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Encyclopedia > Gregor Mendel
Gregor Johann Mendel

Born July 20, 1822(1822-07-20)
Hynčice, Austrian Empire
Died January 6, 1884 (aged 61)
Brno, Austria-Hungary
Field Genetics
Institutions Abbey of St. Thomas in Brno
Alma mater University of Vienna
Known for Discovering modern genetics

Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20, 1822[1]January 6, 1884) was an Austrian Augustinian priest and scientist often called the "father of modern genetics" for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. Mendel showed that the inheritance of traits follows particular laws, which were later named after him. The significance of Mendel's work was not recognised until the turn of the 20th century. Its rediscovery prompted the foundation of genetics. Mendel is the last name of Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), often called the father of Genetics. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Hynčice (German: Heinzendorf) is a little village near Nový Jičín in the east of Moravia, Czech Republic, best known for being the birthplace of Gregor Mendel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region South Moravia Founded 1146 Area  - city 230. ... Image File history File links Austria-Hungary_flag_1869-1918. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... The Abbey of St Thomas in Brno (Bruin) is an operating Augustinian monastery located in the present Czech Republic. ... The University of Vienna (German: ) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Biological inheritance is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to characteristics of its parent cell or organism. ... In biology, a trait or character is a genetically inherited feature of an organism. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets relating to the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parent organisms to their children; it underlies much of genetics. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...

Contents

Biography

Mendel was born into a German-speaking family in Hynčice, Austrian Silesia, Austria (now Czech Republic), and was baptized two days later. He was the son of Anton and Rosine Mendel and had one elder and also a younger sister. During his childhood, Mendel worked as a gardener, studied beekeeping, and as a young man attended the Philosophical Institute in Olomouc. Upon recommendation of his physics teacher Friedrich Franz, he entered the Augustinian Abbey of St. Thomas in Brno in 1843. Born Johann Mendel, he took the name Gregor upon entering monastic life. In 1851 he was sent to the University of Vienna to study, returning to his abbey in 1853 as a teacher, principally of physics. Hynčice (German: Heinzendorf) is a little village near Nový Jičín in the east of Moravia, Czech Republic, best known for being the birthplace of Gregor Mendel. ... Silesia (Polish ÅšlÄ…sk, German Schlesien, Czech Slezsko) is a historical region in central Europe. ... Beekeeping, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century) Beekeeping (or apiculture, from Latin apis, a bee) is the practice of intentional maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. ... Gregor Mendel Attended the Philosophical Institute in Olomcouc. ... town hall with astronomical clock Olomouc (German Olmütz, Polish OÅ‚omuniec, Latin Eburum or Olomucium) is a city in Moravia, in the east of the Czech Republic. ... This is a discussion of a present category of science. ... Detail of St. ... The Abbey of St Thomas in Brno (Bruin) is an operating Augustinian monastery located in the present Czech Republic. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... The University of Vienna (German: ) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. ...


Gregor Mendel, who is known as the "father of modern genetics", was inspired by both his professors at university and his colleagues at the monastery to study variation in plants, and he conducted his study in the monastery's garden. Between 1856 and 1863 Mendel cultivated and tested some 29,000 pea plants (i.e. Pisum sativum). This study showed that one in four pea plants had purebred recessive alleles, two out of four were hybrid and one out of four were purebred dominant. His experiments brought forth two generalisations which later became known as Mendel's Laws of Inheritance. Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Pisum sativum A pea (Pisum sativum) is the small, edible round green seed which grows in a pod on a leguminous vine, hence why it is called a legume. ... Purebreds, also called purebreeds or pedigreed, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of a species, achieved through the process of selective breeding. ... In genetics, the term recessive gene refers to an allele that causes a phenotype (visible or detectable characteristic) that is only seen in a homozygous genotype (an organism that has two copies of the same allele). ... An allele is any one of a number of alternative forms of the same gene occupying a given locus (position) on a chromosome. ... // This article is about a biological term. ... The word dominant has several possible meanings: In music theory, the dominant or dominant note (second most important) of a key is that which is a perfect fifth above the tonic; in just intonation the note whose pitch is 1. ...

Gregor Johann Mendel - memorial plaque in Olomouc
Gregor Johann Mendel - memorial plaque in Olomouc

Mendel read his paper, "Experiments on Plant Hybridization", at two meetings of the Natural History Society of Brünn in Moravia in 1865. When Mendel's paper was published in 1866 in Proceedings of the Natural History Society of Brünn,[2] it had little impact and was cited about three times over the next thirty-five years. His paper received plenty of criticism at the time, but is now considered a seminal work. Download high resolution version (1185x2181, 327 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1185x2181, 327 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Written in 1865 by Gregor Mendel, Experiments on Plant Hybridization (German: Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden) was the result after years spent studying genetic traits in pea plants. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... The Proceedings of the Natural History Society of Brünn (Original title in German: Verhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereins Brünn) was the publication where Gregor Mendel published his scientific discoveries on genetics. ...


Elevated as abbot in 1868, his scientific work largely ended as Mendel became consumed with his increased administrative responsibilities, especially a dispute with the civil government over their attempt to impose special taxes on religious institutions.[3] Abbots coat of arms The word abbot, meaning father, has been used as a Christian clerical title in various, mainly monastic, meanings. ...


At first Mendel's work was rejected (and it was not widely accepted until after he died). The common belief at the time was that pangenes were responsible for inheritance. Even Darwin's theory of evolution used pangenesis instead of Mendel's model of inheritance. The modern synthesis uses Mendelian genetics. Pangenesis was Charles Darwins hypothetical mechanism for heredity. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the modern synthesis), neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism, brings together Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. ...


Mendel died on January 6, 1884, in Brno, Austria-Hungary (now Czech Republic), from chronic nephritis. is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region South Moravia Founded 1146 Area  - city 230. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Nephritis is inflammation of the kidney. ...


Rediscovery of Mendel's work

Dominant and recessive phenotypes. (1) Parental generation. (2) F1 generation. (3) F2 generation.
Dominant and recessive phenotypes. (1) Parental generation. (2) F1 generation. (3) F2 generation.

It was not until the early 20th century that the importance of his ideas was realized. In 1900, his work was rediscovered by Hugo de Vries and Carl Correns. Though Erich von Tschermak was originally also credited with rediscovery, this is no longer accepted as he did not understand Mendel's laws.[citation needed] Mendel's results were quickly replicated, and genetic linkage quickly worked out. Biologists flocked to the theory, as while it was not yet applicable to many phenomena, it sought to give a genotype understanding of heredity which they felt was lacking in previous studies of heredity which focused on phenotypic approaches. Most prominent of these latter approaches was the biometric school of Karl Pearson and W.F.R. Weldon, which was based heavily on statistical studies of phenotype variation. The strongest opposition to this school came from William Bateson, who perhaps did the most in the early days of publicising the benefits of Mendel's theory (the word "genetics", and much of the discipline's other terminology, originated with Bateson). This debate between the biometricians and the Mendelians was extremely vigorous in the first two decades of the twentieth century, with the biometricians claiming statistical and mathematical rigor, while the Mendelians claimed a better understanding of biology. In the end, the two approaches were combined as the modern synthesis of evolutionary biology, especially by work conducted by R. A. Fisher in 1918. From Nupedia File links The following pages link to this file: Mendelian inheritance Monohybrid cross Categories: GFDL images ... From Nupedia File links The following pages link to this file: Mendelian inheritance Monohybrid cross Categories: GFDL images ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Hugo Marie de Vries (16th February 1848-21st May 1935), a Dutch biologist, was one of three men - see also Carl Correns and Erich von Tschermak - who in 1900 rediscovered Gregor Mendels work on genetics. ... Carl Erich Correns (September 10, 1864, in Munich - February 14, 1933) was a German botanist and geneticist, who is notable primarily for his independent discovery of the principles of heredity, and for his rediscovery of Gregor Mendels earlier paper on that subject, which he achieved simultaneously but independent of... Erich von Tschermak-Seysenegg (1871 – 1962) was an Austrian agronomist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... Biostatistics or biometry is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology. ... Karl Pearson FRS (March 27, 1857 – April 27, 1936) established the discipline of mathematical statistics. ... Walter Frank Raphael Weldon Walter Frank Raphael Weldon (15 March 1860 — 13 April 1906) was an English evolutionary zoologist and biometrician. ... William Bateson. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the modern synthesis), neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism, brings together Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. ... Sir Ronald Fisher Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (February 17, 1890 – July 29, 1962) was an evolutionary biologist, geneticist and statistician. ...


Mendel's experimental results have later been the object of considerable dispute. Fisher analyzed the results of the F1 (first filial) ratio and found them to be implausibly close to the exact ratio of 3 to 1.[4] Only a few would accuse Mendel of scientific malpractice or call it a scientific fraud — reproduction of his experiments has demonstrated the accuracy of his hypothesis — however, the results have continued to be a mystery for many, though it is often cited as an example of confirmation bias. This might arise if he detected an approximate 3 to 1 ratio early in his experiments with a small sample size, and continued collecting more data until the results conformed more nearly to an exact ratio. It is sometimes suggested that he may have censored his results, and that his seven traits each occur on a separate chromosome pair, an extremely unlikely occurrence if they were chosen at random. In fact, the genes Mendel studied occurred in only four linkage groups, and only one gene pair (out of 21 possible) is close enough to show segregation distortion; this is not a pair that Mendel studied. Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in professional scientific research. ... Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in professional scientific research. ... It has been suggested that Myside bias be merged into this article or section. ... Genetic linkage occurs when particular alleles are inherited jointly. ...


The standard botanical author abbreviation Mendel is applied to species he described. This is a list of botanists by their author abbreviation, including that established by Brummitt & Powell (1992), designed for citation in the botanical names they have published. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ...


Mendel, Darwin and Galton

Mendel lived around the same time as the British naturalist Charles Darwin (18091882) and many have considered a historical evolutionary synthesis of Darwinian natural selection and Mendelian genetics during their lifetimes. Mendel had read a German translation of Darwin's Origin (as evidenced by underlined passages in the copy in his monastery), after completing his experiments but before publishing his paper. Darwin did not have a copy of Mendel's paper, but he did have a book by Focke with references to it. In any event, the modern evolutionary synthesis did not start until the 1930s, by which time statistics had become advanced enough to cope with genetics and evolution. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1069x1425, 170 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1069x1425, 170 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno is located in Brno, Czech Republic. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ...


The historian of evolution Peter J. Bowler has argued that it would not matter much if Darwin or even Galton had read Mendel, because not even Mendel was attempting to make the argument that his observed ratios were universal (he considered them to be a special case). In any case, Darwin and most of his contemporaries considered heredity to be a question best solved through observation of cell development—embryology in particular—and would not likely have been in a position to appreciate in-roads between evolution and what would become genetics (and indeed they were not appreciated until the early 20th century).[5] Peter J. Bowler is a historian of biology who has written extensively on the history of evolutionary thought and on the history of genetics. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


See also

The Augustinian Abbey of St Thomas, Brno.
The Augustinian Abbey of St Thomas, Brno.

Image File history File links StThomasAbbeyBrno. ... Image File history File links StThomasAbbeyBrno. ... This is a list of Austrian scientists. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets relating to the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parent organisms to their children; it underlies much of genetics. ... Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno is located in Brno, Czech Republic. ... Mendel Polar Station (Mendelova polární stanice in Czech) is a research station built in Antarctica, on the coast of James Ross Island. ... The Abbey of St Thomas in Brno (Bruin) is an operating Augustinian monastery located in the present Czech Republic. ... The Augustinian Abbey of St Thomas, Brno Abbey church of the Assumption The south entrance of the church St Thomass Abbey in Brno, despite communist repression, remained an operating Augustinian monastery located in the Czech Republic. ...

References

  1. ^ July 20 is his birthday; often mentioned is July 22, the date of his baptism. [1] Biography of Mendel at the Mendel Museum
  2. ^ Mendel, J.G. (1866). Versuche über Plflanzenhybriden Verhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereines in Brünn, Bd. IV für das Jahr, 1865 Abhandlungen:3-47. For the English translation, see: Druery, C.T and William Bateson (1901). "Experiments in plant hybridization". Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 26: 1-32. 
  3. ^ Windle, B.C.A.; Translated Looby, John (1911). Mendel, Mendelism. Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
  4. ^ Fisher, R. A. (1936). Has Mendel's work been rediscovered? Annals of Science 1:115-137.
  5. ^ Peter J. Bowler, The Mendelian Revolution: The Emergence of Hereditarian Concepts in Modern Science and Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.

is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Cheryl Bardoe Gregor Mendel: The Friar who grew peas., HN Abrams, 2006.
  • William Bateson Mendel's Principles of Heredity, a Defense, First Edition, London: Cambridge University Press, 1902. On-line Facsimile Edition: Electronic Scholarly Publishing, Prepared by Robert Robbins
  • Robin Marantz Henig, Monk in the Garden: The Lost and Found Genius of Gregor Mendel, the Father of Genetics, Houghton Mifflin, May, 2000, hardcover, 292 pages, ISBN 0-395-97765-7; trade paperback, Houghton Mifflin, May, 2001, ISBN 0-618-12741-0
  • Robert Lock, Recent Progress in the Study of Variation, Heredity and Evolution, London, 1906
  • Vítězslav Orel, Gregor Mendel: the first geneticist, Oxford University Press. 1996, ISBN 0198547749
  • Reginald Punnett, Mendelism, Cambridge, 1905
  • Curt Stern and Sherwood ER (1966) The Origin of Genetics.
  • Colin Tudge In Mendel's footnotes ISBN 0-09-928875-3 book about Gregor Mendel
  • Bartel Leendert van der Waerden Mendel's experiments Centaurus 12, 275-288 (1968) refutes allegations about "data smoothing"
  • James Walsh, Catholic Churchmen in Science, Philadelphia: Dolphin Press, 1906
  • Ronald A. Fisher, "Has Mendel's Work Been Rediscovered?" Annals of Science, Volume 1, (1936): 115-137. Discusses the possibility of fraud in his research.

William Bateson. ... Image:Reg Punnet. ... Curt Stern (August 30, 1902 - October 23, 1981) was a German-American geneticist. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Colin Tudge (born 22 April 1943) is a biologist by training and a British science writer who is the author of numerous works on food, agriculture, genetics, and species diversity. ... Bartel Leendert van der Waerden (February 2, 1903, Amsterdam, Netherlands – January 12, 1996, Zürich, Switzerland) was a Dutch mathematician. ... Sir Ronald Fisher Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (February 17, 1890–July 29, 1962) was an extraordinarily talented evolutionary biologist, geneticist and statistician. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Gregor Mendel
Persondata
NAME Mendel, Gregor Johann
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Genetics
DATE OF BIRTH July 20, 1822(1822-07-20)
PLACE OF BIRTH Heinzendorf, Silesia
DATE OF DEATH January 6, 1884
PLACE OF DEATH Brno, Moravia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gregor Mendel (916 words)
Gregor Johann MENDEL was an Austrian monk and biologist whose work on heredity became the basis of the modern theory of genetics.
Between 1856 and 1863 Mendel patiently cultivated and tested at least 28 000 pea plants, carefully analysing seven pairs of seeds for comparison, such as shape of seed, colour of seed, tall stemmed and short stemmed and tall plants and short plants.
Mendel successfully produced a hybrid strain of bees which produced excellent honey, however, they were so vicious they stung everybody around for miles and had to be destroyed.
Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) (511 words)
Mendel, the first person to trace the characteristics of successive generations of a living thing, was not a world-renowned scientist of his day.
Mendel's brilliant performance at school as a youngster encouraged his family to support his pursuit of a higher education, but their resources were limited, so Mendel entered an Augustinian monastery, continuing his education and starting his teaching career.
From his studies, Mendel derived certain basic laws of heredity: hereditary factors do not combine, but are passed intact; each member of the parental generation transmits only half of its hereditary factors to each offspring (with certain factors "dominant" over others); and different offspring of the same parents receive different sets of hereditary factors.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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