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Encyclopedia > Greenhouse
The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. A masterpiece of 19th-century greenhouse architecture
The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. A masterpiece of 19th-century greenhouse architecture
A greenhouse in Saint Paul, Minnesota.
A greenhouse in Saint Paul, Minnesota.
Greenhouses lighted at night near Amsterdam (seen from an airplane)
Greenhouses lighted at night near Amsterdam (seen from an airplane)
Nymphaea at the botanical Garden in Braunschweig, Germany
Nymphaea at the botanical Garden in Braunschweig, Germany

A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse or hothouse) is a building where plants are cultivated. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Serre du Congo or Congoserre (left) and the Grote wintertuin or Grand Jardin dhiver (right) part of the Royal Greenhouses of Laeken The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken (in Dutch: Koninklijke Serres van Laken, in French: Serres Royales de Laeken), are a vast complex of monumental heated greenhouses in... Greenhouse in St. ... Greenhouse in St. ... For an overview of the Twin Cities metropolitan area, see Minneapolis-Saint Paul. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 512 KB) Permission File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Greenhouse Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 512 KB) Permission File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Greenhouse Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to...

A greenhouse is a structure with a glass or plastic roof and frequently glass or plastic walls; it heats up because incoming solar radiation from the sun warms plants, soil, and other things inside the building. Air warmed by the heat from hot interior surfaces is retained in the building by the roof and wall. These structures range in size from small sheds to very large buildings. A solar greenhouse works by letting in solar radiation and trapping the energy from that radiation to increase and maintain the internal temperature above that of the temperature outside - see greenhouse effect for details. ...


Greenhouses can be divided into glass greenhouses and in plastic greenhouses. Commercial glass greenhouses are often high tech production facilities for vegetables or flowers. The glass greenhouses are filled with equipment like screening installations, heating, cooling, lighting and may be automatically controlled by a computer.


The glass used for a greenhouse works as a selective transmission medium for different spectral frequencies, and its effect is to trap energy within the greenhouse, which heats both the plants and the ground inside it. This warms the air near the ground, and this air is prevented from rising and flowing away. This can be demonstrated by opening a small window near the roof of a greenhouse: the temperature drops considerably. This principle is the basis of the autovent automatic cooling system. Greenhouses thus work by trapping electromagnetic radiation and preventing convection. A miniature greenhouse is known as a cold frame. An autovent is a device for maintaining a greenhouse or conservatory within a range of temperatures. ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of currents within fluids (i. ... A traditional home made cold frame In agriculture and gardening, a cold frame is a transparent-roofed enclosure, built low to the ground, used to protect plants from cold weather. ...

Contents

Uses

Greenhouse effects are often used for growing flowers, vegetables, fruits, and tobacco plants. Bumblebees are the pollinators of choice for most greenhouse pollination, although other types of bees have been used, as well as artificial pollination.This helps the plants to produce more plants for future plantations. The Latin words hortus (garden plant) and cultura (culture) together form horticulture, classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Species more than 250 species and subspecies in 38 subgenera Bumblebees (also spelled bumble bee, also known as humblebee) are flying insects of the genus Bombus in the family Apidae. ... A pollinator is the agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ...

Mowing young tobacco in a greenhouse of half million plants (Hemingway, South Carolina)

Besides tobacco, many vegetables and flowers are grown in greenhouses in late winter and early spring, and then transplanted outside as the weather warms. Started plants are usually available for gardeners in farmers' markets at transplanting time. Hemingway is a town located in Williamsburg County, South Carolina. ... A gardener is any person involved in the growing and maintenance of plants, notably in a garden. ... For the free-jazz group, see Farmers Market (band). ...


The closed environment of a greenhouse has its own unique requirements, compared with outdoor production. Pests and diseases, and extremes of heat and humidity, have to be controlled, and irrigation is necessary to provide water. Significant inputs of heat and light may be required, particularly with winter production of warm-weather vegetables. Special greenhouse varieties of certain crops, like tomatoes, are generally used for commercial production. Larval form of some beetle is damaging specimen of Sceliphron destillatorius in entomogical collection. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ...


Greenhouses are increasingly important in the food supply of high latitude countries. The largest greenhouse complex in the world is in Willcox, Arizona, USA where 262 acres of tomatoes and cucumbers are entirely grown under glass.[citation needed]


Greenhouses protect crops from too much heat or cold, shield plants from dust storms and blizzards, and help to keep out pests. Light and temperature control allows greenhouses to turn unarable land into arable land. Greenhouses can feed starving nations where crops can't survive in the harsh deserts and Arctic wastes. Hydroponics can be used in greenhouses as well to make the most use of the interior space. In geography, arable land is a form of agricultural land use, meaning land that can be (and is) used for growing crops. ... Plants grown in a hydroponics grow box made to look like a computer NASA researcher checking hydroponic onions with Bibb lettuce to his left and radishes to the right Example of autotrophic metabolism Hydroponics is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions instead of soil. ...


Biologist John Todd invented a greenhouse that turns sewage into water, through the natural processes of bacteria, plants, and animals. Dr. John Todd (1939- ) is an important biologist working in the field of ecological design. ... Phytoremediation describes the treatment of environmental problems (bioremediation) through the use of plants. ...


History

19th Century Orangerie in Weilburg, Germany
19th Century Orangerie in Weilburg, Germany
Victorian conservatory, Kew Gardens
Victorian conservatory, Kew Gardens
A modern glasshouse in RHS Wisley
A modern glasshouse in RHS Wisley

The idea of growing plants in environmentally controlled areas has existed since Roman times. The Roman emperor Tiberius ate a cucumber-like[1] vegetable daily. The Roman gardeners used artificial methods (similar to the greenhouse system) of growing to have it available for his table every day of the year. Cucumbers were planted in wheeled carts which were put in the sun daily, then taken inside to keep them warm at night.[2] The cucumbers were stored under frames or in cucumber houses glazed with either oiled cloth known as "specularia" or with sheets of mica, according to the description by Pliny the Elder.[3] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1469x1102, 3135 KB) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1469x1102, 3135 KB) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2223x1518, 639 KB) The Palm House (built 1844-1848) at Kew Gardens, London, England. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2223x1518, 639 KB) The Palm House (built 1844-1848) at Kew Gardens, London, England. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2136 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2136 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Royal Horticultural Societys garden at Wisley in the English county of Surrey south of London, is one of the three most visited paid gardens in the United Kingdom alongside Kew Gardens and Alnwick Garden. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... The Armenian Cucumber is actually a type of long, slender melon (Cucumis melo var flexuosus), in which the fruits are harvested while still unripe, like the cucumber. ... Rock with mica Mica sheet Mica flakes The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...


The first modern greenhouses were built in Italy in the thirteenth century[4] to house the exotic plants that explorers brought back from the tropics. They were originally called giardini botanici (botanical gardens). The concept of greenhouses soon spread to the Netherlands and then England, along with the plants. Some of these early attempts required enormous amounts of work to close up at night or to winterize. There were serious problems with providing adequate and balanced heat in these early greenhouses. Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1150s 1160s 1170s 1180s 1190s - 1200s - 1210s 1220s 1230s 1240s 1250s Years: 1200 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208 1209 Events and Trends 1200 University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France 1202-1204 Fourth Crusade - diverted to... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Jules Charles[attribution needed], a French botanist, is often credited with building the first practical modern greenhouse in Leiden, Holland to grow medicinal tropical plants.[citation needed] Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 23. ...


Originally on the estates of the rich, with the growth of the science of botany greenhouses spread to the universities. The French called their first greenhouses orangeries, since they were used to protect orange trees from freezing. As pineapples became popular pineries, or pineapple pits, were built. Experimentation with the design of greenhouses continued during the Seventeenth Century in Europe as technology produced better glass and construction techniques improved. The greenhouse at the Palace of Versailles was an example of their size and elaborateness; it was more than 500 feet long, 42 feet wide, and 45 feet high. Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Close up of a pineapple inside the pineapple pit at the Lost Gardens of Heligan, Cornwall, UK A pineapple pit is a method of growing pineapples in colder climates. ... Hall of Mirrors redirects here. ...


In the nineteenth Century the largest greenhouses were built. The conservatory at Kew Gardens in England is a prime example of the Victorian greenhouse. Although intended for both horticultural and non-horticultural exhibition these included London's Crystal Palace, the New York Crystal Palace and Munich’s Glaspalast. Joseph Paxton, who had experimented with glass and iron in the creation of large greenhouses as the head gardener at Chatsworth, in Derbyshire, working for the Duke of Devonshire, designed and built the first, London's Crystal Palace. A major architectural achievement in monumental greenhouse building were the Royal Greenhouses of Laeken (1874-1895) for King Leopold II of Belgium. Kew Gardens is the name of several places: Kew Gardens is a commonly-used name for the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew, London, United Kingdom Kew Gardens is the name of a park in The Beaches neighborhood of Toronto, Ontario, Canada Kew Gardens is also the name of a neighborhood... For other uses, see Crystal Palace. ... Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations was a Worlds Fair held in 1853 in New York City, in the wake of the highly successful 1851 Great Exhibition in London. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... The Glaspalast was a glass and iron exhibition building in Munich modeled after The Crystal Palace in London. ... Chatsworth may mean: Chatsworth House Chatsworth, Ontario, Canada Chatsworth, Georgia Chatsworth, California Chatsworth, Illinois Chatsworth, Iowa Chatsworth, New Jersey Chatsworth, Durban, South Africa This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. ... The Dukes of Devonshire are members of the aristocratic Cavendish family in the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Crystal Palace. ... The Serre du Congo or Congoserre (left) and the Grote wintertuin or Grand Jardin dhiver (right) part of the Royal Greenhouses of Laeken The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken (in Dutch: Koninklijke Serres van Laken, in French: Serres Royales de Laeken), are a vast complex of monumental heated greenhouses in... King Leopold II Leopold II, King of the Belgians (Louis Philippe Marie Victor) (April 9, 1835–December 17, 1909), succeeded his father, Leopold I of Belgium, to the Belgian throne in 1865 and remained king until his death. ...


In Japan, the first greenhouse was built in 1880 by Samuel Cocking, a British merchant who exported herbs. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


In the Twentieth Century the geodesic dome was added to the many types of greenhouses. Spaceship Earth in Epcot Center at Walt Disney World is perhaps one of the most famous examples of a large scale geodesic sphere. ...


Sources

  • Woods, May (1988)Glass houses: history of greenhouses, orangeries and conservatories Aurum Press, London, ISBN 0-906053-85-4 ;
  • Cunningham, Anne S. (2000) Crystal palaces : garden conservatories of the United States Princeton Architectural Press, New York, ISBN 1-56898-242-9 ;
  • Vleeschouwer, Olivier de (2001) Greenhouses and conservatories Flammarion, Paris, ISBN 2-08-010585-X ;
  • Lemmon, Kenneth (1963) The covered garden Dufour, Philadelphia;
  • Muijzenberg, Erwin W B van den (1980) A history of greenhouses Institute for Agricultural Engineering, Wageningen, Netherlands;
  • Enoshima Jinja Shrine Botanical Garden

See also

Biosphere 2 Biosphere 2 is a 3. ... A traditional conservatory at the Horniman Museum in London A modern Conservatory. ... Wikinews has related news: Scientists warn thawing Siberia may trigger global meltdown A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... Lord & Burnham are noted American greenhouse manufacturers, and builders of major public conservatories in the United States. ... The Serre du Congo or Congoserre (left) and the Grote wintertuin or Grand Jardin dhiver (right) part of the Royal Greenhouses of Laeken The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken (in Dutch: Koninklijke Serres van Laken, in French: Serres Royales de Laeken), are a vast complex of monumental heated greenhouses in... A solar greenhouse works by letting in solar radiation and trapping the energy from that radiation to increase and maintain the internal temperature above that of the temperature outside - see greenhouse effect for details. ...

References

  1. ^ Annals of Botany, doi:10.1093/aob/mcm242 The Cucurbits of Mediterranean Antiquity: Identification of Taxa from Ancient Images and Descriptions. Jules Janick1, Harry S. Paris and David C. Parrish
  2. ^ Richmond Oak: An Update On Our History of Conservatory Glass
  3. ^ rogueclassicism: Roman Greenhouses? Cartilaginum generis extraque terram est cucumis, mira voluptate Tiberio principi expetitus. nullo quippe non die contigit ei, pensiles eorum hortos promoventibus in solem rotis olitoribus rursusque hibernis diebus intra specularium munimenta revocantibus
  4. ^ Italian Government Tourist Board: Botanical Gardens in Italy "the first structures of this kind were already founded in the 13th century at the Vatican in Rome and in the 14th century at Salerno, although both are no longer in existence."

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Greenhouses
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Greenhouse Effect - MSN Encarta (1098 words)
Greenhouse Effect, the capacity of certain gases in the atmosphere to trap heat emitted from the Earth’s surface, thereby insulating and warming the Earth.
Water vapor is the most common greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, accounting for about 60 to 70 percent of the natural greenhouse effect.
However, as human activities increase the concentration of other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (producing warmer temperatures on Earth), the evaporation of oceans, lakes, and rivers, as well as water evaporation from plants, increase and raise the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere.
Greenhouse - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1011 words)
Greenhouse effects are often used for growing flowers, vegetables, fruits, and tobacco plants.
The first modern greenhouses were built in Italy in the sixteenth century to house the exotic plants that explorers brought back from the tropics.
The greenhouse at the Palace of Versailles was an example of their size and elaborateness; it was more than 500 feet long, 42 feet wide, and 45 feet high.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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