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Encyclopedia > Greenpeace
Greenpeace
Founded 1971, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Area served Global
Focus Environmentalism
Method Nonviolence, Lobbying, Research, Innovation
Website www.greenpeace.org
Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil.
Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil.

Greenpeace, originally known as the Greenpeace Foundation, is a group founded in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 1971 to oppose the United States testing nuclear devices in Alaska. The focus of the organization later turned to other environmental issues, and it has become known for its campaigns against whaling, bottom trawling, global warming, ancient forest destruction, nuclear power, and genetic engineering. Greenpeace has national and regional offices in 28 countries, and a presence in 42 countries worldwide, all of which are affiliated to the Amsterdam-based Greenpeace International. The global organization receives its income through the individual contributions of an estimated 2.8 million financial supporters, as well as from grants from charitable foundations. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... This article is about the political effort. ... This article is about the concept. ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the trade name. ... Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, Texas, is an oil producer and distributor formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ... The Celtic Explorer, a research vessel engaged in bottom trawling Bottom trawling (known in the scientific community as Benthic trawling) is a fishing method which involves towing trawl nets along the sea floor, as opposed to pelagic trawling, where a net is towed higher in the water column. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Old growth forest, also called primary forest, ancient forest, virgin forest, primeval forest, frontier forest or (in the UK) Ancient Woodland, is an area of forest that has attained great age and so exhibits unique biological features. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... Elements of genetic engineering Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are terms that are applied to the direct manipulation of an organisms genes. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... A charitable trust is a trust organized to serve private or public charitable purposes. ...

Contents

Mission statement

On its official website, Greenpeace defines its mission as the following:


Greenpeace is a global campaigning organization that acts to change attitudes and behavior, to protect and conserve the environment and to promote peace by:

  • Catalyzing an energy revolution to address the number one threat facing our planet: climate change.
  • Defending our oceans by challenging wasteful and destructive fishing, and creating a global network of marine reserves.
  • Protecting the world’s remaining ancient forests and the animal, plants and people that depend on them.
  • Working for disarmament and peace by reducing dependence on finite resources and calling for the elimination of all nuclear weapons.
  • Creating a toxic free future with safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals in today's products and manufacturing.
  • Supporting sustainable agriculture by encouraging socially and ecologically responsible farming practices.[1]

Structure

Greenpeace is a global environmental organization, that consists of Greenpeace International (Stichting Greenpeace Council) in Amsterdam and 28 national and regional offices around the world, providing a presence in 42 countries. These national and regional offices are largely autonomous in carrying out jointly agreed global campaign strategies within the local context they operate in, and in seeking the necessary financial support from donors to fund this work.[2] National and regional offices support a network of volunteer-run local groups. Local groups participate in many campaigns in their area, and mobilize for larger protests and activities elsewhere. Millions of supporters who are not organized into local groups support Greenpeace by making financial donations and participating in campaigns as citizens and consumers. This is a list of environmental organizations, organizations that preserve or monitor the environment in different ways. ... Greenpeace is an international environmental organization founded in Canada in 1971. ...

Greenpeace's national offices.
Greenpeace's national offices.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1404x600, 63 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Greenpeace ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1404x600, 63 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Greenpeace ...

National and regional offices

Greenpeace is present in the following countries and regions, as of March 2007:


Argentina, Australia-Pacific region (Australia, Fiji, Papua New-Guinea, Solomon Islands), Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greenpeace Nordic (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden), Greece, Greenpeace Central and Eastern Europe (Austria, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia (no permanent campaign presence in the latter five states)) India, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Greenpeace Mediterranean (Israel, Cyprus, Lebanon, Malta, Tunisia, Turkey), Mexico, the Netherlands, Greenpeace Aotearoa New Zealand (New Zealand), Russia, South-East Asia (Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand), Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States. Greenpeace Australia Pacific (GPAP) is one of Australias largest environmental organisations, and is a member organisation of the Greenpeace international network. ... Greenpeace Aotearoa New Zealand is one of New Zealand largest environmental organisations, and is a member organisation Greenpeace Greenpeace Aotearoa New Zealand has taken action since 1974 to protect the natural environment. ...


Priorities and campaigns

Greenpeace runs campaigns and projects which fit into the "Issues" (as campaign areas are called within Greenpeace) categories below. Besides exposing problems such as over-fishing or threats linked to nuclear energy such as harmful radiation and proliferation, Greenpeace campaigns for alternative solutions such as marine reserves and renewable energy. The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... This article concerns the energy stored in the nuclei of atoms; for the use of nuclear fission as a power source, see Nuclear power. ... Marine reserve is an area of the sea which has legal protection against fishing or development. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ...


The organization currently addresses many environmental issues with a primary focus on efforts to stop global warming and the preservation of the world's oceans and ancient forests. In addition to conventional environmental organization methods, such as lobbying businesses and politicians and participating in international conferences, Greenpeace uses nonviolent direct action in many of its campaigns. Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... This is a list of environmental organizations, organizations that preserve or monitor the environment in different ways. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... For the Canadian urban guerrilla group Direct Action, see Squamish Five. ...


Greenpeace uses direct action to attract attention to particular environmental problems. For example, activists place themselves between the whaler's harpoon and their prey, or invade nuclear facilities dressed as barrels of radioactive waste. Other initiatives include the development of a fuel-efficient car, the SmILE. For other uses, see Smile (disambiguation). ...


Current priorities

Below is a list of Greenpeace's current priorities:

Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Ocean (Okeanos, a Greek god of sea and water; Greek ωκεανός) covers almost three quarters (71%) of the surface of the Earth. ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ... The Celtic Explorer, a research vessel engaged in bottom trawling Bottom trawling (known in the scientific community as Benthic trawling) is a fishing method which involves towing trawl nets along the sea floor, as opposed to pelagic trawling, where a net is towed higher in the water column. ... Old growth forest, sometimes called late seral forest or ancient forest is an area of forest that has attained great age and exhibits unique biological features. ... Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006 Nuclear disarmament is the proposed dismantling of nuclear weapons, particularly those of the United States and the Soviet Union (later Russia) targeted on each other. ... It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ... Elements of genetic engineering Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are terms that are applied to the direct manipulation of an organisms genes. ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... Abandoned monitor Electronic waste or e-waste is any broken or unwanted electrical or electronic appliance. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ...

Greenpeace Thinktank

Think-tanks, under the Greenpeace umbrella, propose blueprints for world's transition to renewable energy. The focus is to reduce carbon emissions without compromising on economic growth. The Solar Generation project [3], conceived in 2000 by Greenpeace and the European Photo- voltaic Industry Association (EPIA), addresses major energy challenges facing the global society and charts out the solar energy remedies until 2050. Greenpeace thinktanks also focus on individual nation's energy scenarios: for example, Greenpeace has published scenarios where renewable resources like solar can become the backbone of the economies of developing countries like India, by 2050. [4][5]


History

Origins

The origins of Greenpeace lie in the peace movement and the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament generally, and particularly in the Don't Make A Wave Committee co-founded by Jim and Marie Bohlen and formed by an assortment of Canadian and expatriate American peace activists in Vancouver in 1970. Taking its name from a slogan used during protests against United States nuclear testing in late 1969, the Committee had come together with the objective of stopping a U.S. nuclear bomb test codenamed Cannikin beneath the Aleutian island of Amchitka, Alaska. An Australian anti-conscription poster from World War One A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, often linked to the goal of... CND redirects here. ... Greenpeace protest. ... Jim Bohlen, an American physicist who worked for NASA, emigrated to Canada after becoming disillusioned with the US governments nuclear policy during the Cold War. ... Main articles: History of Canada, Timeline of Canadian history Canada has been inhabited by aboriginal peoples (known in Canada as First Nations) for at least 40,000 years. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... Amchitka is a volcanic, tectonically unstable island in the Rat Islands group of the Aleutian Islands in southwest Alaska. ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... Amchitka is a volcanic, tectonically unstable island in the Rat Islands group of the Aleutian Islands in southwest Alaska. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...


Many of the founding members were members of the Society of Friends.[citation needed] The committee was affiliated with the Sierra Club but it withdrew its support when Jim Bohlen, a member of the committee, told journalists that the committee would send a boat to Amchitka to protest the nuclear test without it having been approved by the Sierra Club. The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... The Sierra Club is an American environmental organization founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. ... Jim Bohlen, an American physicist who worked for NASA, emigrated to Canada after becoming disillusioned with the US governments nuclear policy during the Cold War. ... The Sierra Club is an American environmental organization founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. ...


The first ship expedition, inspired by the voyages of the Golden Rule, Phoenix and Everyman in 1958, was on the chartered West Coast fishing vessel the "Phyllis Cormack", owned and sailed by John Cormack of Vancouver, and called the Greenpeace I; the second expedition was nicknamed Greenpeace Too!.[6] The test was not prevented, but the voyage laid the groundwork for Greenpeace's later activities. Albert S. Bigelow (1 May 1906 - 6 October 1993) was a pacifist and former US Navy Commander, who came to prominence in the 1950s as the skipper of the Golden Rule, the first vessel to attempt disruption of a nuclear test in protest against nuclear weapons. ...


Early influential people

Bill Darnell has received the credit for combining the words "green" and "peace", thereby giving the organization its future name.[7] Irving Stowe, a member of the Society of Friends, can probably be described as the father of Greenpeace[citation needed] and introduced the concepts of nonviolence and bearing witness. Robert Hunter was a media guru and spiritual and organisational leader. Ben Metcalfe became the first Chairman of the Greenpeace Foundation and with wife Dorothy managed the media for the first few years. Dr. Patrick Moore was the ecologist of note and served for nine years as President of Greenpeace Canada, as well as seven years as a Director of Greenpeace International. Rod Marining's campaign saved the entrance to Vancouver's Stanley Park, he was on the first voyage to Amchitka and was a board member during the 1970s. Captain Paul Watson was involved in the very early days of Greenpeace as a 1st director, and led the Harp Seal Campaigns, but later founded the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society and sank the pirate-whaler Sierra in 1979 and has gone on to lead multiple direct-action campaigns saving endangered marine animals the world over. Lyle Thurston was medical doctor on the first voyage and served on the board during the 1970s. The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... Greenpeace founder and Journalist, Bob Hunter Robert (Bob) Lorne Hunter (October 13, 1941 – May 2, 2005) was a Canadian environmentalist, journalist, author and politician. ... Bennett Metcalfe (October 31, 1919 – October 14, 2003) was a Canadian journalist and first chairman of Greenpeace, founded 1971. ... Dr. Patrick Moore, born 1947 in Winter Harbour, B.C., Canada, is a founding member of Greenpeace, although he now criticizes the organization. ... Paul Watson (born December 2, 1950) is the founder of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society and is a significant, albeit controversial, figure in the environmental movement and the movement for animal rights. ... The Sea Shepherd Conservation Society is a non-profit, non-governmental maritime organization founded by Paul Watson in 1977. ...


Campaigns

On 4 May 1972, following Dorothy Stowe's departure from the chairmanship of the Don't Make a Wave Committee, the fledgling environmental group officially changed its name to the "Greenpeace Foundation". is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1972 the yacht Vega, a 12.5-metre (41 ft) ketch owned by David McTaggart (an eventual spokesman for Greenpeace International), was renamed Greenpeace III and sailed in an anti-nuclear protest into the exclusion zone at Mururoa in French Polynesia to attempt to disrupt French atmospheric nuclear testing. This voyage was sponsored and organised by the New Zealand branch of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament.[8] CNDNZ and the New Zealand peace media had been lobbying the New Zealand Government and the New Zealand public to place pressure on Britain and France to agree to enforce a nuclear test ban in the South Pacific since the mid 1950s. This pressure through civil disobedience protests in French Polynesia and public education at home eventually resulted in New Zealand declaring itself a nuclear-free zone by legislation in 1987 (New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act 1987).[9] In 1974 La Flor, from Melbourne, Australia, skippered by Rolf Heimann, a children's author, set out for Mururoa via New Zealand as Greenpeace IV but arrived after the final nuclear test for the year. The French military conducted more than 200 nuclear tests (40 of them atmospheric) at Mururoa and Fangataufa atolls over a thirty year period ending 1996. This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... David McTaggart being interviewed on CNN David Fraser McTaggart (June 24, 1932 - March 23, 2001) was an Canadian-born environmentalist who played a central part in the foundation of Greenpeace International. ... Moruroa (Mururura, Mururoa) (21°50S., 138°55W.) is an atoll in which forms part of the Tuamoto archipelago in French Polynesia in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... CND redirects here. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina... Pacific redirects here. ... For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... A nuclear-free zone is an area where nuclear weapons and/or nuclear power are banned. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... The New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act is a New Zealand law passed by the Fourth Labour Government in 1987 to establish in New Zealand a Nuclear Free Zone, to promote and encourage an active and effective contribution by New Zealand to the essential process of... The Military of France has a very long history, greatly influential in World history, of serving its country. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... Moruroa Moruroa Moruroa (Mururura, Mururoa) (21°50′S 138°55′W.) is an atoll which forms part of the Tuamoto archipelago in French Polynesia in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... Fangataufa (Fangatafoa) (22°15S., 138°45W.) is a small, low, narrow, barrier reef. ...


In 1974 the Vancouver based Greenpeace Foundation mounted an anti-whaling campaign that encountered Soviet whalers over the seamounts off Mendocino, California. This campaign had been influenced by the work of Paul Spong and Farley Mowat and Robert Hunter's encounter with the Orca Skana.
A seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the waters surface (sea level), and thus is not an island. ... View of Mendocino from the Northwest Mendocino is a census-designated place (CDP) in Mendocino County, California, United States. ... Paul Spong was born in New Zealand in 1939. ... For the Sea Shepherd ship, see RV Farley Mowat. ... Greenpeace founder and Journalist, Bob Hunter Robert (Bob) Lorne Hunter (October 13, 1941 – May 2, 2005) was a Canadian environmentalist, journalist, author and politician. ... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The Orca or Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) is the largest species of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ...


In 1976 a campaign was launched against the killing and skinning of foxes in Newfoundland for the high fashion fur trade, targeting Norwegian ships engaged in the trade after receiving a hostile welcome from the Newfoundland fishermen involved in the hunt. Greenpeace used helicopters to move people and supplies to a base camp at Belle Isle. Brigitte Bardot later got involved in this campaign to great effect. In the same year another anti-whaling expedition, using the James Bay as Greenpeace VII, disrupted the Soviet fleet again, but this time with the assistance of a "deep throat" source and extra funding from Ed Daly of World Airways. At about the same time visits to Japan were arranged to persuade the Japanese people that whaling should end. This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... An island, 52 square kilometres in area, 16 km long and 5 km wide, located at 52º01N latitude 55º17W longitude. ... Brigitte Bardot (French IPA: ) (born September 28, 1934) is a BAFTA Awards-nominated French actress, former fashion model, singer, known nationalist, animal rights activist, and considered the embodiment of the 1950s and 1960s sex kitten. ... World Airways is an American non-scheduled airline currently headquartered in Peachtree City, Georgia. ...


By the late 1970s, spurred by the global reach of what Robert Hunter called "mind bombs", in which images of confrontation on the high seas converted diffuse and complex issues into considerably more media-friendly David versus Goliath-style narratives, more than 20 groups across North America[1], Europe[2], New Zealand[3] and Australia[4] had adopted the name "Greenpeace". Greenpeace founder and Journalist, Bob Hunter Robert (Bob) Lorne Hunter (October 13, 1941 – May 2, 2005) was a Canadian environmentalist, journalist, author and politician. ...


Greenpeace also engaged with its opponents through the courts both in Canada (defending a loitering charge for failing to leave a fisheries office) and in France (David McTaggart's Law of the Sea case to recover repair costs after his yacht Vega was damaged by the French navy).


Similarly, Greenpeace became involved with lobbying elected officials and various bodies such as the United Nations through events such as the Conference on the Human Environment and with the International Whaling Commission. UN redirects here. ... International Whaling Commission Logo The International Whaling Commission (IWC) was set up by the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW)[1] on December 2, 1946 to promote and maintain whale fishery stocks. ...


On August 21, 2007, Yvo de Boer, head of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), angered environmental groups with his suggestion that "rich nations should be absolved from the need to cut emissions if they pay developing countries to do it on their behalf". Doug Parr of Greenpeace opposed Mr. de Boer's suggestion - "The current trading system is not delivering emissions reductions as it is" ... "Expanding it like this to give rich countries a completely free hand will simply not work."[10] On August 22, 2007, the Philippine Department of Energy's plan to develop nuclear energy as an alternative source of power was opposed by Von Hernandez, campaign director of Greenpeace Southeast Asia, who warned that exploring nuclear options to bolster energy demand is “dangerous and misleading.” He said the risks of accidents like Chernobyl or the most recent Kashiwazaki nuclear plant leak in Japan after an earthquake are real.[11] The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty produced at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. ... The Republic of the Philippines is a country of South East Asia, located in the western Pacific Ocean some 1,210 km (750 mi) from mainland Asia. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... This article concerns the energy stored in the nuclei of atoms; for the use of nuclear fission as a power source, see Nuclear power. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This article is about the city of Chernobyl. ... Kashiwazaki (柏崎市; -shi) is a city located in Niigata, Japan. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ...


Four Greenpeace activists breached security at Heathrow Airport on February 25, 2008 to climb on top of a British Airways plane and protest plans to build a third runway[12] London Heathrow Airport (IATA airport code: LHR, ICAO airport code: EGLL, and often simply Heathrow) is the United Kingdoms busiest and best-connected airport. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ...


Formation of formal global organization

In 1979, the original Vancouver-based Greenpeace Foundation encountered financial difficulties, and disputes between offices over fund-raising and organizational direction split the global movement.[13] David McTaggart lobbied the Canadian Greenpeace Foundation to accept a new structure which would bring the scattered Greenpeace offices under the auspices of a single global organization, and on October 14, 1979, Greenpeace International came into existence. Under the new structure, the local offices would contribute a percentage of their income to the international organization, which would take responsibility for setting the overall direction of the movement. David McTaggart being interviewed on CNN David Fraser McTaggart (June 24, 1932 - March 23, 2001) was an Canadian-born environmentalist who played a central part in the foundation of Greenpeace International. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Greenpeace's transformation from a loose international network to a global organization enabled it to apply the full force of its resources to a small number of environmental issues deemed of global significance, owed much to McTaggart's personal vision. McTaggart summed up his approach in a 1994 memo: "No campaign should be begun without clear goals; no campaign should be begun unless there is a possibility that it can be won; no campaign should be begun unless you intend to finish it off". McTaggart's own assessment of what could and couldn't be won, and how, frequently caused controversy.


In re-shaping Greenpeace as a centrally coordinated, hierarchical organization, McTaggart went against the anti-authoritarian ethos that prevailed in other environmental organizations that came of age in the 1970s. While this pragmatic structure granted Greenpeace the persistence and narrow focus necessary to match forces with government and industry, it would lead to the recurrent criticism that Greenpeace had adopted the same methods of governance as its chief foes — the multinational corporations. Its current Executive Director is Gerd Leipold. [14]


For smaller actions, and continuous local promotion and activism, Greenpeace has networks of active supporters that coordinate their efforts through national offices. The United Kingdom has some 6,000 Greenpeace activists.


Greenpeace ships

Since Greenpeace was founded, seagoing ships have played a vital role in its campaigns.


In 1978, Greenpeace launched the original Rainbow Warrior, a 40-metre (130 ft), former fishing trawler named for the Cree legend that inspired early activist Robert Hunter on the first voyage to Amchitka. Greenpeace purchased the Rainbow Warrior (originally launched as the Sir William Hardy in 1955) at a cost of £40,000, and volunteers restored and refitted it over a period of four months. For other uses, see Cree (disambiguation). ... Greenpeace founder and Journalist, Bob Hunter Robert (Bob) Lorne Hunter (October 13, 1941 – May 2, 2005) was a Canadian environmentalist, journalist, author and politician. ...


First deployed to disrupt the hunt of the Icelandic whaling fleet, the Rainbow Warrior would quickly become a mainstay of Greenpeace campaigns. Between 1978 and 1985, crew members also engaged in non-violent direct action against the ocean-dumping of toxic and radioactive waste, the Grey Seal hunt in Orkney and nuclear testing in the Pacific. Japan's Fisheries Agency has labeled Greenpeace ships as "anti-whaling vessels" and "environmental terrorists"[15]. Binomial name (Fabricius, 1791) Grey Seal range (in blue) The Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus) is found on both shores of the North Atlantic Ocean. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... The term eco-terrorism is a neologism which has been used to describe acts of violence (as in violence against property), sabotage and/or property damage which are ostensibly motivated by concern for the natural environment. ...


In 1985, the Rainbow Warrior entered into the waters surrounding Moruroa atoll, site of French nuclear testing. The sinking of the Rainbow Warrior occurred when the French government secretly bombed the ship in a New Zealand harbour on orders from François Mitterrand himself; killing Dutch freelance photographer Fernando Pereira, who thought it was safe to enter the boat to get his photographic material after a first small explosion, but drowned as a result of a second, larger explosion. The attack was a public relations disaster for France, after it was quickly exposed by the New Zealand police. The French Government in 1987 agreed to pay New Zealand compensation of NZ$13 million and formally apologised for the bombing. The French Government also paid 2.3 million compensation to the family of the killed photographer. Moruroa Moruroa Moruroa (Mururura, Mururoa) (21°50′S 138°55′W.) is an atoll which forms part of the Tuamoto archipelago in French Polynesia in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... The sinking of the Rainbow Warrior, codenamed Operation Satanic[1], was a special operation by the action branch of the French foreign intelligence services, the Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure (DGSE), carried out on July 10, 1985. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... Fernando Pereira (1950–July 10, 1985) was a freelance Dutch photographer, of Portuguese origin, who drowned when French intelligence (DGSE) used two underwater mines to sink the ship Rainbow Warrior, owned by the environmental organisation Greenpeace on July 10, 1985 (see sinking of the Rainbow Warrior). ... ISO 4217 Code FRF User(s) Monaco, Andorra, France except New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 6. ...


In 1989 Greenpeace commissioned a replacement vessel, also named the Rainbow Warrior, which remains in service today as the flagship of the Greenpeace fleet.


In 1996 the Greenpeace vessel MV Sirius was detained by Dutch police while protesting the import of genetically modified soybeans due to the violation of a temporary sailing prohibition, which was implemented because the Sirius prevented their unloading. The ship, but not the captain, was released a half hour later.


In 2005 the Rainbow Warrior II ran aground on and damaged the Tubbataha Reef in the Philippines, while she was ironically on a mission to protect the very same reef.[16] Greenpeace was fined $7,000 USD for damaging the reef and agreed to pay the fine, although they said that the Philippines government had given them outdated charts. Tubbataha Reef is an atoll coral reef located in the Sulu Sea, 98 nautical miles southeast of Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines. ...


Along with the Rainbow Warrior the Greenpeace organisation has four other ships:

The MY Arctic Sunrise is an icebreaker operated by Greenpeace. ... The MY Esperanza near Flushing Harbour. ...

Criticism

Greenpeace has been variously criticized for being too radical (or alarmist), too mainstream (or not alarmist enough), for allegedly using methods bordering on eco-terrorism, for having itself incurred real or perceived environmental damage in its activities, for taking positions which aren't environmentally or economically sound, and for valuing non-human causes over human causes by governments, industry and political lobbyists, and other environmental groups. Greenpeace co-founder Patrick Moore left the organization in 1986 when it decided to support a universal ban on chlorine, which Moore has called "the biggest advance in the history of public health" and "essential for our health."[17] Moore has argued that Greenpeace today is motivated by politics rather than science, noting that none of his "fellow directors had any formal science education."[17] During its history, Greenpeace has been criticized by some government, industry and even environmental groups either for being too extreme or being too mainstream. ... Look up Radical in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alarmism is the production of needless warnings. ... Eco-terrorism or ecoterrorism is the concept of terrorism conducted for the sake of ecological or environmental causes. ... Dr. Patrick Moore, born 1947 in Winter Harbour, B.C., Canada, is a founding member of Greenpeace, although he now criticizes the organization. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ...


Greenpeace in Popular Culture

  • In November of 2007, Greenpeace attracted internet attention when they held an online poll to name 30 humpback whales in the South Pacific Ocean. Mister Splashy Pants won, thanks to massive numbers of voters from social networking sites, sparking the "Save Mister Splashypants" campaign.

Binomial name Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781) Humpback Whale range The Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is a mammal which belongs to the baleen whale suborder. ... The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, peaceful sea, bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan) is the worlds largest body of water. ...

See also

The Economics of Nuclear Power is a 2007 report commissioned by Greenpeace which argues that many countries have seen nuclear construction programs go considerably over budget. ... Sea Shepherd flag flying on the RV Farley Mowat. ...

References

  1. ^ Greenpeace International. Our mission.
  2. ^ Greenpeace International. How is Greenpeace structured?.
  3. ^ Solar Generation
  4. ^ Greenpeace announces comprehensive energy strategy for India to tackle Climate Change without compromising economic development
  5. ^ Energy (R)evolution: A sustainable Energy Outlook for India
  6. ^ Discover Vancouver. The Greenpeace Story
  7. ^ Greenpeace International. The Founders of Greenpeace. Retrieved on 2008-04-19.
  8. ^ Making Waves the Greenpeace New Zealand Story by Michael Szabo ISBN
  9. ^ Nuclear Free: The New Zealand Way, The Right Honourable David Lange, Penguin Books, New Zealand,1990.
  10. ^ BBC NEWS, Rich 'can pay poor to cut carbon'
  11. ^ ABS-CBN Interactive, Greenpeace opposes nuke power option
  12. ^ Activists climb onto BA jet at Heathrow
  13. ^ Waves of Compassion. The founding of Greenpeace. by Rex Weyler p.4. Retrieved on May 8, 2007
  14. ^ Executive Director: Gerd Leipold | Greenpeace International
  15. ^ Greenpeace Rejects Terrorism Label, 14 December 2001
  16. ^ BBC News. Greenpeace fined for reef damage. 1 November 2005.
  17. ^ a b Moore, Patrick. "Why I Left Greenpeace", The Wall Street Journal, 2008-04-22. Retrieved on 2008-04-22. 

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • David McTaggart with Robert Hunter, Greenpeace III: Journey into the Bomb (London: William Collins Sons & Co., 1978). ISBN 0 211885 8
  • Robert Hunter, Warriors of the Rainbow: A Chronicle of the Greenpeace Movement (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1979). ISBN 0-03-043736-9
  • Michael King, Death of the Rainbow Warrior (Penguin Books, 1986). ISBN 0-14-009738-4
  • John McCormick, The Global Environmental Movement (John Wiley, 1995)
  • David Robie, Eyes of Fire: The Last Voyage of the Rainbow Warrior (Philadelphia: New Society Press, 1987). ISBN 0-86571-114-3
  • Michael Brown and John May, The Greenpeace Story (1989; London and New York: Dorling Kindersley, Inc., 1991). ISBN 1-879431-02-5
  • Rex Weyler (2004), Greenpeace: How a Group of Ecologists, Journalists and Visionaries Changed the World, Rodale
  • Kieran Mulvaney and Mark Warford (1996): Witness: Twenty-Five Years on the Environmental Front Line, Andre Deutsch.

John McCormick is Professor of Political Science at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis(IUPUI), and has been chair since July 2001. ... Rex Weyler (1947) was born in Denver, Colorado and is a writer, journalist, ecologist, and historian. ...

External links

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Greenpeace - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4434 words)
Greenpeace is known for its use of campaigns to stop atmospheric and underground nuclear testing as well as bring an end to high seas whaling.
Greenpeace uses direct action to attract attention to particular environmental causes, whether by placing themselves between the whaler's harpoon and their prey, or by invading nuclear facilities dressed as barrels of radioactive waste.
Greenpeace admitted that its claims that the Spar contained 5000 tonnes of oil were inaccurate and apologised to Shell on September 5.
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