,784 hours = 527,040 minutes = 31,622,400 seconds.


Since 1971, some years may also contain one or more leap seconds, to account for cumulative irregularities in the Earth's rotation. So far, these have always been positive and have occurred on average once every 18 months. A leap second is a one-second adjustment to civil time in order to keep it close to the mean solar time. ...


The day of the year is somewhat inconvenient to compute, not in the least because of the leap day somewhere in the middle; but the calendar has this repeating pattern for the months March through July and August through December: 31, 30, 31, 30, 31 days, totalling 153 days. In fact, any 5 consecutive months not containing February, count 153 days. 153 happens to be the 17th triangular number, and the sum of the first 5 factorials (among other numerical trivia). One hundred fifty-three is the natural number following one hundred fifty-two and preceding one hundred fifty-four. ... A triangular number is the sum of the n natural numbers from 1 to n. ... For factorial rings in mathematics, see unique factorisation domain. ...


See also common year starting on Sunday and dominical letter. This is the calendar for any common year starting on Sunday (dominical letter A), in other words, a common year where Doomsday is Tuesday. ... The days of the year are sometimes designated letters A, B, C, D, E, F and G in a cycle of 7 as an aid for finding the day of week of a given calendar date and in calculating Easter. ...


The 400-year cycle of the Gregorian calendar has 146,097 days and hence exactly 20,871 weeks. So, for example, the days of the week in Gregorian 1603 were exactly the same as for 2003. The years that are divisible by 400 begin on a Saturday. In the 400-year cycle, more months begin on a Sunday (and hence have Friday 13) than any other day of the week (see above under #Week for a more detailed explanation of how this happens). 688 out of every 4800 months (or 172/1200) begin on a Sunday, while only 684 out of every 4800 months (171/1200) begin on each of Saturday and Monday, the least common cases. There is also a series of Friday the 13th movies, and a TV series called Friday the 13th: The Series. ...


A smaller cycle is 28 years (1,461 weeks), provided that there is no dropped leap year in between. Days of the week in years may also repeat after 6, 11, 12, 28 or 40 years. Intervals of 6 and 11 are only possible with common years, while intervals of 28 and 40 are only possible with leap years. An interval of 12 years only occurs with common years when there is a dropped leap year in between.


The Doomsday algorithm is a method by which you can discern which of the 14 calendar variations should be used in any given year (after the Gregorian reformation). It is based on the last day in February, referred to as the Doomsday. The Doomsday algorithm is a way of calculating the day of the week of a given date. ...


The Gregorian serial date, also called Rata Die, is the number of days from January 1, 1 A.D. (counting that day as day 1). For December 3, 2007, the serial date is 733013. It is 678576 more than the Modified Julian date, and 1721425 less than the Julian date 2454438. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1. ... Look up AD in Wiktionary, the free dictionary AD or ad may stand for: ad or advertisement, see advertising ad- prefix Administrative domain Air Defence Andorra, ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code Anno Domini (In the Year of [Our] Lord). This year is A.D. 2005. ... The Julian day or Julian day number (JDN) is the number of days that have elapsed since 12 noon Greenwich Mean Time (UT or TT) on Monday, January 1, 4713 BC (in the proleptic Julian calendar; or November 24, 4714 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar). ...


Trivia

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

History

The Roman calendar was modified by Julius Caesar when he occupied the office of Pontifex Maximus and the Julian calendar was subsequently modified by Gregory XIII, who, as Pope, also held the title Pontifex Maximus. The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Pope Gregory XIII (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585), born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope from 1572 to 1585. ...


Saint Teresa of Ávila died on the night from October 4 to October 15, 1582, that is, exactly when Spain and the Catholic world switched to the Gregorian calendar. For other saints with similar names, please see Saint Teresa. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Shakespeare and Cervantes died on exactly the same date, April 23, 1616. However, since England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar by that time, they did not die the same day. In their honor, UNESCO declared it International Day of the Book. Shakespeare redirects here. ... Cervantes can refer to: Miguel de Cervantes, author of Don Quixote Francisco Cervantes de Salazar, 16th-century man of letters Cervantes, Ilocos Sur, a municipality in the Philippines Cervantes, a town in Western Australia Cervantes de Leon, a character in the Soul Calibur series of fighting games This is a... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1616 (MDCXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... World Book Day 2006 logo in the UK and Ireland World Book and Copyright Day (also known as International Day of the Book or World Book Day) is a yearly event on 23 April, organised by UNESCO to promote reading, publishing and the protection of intellectual property through copyright. ...


The Russian athletes sent to the 1900 Olympics in Paris arrived two weeks late, since their country was still using the Julian Calendar and nobody had advised them of the change. Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Olympic Games Summer Olympic Games Medal count Winter Olympic Games Medal count Olympic sports Medal counts Participating NOCs Olympic symbols Olympics WikiProject Olympics Portal Athens 2004 • Beijing 2008 Torino 2006 • Vancouver 2010 ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Day of Week

Non-leap years always begin and end on the same day of the week, since 364 (365 - 1) is a multiple of 7, the number of days in a week. For example, 2003 began on a Wednesday and ended on a Wednesday. Leap years end on the next day of the week from which they begin. For example, 2004 began on a Thursday and ended on a Friday.


Not counting leap years, any calendar date will move to the next day of the week the following year. For example, if your birthday fell on a Tuesday in 2002, it fell on a Wednesday in 2003. Leap years make things a little more complicated. 2004 was a leap year, so calendar days of March 1 or later in the year, moved two days of the week from 2003. However, calendar days occurring before March 1 do not make the extra day of the week jump until the year following a leap year. So, if your birthday is June 15, then it must have fallen on a Sunday in 2003 and a Tuesday in 2004. If, however, your birthday is February 15, then it must have fallen on a Saturday in 2003, a Sunday in 2004 and a Tuesday in 2005. is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In any year (even a leap year), July always begins on the same day of the week that April does. Therefore, the only difference between a July calendar page and an April calendar page in the same year is the extra day July has. The same relationship exists between September and December as well as between March and November. Add an extra day to the September page and you've got December. Take a day away from the March page and you've got November. In non-leap years only, there are additional matches: October duplicates January, and March and November duplicate February in their first 28 days. In leap years only, there is a different set of additional matches: July is a duplicate of January while February is duplicated in the first 29 days of August.


References

HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ This era was created in the 6th century by Roman monk Dionysius Exiguus
  2. ^ Introduction to Calendars. (13 September 2007). United States Naval Observatory.
  3. ^ Toke Nørby. The Perpetual Calendar: What about France?
  4. ^ Morgan, Hiram (2006-04-01). ‘The Pope’s new invention’: the introduction of the Gregorian calendar in Ireland, 1583-1782 (MS Word). ‘Ireland, Rome and the Holy See: History, Culture and Contact’, a UCC History Department symposium. Retrieved on 2007-10-17.
  5. ^ Nørby, Toke. The Perpetual Calendar
  6. ^ a b c d Mike Spathaky Old Style and New Style Dates and the change to the Gregorian Calendar: A summary for genealogists
  7. ^ The Korea Times: [The Dawn of Modern Korea] (266) Lunar Calendar
  8. ^ Tuesday 31 December 1661, Pepys Diary "I sat down to end my journell for this year, ..."
  9. ^ a b Nørby, Toke. The Perpetual Calendar: What about England Version 29 February 2000
  10. ^ House of Commons Journal Volume 8, 9 June 1660 (Regicides). British History Online. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  11. ^ a b Death warrant of Charles I web page of the UK National Archives.A demonstration of New Style meaning Julian calendar with a start of year adjustment.
  12. ^ The Change of New Year's Day
  13. ^ Denmark named 1 January as the New Year in the early 14th century according to R.W. Bauer (Calender for Aarene fra 601 til 2200, 1868/1993 ISBN 87-7423-083-2) although the number of the year did not begin on January 1 until 1559.
  14. ^ Benjamin Woolley, The Queen's Conjurer: The science and magic of Dr. John Dee, adviser to Queen Elizabeth I (New York: Henry Holt, 2001) p.173
  15. ^ In Scotland the legal start of year had been moved to 1 January in 1600 (Mike Spathaky. Old Style New Style dates and the change to the Gregorian calendar); and as Ireland was not part of the union of Great Britain so separate legislation was needed for Ireland.
  16. ^ The October (November) Revolution Britannica encyclopaedia, A demonstration of New Style meaning the Gregorian calendar.
  17. ^ Stockton, J.R. Date Miscellany I: The Old and New Styles "The terms 'Old Style' and 'New Style' are now commonly used for both the 'Start of Year' and 'Leap Year' [(Gregorian calendar)] changes (England & Wales: both in 1752; Scotland: 1600, 1752). I believe that, properly and historically, the 'Styles' really refer only to the 'Start of Year' change (from March 25th to January 1st); and that the 'Leap Year' change should be described as the change from Julian to Gregorian."
  18. ^ The Month Poem
  19. ^ Adriana Rosado-Bonewitz, "Whats in a word?" (pdf, 1.3MB), Intercambios: Quarterly Newsletter of the Spanish Language Division of the American Translators, 9(1) (March 2005) 14-15, ISSN 1550-2945 (in Spanish)
  20. ^ Anatoly Liberman, "On A Self-Congratulatory Note, Or, All The Year Round: The Names of The Months" (filed in Oxford Etymologist, March 7, 2007)
  21. ^ L.L. Neuru, "St. Valentine's Holiday" Labyrinth 64 (1996), Department of Classical Studies, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little, meaning humble) (c. ... Aerial view of USNO. The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Microsoft Word is Microsofts flagship word processing software. ... University College Cork - National University of Ireland, Cork - or more commonly University College Cork (UCC) - is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland located in Cork City. ... Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein means to drink together) but has since come to refer to any academic conference, whether or not drinking takes place. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

The World Calendar is a proposed reform of the Gregorian calendar created by Elisabeth Achelis of Brooklyn, New York in 1930. ... “JDN” redirects here. ... This article details various mathematical algorithms to calculate the day of the week for any particular date in the past or future. ... Calendar reform is any proposed reform of a calendar. ... This article is about days of the week. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwīm-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... A Tunisian calendar showing Gregorian, Islamic and Berber dates // Afghan calendar (Afghan Calendar Project) Armenian calendar Astronomical year numbering Baháí calendar Bengali calendar Berber calendar Buddhist calendar Chinese calendar Coptic calendar Ethiopian calendar Fiscal year Germanic calendar (still in use by Ásatrúar) Gregorian calendar Hebrew calendar Hindu calendars Indian... Old Style redirects here. ... For the political notion, see Year Zero (political notion). ... The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Calendar (disambiguation) A page from the Hindu calendar 1871–1872. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Gregorian calendar (725 words)
The Gregorian Calendar, a minor modification of the Julian Calendar, was first proposed by Neapolitan doctor Aloysius Lilius, and adopted by Pope Gregory XIII on February 24, 1582 (the document was dated 1581 on account of the pope starting the year in March).
The Gregorian calendar also fixed the first day of the year as January 1, which was already the first day used in Italy, Germany, and other places, but not universally (England, for example, began the year on March 25).
When the new calendar was put in use, to correct the error already accumulated in the thirteen centuries since the council of Nicaea, a deletion of ten dates was made passing from October 4, 1582 directly to October 15, 1582.
The Galileo Project | Chronology | Gregorian Calendar (2453 words)
The rising of the Nile, the crucial event in the Egyptian agricultural cycle, was predicted by the heliacal rising of Sirius,[1] the brightest star in the heavens.
By 1500 the vernal equinox fell on the 10th or 11th of March and the autumnal equinox on the 13th or 14th of September, and the situation was increasingly seen as a scandal.
In 1582 Pope Gregory XIII (hence the name Gregorian Calendar) ordered ten days to be dropped from October, thus restoring the vernalequinox at least to an average of the 20th of March, close to what it had been at the time of the Council of Nicea.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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