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Encyclopedia > Green politics
Part of the Politics series on Green politics

For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (645x641, 612 KB) I needed to work with a close cropped version of this image. ...

Topics

Green movement
Green party
List of Green topics “Greens” redirects here. ... A Green party is a formally organized political party based on the principles of Green politics. ... This list of Green topics includes people, parties, organizations, and ideas associated with Green politics. ...

Schools

Green anarchism
Ecofeminism
Eco-socialism
Green syndicalism
Green liberalism
Green conservatism Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Green anarchism is a school of thought within anarchism which puts an emphasis on the environment. ... Ecofeminism is a minor social and political movement which unites environmentalism and feminism[1], with some currents linking deep ecology and feminism. ... Eco-socialism or Green socialism is an ideology fusing Green movement values with socialism. ... Green syndicalism has been used as a name for the philosophy of the green guild or sustainable trades movement. ... Green Liberalism is a term used to refer to liberal who have incorporated green concerns into their ideology. ... Green conservatism is a term that is used for a brand of conservatism that espouses and incorporates green concerns. ...

Organizations

Global Greens · Africa · Americas · Asia-Pacific · Europe The Global Greens (or formally: the Global Green Network) are an organization of cooperating Green parties. ... The Federation of Green Parties of Africa is the organization of Green parties in Africa. ... The Federation of the Green Parties of the Americas is the organization of Green parties in North America and South America. ... The Asia-Pacific Green Network is a federation of national Green parties in countries in the Pacific Ocean and Asia, and is a member of the Global Greens. ... European Greens (or the European Green Party) is the name of the European Green Party, a political party at European level. ...

Principles

Four Pillars
Global Greens Charter: ecological wisdom
social justice
participatory democracy
nonviolence
sustainability
respect diversity
The worldwide green parties are committed to the following Four Pillars: Ecology (sometimes Ecological Wisdom or Ecological Sustainability) Social Justice (sometimes Social Equality and Economic Justice) Grassroots Democracy Non-Violence In German, they are known as Die Grünen: ökologisch, sozial, basisdemokratisch, gewaltfrei. ... The Global Greens Charter is a document that 800 delegates from the Green parties of 70 countries decided upon a first gathering of the Global Greens in Canberra, Australia in April 2001. ... The term ecological wisdom, or ecosophy, is a philosophy of ecological harmony or equilibrium. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... Participatory democracy is a broadly inclusive term for many kinds of consultative decision making which require consultation on important decisions by those who will carry out the decision. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... The prerogative to respect diversity, often said to begin with biodiversity of non-human life, is basic to some 20th century studies such as cultural ecology, Queer studies, and anthropological linguistics. ...


Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 

Green politics or Green ideologies is a political ideology which places a high importance on ecological and environmentalist goals, and on achieving these goals through broad-based, grassroots, participatory democracy and a consensus decision-making. Green politics is advocated by supporters of the Green movement, which has been active through Green parties in many nations since the late 1970s and early 1980s. The political term Green, a translation of the German Grün, was coined by die Grünen, the first successful Green party, in the 1970s. An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... A grassroots political movement is one driven by the constituents of a community. ... Participatory democracy is a broadly inclusive term for many kinds of consultative decision making which require consultation on important decisions by those who will carry out the decision. ... Consensus decision-making is a decision-making process that not only seeks the agreement of most participants, but also to resolve or mitigate the objections of the minority to achieve the most agreeable decision. ... “Greens” redirects here. ... This article is about the green parties around the world. ... The Alliance 90/The Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen), the German Green party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ...


"Greens" represents a new political discourse that is a fundamentally new way of addressing societal and political problems, and that green politics is therefore not classifiable along the traditional left-right political spectrum. While green parties are often characterized as left-wing parties, this is not always the case. In fact, different currents within green politics can be described as variously left-wing or right-wing. In addition to ecological issues, green politics is concerned with issues of social justice, civil rights and nonviolence. Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Left-Right politics or the Left-Right political spectrum is a common way of classifying political positions, political ideologies, or political parties along a one-dimensional political spectrum. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ...

Contents

Influences

Adherents to green politics consider it to be an important point of view and not simply a political ideology. Green politics draws its ethical stance from a variety of sources, from the values of indigenous peoples, to the ethics of Mohandas Gandhi, Spinoza and Uexküll. These people influenced green thought in their advocacy of long-term "seven generation" foresight, and on the personal responsibility of every individual to make moral choices. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The term indigenous people has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to... Baruch de Spinoza (‎, Portuguese: , Basque: , Latin: ) (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... Jakob von Uexküll (September 8, 1864 - July 25, 1944) was an Estonian biologist who had important achievements in the fields of muscular physiology and the cybernetics of life. ...


Green platforms draw terminology from the science of ecology, and policy from Environmentalism, Ecosophy, Eco-socialism, Progressivism, Feminism, Pacifism, Centrism, libertarian socialism, Social Ecology and even sometimes libertarian survivalists. In the 1970s, as these movements grew in influence, green politics arose as a new philosophy which synthesized their goals. For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... Ecosophy, also ecophilosophy, is a neologism made by contracting the phrase ecological philosophy. ... Eco-socialism or Green socialism is an ideology fusing Green movement values with socialism. ... For other uses, see Progressivism (disambiguation). ... Feminists redirects here. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... In politics, centrism usually refers to the political ideal of promoting moderate policies which land in the middle ground between different political extremes. ... Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aim to create a society without political, economic or social hierarchies - a society in which all violent or coercive institutions would be dissolved, and in their place every person would have free, equal access to tools of information and production, or... Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ...


German Green Party founder Petra Kelly was a leading influence of Green Party founding principles and values. Bündnis 90/Die Grünen (literally: Alliance 90/The Greens), the German Green Party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ... Petra Kelly, 1987 Petra Karin Kelly (November 29, 1947 – October 1, 1992), German peace activist and Green politician, was born in Günzburg, Bavaria, Germany in 1947, and lived and studied in the United States between 1959 and 1970. ...


Statements of principles

Since green politics emerged as an ideology, it has been defined by a few key statements of green principles. The German Greens drafted the earliest and most influential statement of this kind, called the Four Pillars of the Green Party. The Four Pillars have been repeated by many green parties worldwide as a foundational statement of the green ideology: The worldwide green parties are committed to the following Four Pillars: Ecology (sometimes Ecological Wisdom or Ecological Sustainability) Social Justice (sometimes Social Equality and Economic Justice) Grassroots Democracy Non-Violence In German, they are known as Die Grünen: ökologisch, sozial, basisdemokratisch, gewaltfrei. ...

  1. Ecology ("Sustainability")
  2. Social justice (sometimes "Social and Global Equality and Economic Justice")
  3. Grassroots democracy
  4. Non-violence

In 2000, the Green Party of the United States expanded the Four Pillars into its "Ten Key Values". In addition to the Four Pillars mentioned above, the GPUS states that green politics also includes: For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... Grassroots democracy is a tendency towards designing political processes where as much decision-making authority as practical is shifted to the organizations lowest geographic level of organization. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the American political party, Green Party. ...

  1. Decentralization and local control of many decisions now made at the national level
  2. "Community-based economics", defined as offering "meaningful work with dignity" to all members of the community
  3. Feminism
  4. Respect for diversity
  5. Personal and global responsibility
  6. Sustainability and future focus

In 2001, the Global Greens were organized as an international Green movement. The Global Greens Charter identified six guiding principles, all of which echo the Four Pillars and the Ten Key Values: Decentralization is the process of dispersing decision-making closer to the point of service or action. ... Feminists redirects here. ... The prerogative to respect diversity, often said to begin with biodiversity of non-human life, is basic to some 20th century studies such as cultural ecology, Queer studies, and anthropological linguistics. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... The Global Greens (or formally: the Global Green Network) are an organization of cooperating Green parties. ... The Global Greens Charter is a document that 800 delegates from the Green parties of 70 countries decided upon a first gathering of the Global Greens in Canberra, Australia in April 2001. ...

  1. Ecological wisdom
  2. Social justice
  3. Participatory democracy
  4. Non-violence
  5. Sustainability
  6. Respect for diversity

Together, these similar lists of principles have come to define the relatively young ideology of green politics. The term ecological wisdom, or ecosophy, is a philosophy of ecological harmony or equilibrium. ...


Green issues

Economics

Main article: Green economics

Green economics focuses on the importance of the health of the biosphere to human well-being. Consequently, most Greens distrust conventional capitalism, as it tends to emphasize economic growth while ignoring ecological health; the "full cost" of economic growth often includes damage to the biosphere, which is unacceptable according to green politics. Green economics considers such growth to be "uneconomic growth"— material increase that nonetheless lowers overall quality of life. Green economics is an unconventional approach to economics by non-economists. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... The well-being or quality of life of a population is an important concern in economics and political science. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... Full cost accounting (FCA) generally refers to the process of collecting and presenting information (costs as well as advantages) for each proposed alternative when a decision is necessary. ... Uneconomic growth, in welfare economics, human development theory and some forms of ecological economics, is economic growth which reflects or creates a decline in human well-being. ...


Some Greens refer to productivism, consumerism and scientism as "grey", as contrasted with "green", economic views. "Grey" implies age, concrete, and lifelessness. Productivism is the (purported) ideology that measurable economic productivity and growth is the purpose of human organization and perhaps the purpose of life itself. ... Consumerist redirects here. ... Scientism is a term mainly used as a pejorative[1][2][3] to accuse someone of holding that science has primacy over all other interpretations of life such as religious, mythical, spiritual, or humanistic explanations. ...


Therefore, adherents to green politics advocate economic policies designed to safeguard the environment. Greens want governments to stop subsidizing companies that waste resources or pollute the natural world, subsidies that Greens refer to as "dirty subsidies". Some currents of green politics place automobile and agribusiness subsidies in this category, as they may harm human health. On the contrary, Greens look to a green tax shift that will encourage both producers and consumers to make ecologically friendly choices. In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ... pollution credits, sometimes called pollution permits or pollution certificates are pollution rights as used in emissions trading. ... A green tax shift is a fiscal policy which lowers the taxes on income including wages and profit, and raises taxes on consumption, particularly the unsustainable consumption of non-renewable resources. ...


Green economics is on the whole anti-globalist. Economic globalization is considered a threat to well-being, which will replace natural environments and local cultures with a single trade economy, termed the global economic monoculture. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ... New totalitarianism is a term coined by ethicist John McMurtry to describe the political economy implied by so-called market theology; in other words, the ethics resolved wholly by the global markets with existing state power balances. ...


Since green economics emphasizes biospheric health, an issue outside the traditional left-right spectrum, different currents within green politics incorporate ideas from socialism and capitalism. Greens on the Left are often identified as Eco-socialists, who merge ecology and environmentalism with socialism and Marxism and blame the capitalist system for environmental degradation, social injustice, inequality and conflict. Eco-capitalists, on the other hand, believe that the free market system, with some modification, is capable of addressing ecological problems. Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Eco-socialism or Green socialism is an ideology fusing Green movement values with socialism. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Eco-capitalism is one of several strategies of the green movement and Green Parties. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy...


Participatory democracy

Since the beginning, green politics has emphasized local, grassroots-level political activity and decision-making. According to its adherents, it is crucial that citizens play a direct role in the decisions that influence their lives and their environment. Therefore, green politics seeks to increase the role of deliberative democracy, based on direct citizen involvement and consensus decision making, wherever it is feasible. A grassroots political movement is one driven by the constituents of a community. ... Deliberative democracy, also sometimes called discursive democracy, is a term used by political theorists, e. ... Consensus decision-making is a decision process that not only seeks the agreement of most participants, but also to resolve or mitigate the objections of the minority to achieve the most agreeable decision. ...


Green politics also encourages political action on the individual level, such as ethical consumerism, or buying things that are made according to environmentally ethical standards. Indeed, many green parties emphasize individual and grassroots action at the local and regional levels over electoral politics. Historically, green parties have grown at the local level, gradually gaining influence and spreading to regional or provincial politics, only entering the national arena when there is a strong network of local support. Ethical consumerism is buying things that are made ethically. ... This article is about the political process. ...


In addition, many Greens believe that governments should not levy taxes against strictly local production and trade. Some Greens advocate new ways of organizing authority to increase local control, including urban secession and bioregional democracy. Urban secession is a citys secession from its surrounding region, to form a new political unit (usually a state or district or province of the same country as its surroundings, but not always). ... Bioregional democracy (or the Bioregional State) is a set of electoral reforms designed to force the political process in a democracy to better represent concerns about the economy, the body, and environmental concerns (e. ...


Other issues

The sunflower is an internationally recognized symbol of Green politics.
The sunflower is an internationally recognized symbol of Green politics.

Green politics on the whole is opposed to nuclear power and the buildup of persistent organic pollutants, based on a strict adherence to the precautionary principle, by which technologies are rejected unless they can be proven to not cause significant harm to the health of living things or the biosphere. In Germany and Sweden programs have been initiated to shut down all nuclear plants (known as nuclear power phase-out). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1376x986, 360 KB) Summary Photo taken by myself of a 13 foot tall Russian Sunflower that I grew. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1376x986, 360 KB) Summary Photo taken by myself of a 13 foot tall Russian Sunflower that I grew. ... For other uses, see Sunflower (disambiguation). ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a class of chemicals that persist in the environment, are capable of long-range transport, bioaccumulate in human and animal tissue, and have significant impacts human health and the environment. ... The precautionary principle is a moral and political principle which states that if an action or policy might cause severe or irreversible harm to the public, in the absence of a scientific consensus that harm would not ensue, the burden of proof falls on those who would advocate taking the... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ...


In the spirit of nonviolence, Green politics opposes the War on Terrorism and the curtailment of civil rights, focusing instead on nurturing deliberative democracy in war-torn regions and the construction of a civil society with an increased role for women. This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11 2001. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Deliberative democracy, also sometimes called discursive democracy, is a term used by political theorists, e. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ...


Greens are ambivalent about the War on Drugs in the United States and Europe. The USA GP's platform advocates something other than drug peace: a "firm approach" against the "trafficking in hard drugs", although it notes that drug crimes have "too much emphasis". Massive mark-ups for drugs, areas/drugs/index. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


It is rare for a Green platform to propose lower fossil fuel prices, unlabelled genetically modified organisms, tax, trade, and tariff liberalizations that remove protections for ecoregions or communities. A genetically modified organism is an organism whose genetic material has been deliberately altered. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... An ecoregion is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... Community is a set of people (or agents in a more abstract sense) with some shared element. ...


In keeping with their commitment to the preservation of diversity, greens are often committed to the maintenance and protection of indigenous communities, languages, and traditions. An example of this is the Irish Green Party's commitment to the preservation of the Irish Language.[1] The Green Party/Comhaontas Glas was founded as the Ecology Party of Ireland in 1981. ... This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ...


Currents

Green politics is usually said to include the green anarchism, eco-anarchism, anti-nuclear and peace movements - although these often claim not to be aligned with any party. Some claim it also includes feminism, pacifism and the animal rights movements. Most Greens support special policy measures to empower women, especially mothers; to oppose war and de-escalate conflicts and stop proliferating technologies useful in conflict or likely to lead to conflict, and such radical measures as Great Ape personhood. Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Green anarchism is a school of thought within anarchism which puts an emphasis on the environment. ... Eco-anarchism argues that small eco-villages (of no more than a few hundred people) are a scale of human living preferable to civilization, and that infrastructure and political systems should be re-organized to ensure that these are created. ... CND logo In British politics, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament has been at the forefront of the peace movement in the United Kingdom and claims to be Europes largest single-issue peace campaign. ... An Australian anti-conscription poster from World War One A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, often linked to the goal of... Feminists redirects here. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... Animal liberation redirects here. ... Advocates of Great Ape personhood consider common chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans (the hominid apes) to be persons. ...


Greens on the Left adhere to Eco-socialism, an ideology that combines ecology, environmentalism, socialism and Marxism to criticise the capitalist system as the cause of ecological crises, social exclusion, inequality and conflict. Many Green Parties are not avowedly eco-socialist but most Green Parties around the world have or have had a large Eco-socialist membership. This has led some on the right to refer to Greens as "watermelons" — green on the outside, red in the middle.[2] Eco-socialism or Green socialism is an ideology fusing Green movement values with socialism. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Eco-socialism or Green socialism is an ideology fusing Green movement values with socialism. ...


Despite this stereotype, some centrist "right" Greens follow more geo-libertarian views which emphasize natural capitalism — and shifting taxes away from value created by labor or service and charging instead for human consumption of the wealth created by the natural world. For example, the Independent Green Party of Virginia is fairly conservative on fiscal matters, while supporting the use of rail transportation to reduce traffic and pollution. That said, Greens may view the processes by which living beings compete for mates, homes, and food, ecology, and the cognitive and political sciences very differently. These differences tend to drive debate on ethics, formation of policy, and the public resolution of these differences in leadership races. There is no single Green Ethic. Georgism, named for Henry George (1839-1897), is a philosophy and economic theory that follows from the belief that although everyone owns what they create; land, and everything else supplied by nature, belongs equally to all humanity. ... Natural capitalism is a set of trends and economic reforms to reward energy and material efficiency - and remove professional standards and accounting conventions that prevent such efficiencies. ... The Independent Greens of Virginia is an official political party in the Commonwealth of Virginia, United States, formed in early 2004. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ...


Critique of green policy

Critics sometimes claim that the universal and immersive nature of ecology, and the necessity of converting some of it to serve humanity, predisposes the movement towards authoritarian and intrusive policies, particularly with regard to the means of production, as these sustain human life.[citation needed] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ...


Skeptics point out that industrial nations are in the best position to adopt state-of-the-art clean energy and corresponding high pollution standards — and that Green Parties advocate going against economic progress. However, Greens respond that industrial nations are still those which use the most resources, and contribute most to climate change, and that as the poor world develops, we must help it develop with renewable rather than finite/carbon-based energy sources. Clean energies are forms of energy which do not pollute the air, the ground, or the sea. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ...


A further criticism is that Green parties are strongest among the well educated in the developed world, while many policies could be seen as operating against the interests of the poor both in rich countries and globally. For example, some Greens support increases in the indirect taxation of goods ("ecotax") which they perceive to be polluting. This can result in the less well off paying a higher share of the tax burden because more of their income goes to purchasing essentials. Green defenders of the shift towards ecotaxes respond that the poor are often the first and greatest victims of environmental degradation and do not have the resources to adapt or move away. Protecting ecosystems therefore protects the poor even more than the rich who can better adapt or move. Furthermore, equity positive tax or refund adjustments can be made to the progressive income tax system to compensate for any socially regressive consequences of the green tax shift. Ecotax, short for Ecological taxation, can refer to: A fiscal policy that introduces taxes intended to promote ecologically sustainable activities via economic incentives. ...


Globally, Green opposition to heavy industry is seen by critics as acting against the interests of rapidly industrialising poor countries such as China or Thailand. A counter view is that emerging nations from the South would benefit environmentally and economically given the rising cost of fossil fuels by leap-frogging the fossil-driven industrial stage and moving directly to the post-fossil powered stage of production.


Green participation in the anti-globalisation movement, and the leading role taken by Green parties in countries such as the United States in opposing free trade agreements, also leads critics to argue that Greens are against opening up rich country markets to goods from the developing world, although many Greens would argue that they are in favour of trade justice - Fair trade over Free Trade. Contrary to the above view, Greens in Europe advocate the lowering of trade barriers and argue for the elimination of export subsidies for agricultural products in the industralised nations. Anti-globalization (anti-globalisation) is a political stance of opposition to the perceived negative aspects of globalization. ...


Critics argue that Greens have a Luddite view of technology, opposing technologies such as genetic modification which their critics see as positive. Greens have often taken the lead in raising concerns about public health issues such as obesity which critics see as a modern form of moral panic. Whereas a technophobic point of view can be found in the early Green movement and parties, Greens today reject the accusation of Luddism, countering that their policies of sustainable growth encourage 'clean' technological innovation like renewable energy and anti-pollution technology. The Luddites were a social movement of English textile artisans in the early nineteenth century who protested — often by destroying textile machines — against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution, which they felt threatened their livelihood. ... Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organisms normal reproductive process. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... Moral panic is a sociological term, coined by Stanley Cohen, meaning a reaction by a group of people based on the false or exaggerated perception that some cultural behavior or group, frequently a minority group or a subculture, is dangerously deviant and poses a menace to society. ...


Prominent Green Activists

  • Joseph Beuys visual artist
  • Robin Harper, co-convenor Scottish Green Party
  • Joss Garnham, founder of Plane Stupid
  • Jean Lambert Green Party Member of the European Parliament
  • Caroline Lucas Green Party Member of the European Parliament
  • Ralph Nader, US presidential candidate, 2000 and 2004
  • Derek Wall Principal Speaker Green Party of England and Wales, 2006 - present
  • Mike Woodin Oxford City Councillor and former Principal Speaker, Green Party of England and Wales
  • Bob Brown, Australian Senator, 2006 - present

Joseph Beuys (IPA: ; May 12, 1921 – January 23, 1986) was an influential German artist who came to prominence in the 1960s. ... Robin Harper is a Member of the Scottish Parliament, representing the Scottish Green Party for the Lothians. ... Categories: MEP stubs | Green politicians | Members of the European Parliament from the United Kingdom ... Caroline Lucas Dr Caroline Patricia Lucas MEP (born 9 December 1960) is an English politician, and Member of the European Parliament for the South East England region. ... Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney and political activist in the areas of consumer rights, humanitarianism, environmentalism and democratic government. ... Derek Wall PhD is a British politician and current Principal Speaker of the Green Party of England and Wales as well as an environmental and social activist, academic and writer whose work concentrates on eco-socialism and the relationship between Marxism and the environment. ... Mike Woodin Cllr Dr Michael Edward Woodin (November 6, 1965 - July 8, 2004) was the Principal Speaker of the Green Party of England and Wales and a city councillor for Oxford from 1994 to 2004. ... For other uses, see Bob Brown (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.greenparty.ie/library/discussion_documents/gaeilge_staidph_ip_ar
  2. ^ [1]

See also

Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ... Deep ecology is a recent branch of ecological philosophy (ecosophy) that considers humankind as an integral part of its environment. ... Eco-socialism or Green socialism is an ideology fusing Green movement values with socialism. ... Eco-capitalism is one of several strategies of the green movement and Green Parties. ... The ecological humanities is a recent development by Deborah Bird Rose and colleagues in the humanities which has grown out of the concerns of radical ecocentric political theory. ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... Green economics is an unconventional approach to economics by non-economists. ... Green Liberalism is a term used to refer to liberal who have incorporated green concerns into their ideology. ... Green conservatism is a term that is used for a brand of conservatism that espouses and incorporates green concerns. ... Green syndicalism has been used as a name for the philosophy of the green guild or sustainable trades movement. ... Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ... Republicans for Environmental Protection (or REP America), is a national organization of Republican voters formed in 1995 with the stated purpose of educating and advocating environmental issues and supporting efforts to conserve natural resources and protect human and environmental health. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Greens in Time and Space: The History of The Green Party (1607 words)
This was a comprehensive statement of Green politics which was widely distributed overseas and contributed to the development of Green parties elsewhere.
Green politics was being actively practised in New Zealand in the 1970s, even though the electoral climate was unfavourable.
In May 1990 the current Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand was formed from a merger of Values and the new Green groups, and contested the 1990 general election six months later, winning 7% of the total vote although it was not able to stand candidates in all electorates.
The Greens/Green Party USA (80 words)
Green Politics is the official quarterly newspaper of The Greens/Green Party USA and a free benefit to all members.
The articles printed in Green Politics are original pieces, not reprints.Ê You can submit your article or letter for GP by emailing to [email protected]
For information on purchasing Green Politics in bundles or for individual subscriptions, go to publications.
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