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Encyclopedia > Greenland Shark
iGreenland shark

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Subclass: Elasmobranchii
Order: Squaliformes
Family: Dalatiidae
Genus: Somniosus
Species: S. microcephalus
Binomial name
Somniosus microcephalus
Bloch & Schneider, 1801
Range of the Greenland shark
Range of the Greenland shark
Sharks Portal


The Greenland shark, Somniosus microcephalus, also known as the sleeper shark, gurry shark, ground shark or grey shark, is a large shark native to the waters of the North Atlantic Ocean around Greenland and Iceland. These sharks live further north than any other species. They are closely related to the Pacific sleeper shark. [1] The size of the Greenland shark is impressive; it is so large, in fact, that its record is comparable to (and may exceed) that of the great white shark. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1197x339, 35 KB) Greenland shark, Somniosus microcephalus. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... Near Threatened (NT) is an IUCN category assigned to species or lower taxa which may be considered threatened with extinction in the near future, although it does not currently qualify for the threatened status. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera Subregnum Eumetazoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Radiata (unranked) Ctenophora Cnidaria Bilateria (unranked) Acoelomorpha Myxozoa Superphylum Deuterostomia Chordata Hemichordata Echinodermata Chaetognatha Xenoturbellida Superphylum Ecdysozoa Kinorhyncha Loricifera Priapulida Nematoda Nematomorpha Onychophora Tardigrada Arthropoda Superphylum Platyzoa Platyhelminthes Gastrotricha Rotifera Acanthocephala Gnathostomulida Micrognathozoa Cycliophora Superphylum Lophotrochozoa Sipuncula Nemertea Phoronida Bryozoa Entoprocta... {{{subdivision_ranks}}} See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses and Orders See text. ... Superorders Galeomorpha Batoidea Selachimorpha Elasmobranchii is the subclass of cartilaginous fishes that includes skates, rays and sharks. ... Families Squalidae (dogfish sharks) Centrophoridae (gulper sharks) Dalatiidae (sleeper sharks) Echinorhinidae (bramble sharks) Squaliformes is an order of sharks that includes the smooth dogfish and spiny dogfish and others, about 80 species in four families. ... The sleeper sharks are a family (Dalatiidae) of sharks. ... Species See text. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Marcus Elieser Bloch (1723 - 1799) was a German medical doctor and naturalist. ... Johann Gottlob Schneider (January 18, 1750 - January 12, 1822), German classical scholar and naturalist, was born at Koilmen in Saxony. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 60 KB) Distribution of the Greenland Shark I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Greyreefsharksmall2. ... Orders Carcharhiniformes Heterodontiformes Hexanchiformes Lamniformes Orectolobiformes Pristiophoriformes Squaliformes Squatiniformes Sharks (superorder Selachimorpha) are fish with a full cartilaginous skeleton[1] and a streamlined body. ... Look up Atlantic Ocean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Somniosus pacificus Bigelow & Schroeder, 1944 The Pacific sleeper shark, Somniosus pacificus, is a sleeper shark of the family Dalatiidae, found circumglobally on continental shelves and slopes in temperate waters between latitudes 70° N and 47° S, from the surface to 2,000 m. ... Binomial name Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus, 1758) Range (in blue) The great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), also known as white pointer, white shark, or white death, is an exceptionally large lamniform shark found in coastal surface waters in all major oceans. ...

Contents

Size

A 7.3 m (24 ft) specimen is frequently mentioned in the literature, and has come to be accepted as a general maximum length, despite the fact that the measurement is in dispute. As compared to the long-running discussion of the measurements of the great white shark, reported measurements of the Greenland shark face little scrutiny, as it is hardly as famous nor as ferocious as the other predatory sharks. Somewhat more credible is the reports of a 6.4 m (21.3 ft) specimen, caught off the Isle of May, Scotland, in January 1895. The weight was reported at 1,021 kg (2,250 lbs). References exist to a specimen with a weight of 1.4 tons (3,000 lbs), but in this case there is no note of the specimen's length. Binomial name Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus, 1758) Range (in blue) The great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), also known as white pointer, white shark, or white death, is an exceptionally large lamniform shark found in coastal surface waters in all major oceans. ... Light house on the Isle of May The Isle of May is located in the north of the outer Firth of Forth, approximately 8 km (5 miles) off the coast. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I...


Habits and habitat

Greenland sharks are deep-water sharks, living at depths up to 2,000 m (1.24 mi). They feed mainly on fish and sometimes on mammals like seals. The stomachs of a few Greenland sharks have even been found to contain pieces from reindeer, horses, and even parts of a polar bear. An entire reindeer, minus its antlers, was found in the stomach contents of one Greenland shark. Look up seal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Binomial name Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774 The polar bear (Ursus maritimus), also known as the white bear, northern bear, or sea bear, is a large bear native to the Arctic. ...


This shark frequently has a relationship with a parasitic copepod, Ommatokoita elongata, that attaches itself to the cornea of the eye and feeds on the shark's corneal tissue; the resulting scar tissue leads to partial blindness of the shark. This does not occur in all of the sharks though [2]. The copepod is a whitish-yellow creature that is said to be bioluminescent and possibly serves the symbiotic function of attracting prey for the shark, like a fishing lure. This is suggested by the fact that these normally sluggish sharks have been found with much faster-moving animals (such as squid) in their stomachs. Orders Calanoida Cyclopoida Gelyelloida Harpacticoida Misophrioida Monstrilloida Mormonilloida Platycopioida Poecilostomatoida Siphonostomatoida Copepods are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat. ... The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, providing most of an eyes optical power [1]. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light and, as a result, helps the eye to focus. ... Image of hundreds of agar plates cultured with a species of bioluminescent marine bacteria displayed in a pattern as an art exhibit called Bioglyphs at Montana State University–Bozeman. ... SQUIDs, or Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices, are used to measure extremely small magnetic fields; they are currently the most sensitive such devices (magnetometers) known, with noise levels as low as 3 fT·Hz−½. While a typical fridge magnet is ~0. ...


The flesh of a Greenland shark is poisonous when fresh. This is due to the presence of the toxin trimethylamine oxide, which, upon digestion, breaks down into trimethylamine, producing effects similar to extreme drunkenness. However, it can be eaten if it is boiled in several changes of water or dried or rotted for some months (as by being buried in boreal ground, exposing it to several cycles of freezing and thawing). It is considered a delicacy in Iceland and Greenland. Trimethylamine, also known as NMe3, N(CH3)3, and TMA, is a colorless, hygroscopic, and flammable simple amine with a typical fishy odor in low concentrations and an ammonia-like odor in higher concentrations. ...


Research

Canadian researchers with Greenland Shark and Elasmobranch Education and Research Group (GEERG) have been studying the Greenland shark in the Saguenay Fjord and St. Lawrence Estuary since 2001. The Greenland shark has repeatedly been documented (captured or washed ashore) in the Saguenay since at least 1888. Accidental captures and strandings have also been recorded in the St. Lawrence Estuary for over a century. Current research conducted by GEERG involves the study of the behaviour of the Greenland shark by observing it underwater using scuba and video equipment and by placing acoustic and satellite tags (telemetry) on live specimens. This article is about the year 2001. ... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Synonyms

It might be also referred to as Squalus squatina (non Linnaeus, 1758), Squalus carcharis (Gunnerus, 1776), Somniosus brevipinna (Lesueur, 1818), Squalus borealis (Scoresby, 1820), Squalus norvegianus (Blainville, 1825), Scymnus gunneri (Thienemann, 1828), Scymnus glacialis (Faber, 1829), Scymnus micropterus (Valenciennes, 1832), Leiodon echinatum (Wood, 1846), and Somniosus antarcticus (Whitley, 1939). Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[1] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Johann Ernst Gunnerus (1718 - September 23, 1773) was a Norwegian bishop and botanist. ... Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville (September 12, 1777 - May 1, 1850) was a French zoologist and anatomist. ... Achille Valenciennes (August 9, 1794 - April 13, 1865) was a French zoologist. ...


References

  1. ^ Jurassic Shark (2000) documentary by Jacinth O'Donnell; broadcast on Discovery Channel, August 5, 2006
  2. ^ Canadian Geographic: Searching for a Monster

This article is about the year 2000. ... Discovery Channel is a property of Discovery Communications primarily packaged as a network entertainment brand distributed in virtually every pay-television market in the world. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Canadian Geographic is the bimonthly magazine of the Royal Canadian Geographical Society (RCGS). ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Please note that the ITIS system URL has changed (25 September 2006). ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... FishBase is a comprehensive database of information about fish. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Greenland Shark Challenge (276 words)
Greenland sharks reside at depths from 400-600 metres during the winter.
The Greenland shark is a brown shark and widespread in several of the major fjord systems.
The Greenland shark's sense of smell is acute.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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