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Encyclopedia > Green economics
Part of the Politics series on Green politics

Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Green politics or Green ideology is the ideology of the Green Parties, mainly informed by environmentalism, ecosophy and sustainable economics and aimed at developing a sustainable society. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (645x641, 612 KB) I needed to work with a close cropped version of this image. ...

Topics

Green movement
Green party
List of Green topics “Greens” redirects here. ... A Green party is a formally organized political party based on the principles of Green politics. ... This list of Green topics includes people, parties, organizations, and ideas associated with Green politics. ...

Schools

Green anarchism
Ecofeminism
Eco-socialism
Green syndicalism
Green liberalism
Green conservatism This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ecofeminism is a minor social and political movement which unites environmentalism and feminism[1], with some currents linking deep ecology and feminism. ... Eco-socialism or Green socialism is an ideology fusing Green movement values with socialism. ... Green syndicalism has been used as a name for the philosophy of the green guild or sustainable trades movement. ... Green Liberalism is a term used to refer to liberal who have incorporated green concerns into their ideology. ... Green conservatism is a term that is used for a brand of conservatism that espouses and incorporates green concerns. ...

Organizations

Global Greens · Africa · Americas · Asia-Pacific · Europe The Global Greens (or formally: the Global Green Network) are an organization of cooperating Green parties. ... The Federation of Green Parties of Africa is the organization of Green parties in Africa. ... The Federation of the Green Parties of the Americas is the organization of Green parties in North America and South America. ... The Asia-Pacific Green Network is a federation of national Green parties in countries in the Pacific Ocean and Asia, and is a member of the Global Greens. ... European Greens (or the European Green Party) is the name of the European Green Party, a political party at European level. ...

Principles

Four Pillars
Global Greens Charter: ecological wisdom
social justice
participatory democracy
nonviolence
sustainability
respect diversity
The worldwide green parties are committed to the following Four Pillars: Ecology (sometimes Ecological Wisdom or Ecological Sustainability) Social Justice (sometimes Social Equality and Economic Justice) Grassroots Democracy Non-Violence In German, they are known as Die Grünen: ökologisch, sozial, basisdemokratisch, gewaltfrei. ... The Global Greens Charter is a document that 800 delegates from the Green parties of 70 countries decided upon a first gathering of the Global Greens in Canberra, Australia in April 2001. ... The term ecological wisdom, or ecosophy, is a philosophy of ecological harmony or equilibrium. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... Participatory democracy is a broadly inclusive term for many kinds of consultative decision making which require consultation on important decisions by those who will carry out the decision. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... The prerogative to respect diversity, often said to begin with biodiversity of non-human life, is basic to some 20th century studies such as cultural ecology, Queer studies, and anthropological linguistics. ...


Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 

Green economics is an unconventional approach to economics by non-economists. It takes the widest possible view of stakeholders of a transaction to include impacts to nature, non-human species, the planet, earth sciences, and the biosphere. A holistic approach to the subject is typical, so that economic ideas incorporate learning from other disciplines in a true transdisciplinary fashion, and important theories from feminist economics, postmodernism, critical theory, ecology, international relations and peace, deep ecology, animal rights, social and environmental justice, anti-globalisation, energy efficiency, participation and localisation theories. While environmental economics is a field, "green economics" is not. The professional economic subdiscipline most similar to "green economics" is ecological economics, which is said to be a "post-normal" transdisciplinary science. Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience or the geosciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... For the album by Moby, see Animal Rights (album). ... Environmental economics is a subfield of economics concerned with environmental issues (other usages of the term are not uncommon). ... Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field of academic research that addresses the dynamic and spatial interdependence between human economies and natural ecosystems. ...

Contents

The essence of green economics

Green economists all share a common view that economics and human social interaction rest within and are dependent on the natural world. They reassert the etymology of the terms, since eco- refers to house, -logy refers to understanding and -nomy refers to administration. Economics, our "housekeeping", the way in which we sustain our being in the world, must be informed by ecology, the science of our relation to our planetary environment. Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ...


Axiomatic basis

Green Economics is based on three axioms: Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... For the algebra software named Axiom, see Axiom computer algebra system. ...

  1. It is impossible to expand forever into a finite space.
  2. It is impossible to take forever from a finite resource.
  3. Everything on the surface of the Earth is interconnected.

Green is not mainstream

Neoclassical economics represents the main body of modern economics. Neoclassical economists begin with a set of assumptions that enable a mathematical treatment of the subject. Environmental and social considerations are categorised as externalities in conventional economics. Green economics adopts the same ideas and pushes them further, focusing on social equity and long-term sustainability. This co-evolution of ecological, environmental, and economic systems is a focus of green economics. Green economics is a movement from outside of economics to focus on the environment. Its closest analog in the professional field of economics is ecological economics. Neoclassical economics refers to a general approach (a metatheory) to economics based on supply and demand which depends on individuals (or any economic agent) operating rationally, each seeking to maximize their individual utility or profit by making choices based on available information. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... An externality occurs in economics when a decision (for example, to pollute the atmosphere) causes costs or benefits to individuals or groups other than the person making the decision. ... Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field of academic research that addresses the dynamic and spatial interdependence between human economies and natural ecosystems. ...


Post Autistic Economics is a similar reaction to mainstream economics, the main difference being that PAE was driven by economics students whereas "green economics" comes from outside the field entirely. The movement for Post-Autistic Economics was born through the work of Sorbonne economist Bernard Guerrien. ...


Economics for life

What defines green economists most clearly is the emphasis on the ecosystem as the right starting point for economics. This is in direct opposition to the neo-classical approach, which classifies the ecosystem as an externality. In economics, an externality is an impact (positive or negative) on anyone not party to a given economic transaction. ...


All green economists regard "economic growth" as a delusion, since it contradicts the first Axiom (above). Growthism is an ideology which disrupts and destroys growth in the life support capacity of the natural ecosystem: air and water filtering, food production, fiber growth. Green economists often characterize their work as "social ecology" and some may employ the Marxist analysis of means of production. World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Means of production (abbreviated MoP; German: Produktionsmittel), also called means of labour are the materials, tools and other instruments used by workers to make products. ...


The central problem of economic growth is that it implies ever-increasing "throughput" of materials, through the linear process of mine-manufacture-use-dispose. There is a need for growth in the green sector of the economy, for instance, a growth in the recycling industry, as the world economy moves towards a sustainable mode. Lawson[1] identifies 20 sectors of the green economy in the UK offering enough work to annul the unemployment rates obtaining in 1996 in the UK.


Subsidiary characteristics of green economics may include rejection of all analyses of factors of production or means of production that fail to clearly and fundamentally distinguish between living (nature, persons) and non-living (financial, social, instructional, infrastructural) roles in a productive process. Some have detailed critiques of "Fordism" (after Henry Ford) and "productivism", as best developed by Alain Lipietz of the French Greens. In economics, factors of production are resources used in the production of goods and services, including land, labor, and capital. ... Means of production (abbreviated MoP; German: Produktionsmittel), also called means of labour are the materials, tools and other instruments used by workers to make products. ... Fordism, named after Henry Ford, has different meanings in the United States and Europe. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... Productivism is the (purported) ideology that measurable economic productivity and growth is the purpose of human organization and perhaps the purpose of life itself. ... Alain Lipietz (born September 19, French engineer, economist and politician, a member of the French Green Party. ... Les Verts (or The Greens) are an environmentalist political party to the left of the political spectrum in France. ...


Ecosocialists such as John Bellamy Foster, Joel Kovel and Derek Wall draw strongly on Marx to develop an understanding of ecological issues and ecological economic alternatives. Eco-socialism or Green socialism is an ideology fusing Green movement values with socialism. ... John Bellamy Foster is an editor of the Monthly Review, a prominent socialist magazine. ... Joel Kovel (born August 27th 1936) is an American politician, academic, writer and Eco-socialist. ... Dr. Derek Wall is a British politician and current Male Principal Speaker of the Green Party of England and Wales as well as an environmental and social activist, academic and writer whose work concentrates on Eco-socialism and the relationship between Marxism and the environment. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ...


There are also a number of green economists who emphasize the role of tax, trade, and tariff laws in discouraging destructive behavior - they often characterize "dirty subsidy" or "dirty money" as the problem, - and seek to change banking as well as social values. The tax, tariff and trade laws of a political region, state or trade bloc determine which forms of consumption and production tend to be encouraged or discouraged. ... pollution credits, sometimes called pollution permits or pollution certificates are pollution rights as used in emissions trading. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ...


Money

Money, being a medium of exchange, represents goods or services as a proxy, and is therefore a symbol of value. Money has no intrinsic value, its only value lies in that which for which it can be exchanged. Its purpose is to serve the smooth running of the economy, but it should not dominate it to the exclusion of all other factors. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...


The huge international trade in money is irrational as it is trade in a symbol, not a commodity or a service. The proposed Tobin tax on this trade, set at a fraction of one percent of transactions to be hypothecated to the poorest regions of the earth, would help to stabilise this trade and would inhibit divergence between rich and poor at the same time. A Tobin tax is the suggested tax on all trade of currency across borders. ...


Theories and practices that treat money as an entity are not sustainable in the long term as they allow financial value to drift away from the ecological and social realities of life. Green economics internalizes these realities into monetary or market values at every opportunity and uses concepts of fairness and ethics to try to reallocate them more constructively to where they might be usefully originate. Conventional economics makes society as a whole pay for these hidden costs.


Conventionally, money can be created through the lending process, on the basis of risk assessment. It is very important to understand that the money created is created by the banking sector, not the individual banks as is falsely believed by so called 'monetary reformers'. Green Economics is critical about certain aspects of the banking sector and its behavior.


Debt and interest are regarded by some as one of the drivers of economic growth (Hoogendijk, W. (1991) The Economic Revolution, Utrecht, Green Print), through the cycle of borrowing to increase productivity, and increased productivity to pay off the loan.


Money has become the greatest source of power in the world. In theory, power in democracies is ultimately derived from the people, but in practice, state power lies with the wealthy, who can buy public opinion by owning newspapers and broadcasting industries. (See Greg Palast). This political system is has been described as a plutocracy or monetocracy rather than a democracy [[Gaian Democracies: Redefining Globalisation and People-Power]]. Green politics would limit the power of individuals and corporations to monopolize the media as part of a healthy economy. Greg Palast is a New York Times-bestselling author[1] and a journalist for the British Broadcasting Corporation[2] as well as the British newspaper The Observer. ...


There is an intrinsic divergent tendency in an economy that is run in a capitalistic style, that is, a tendency for the rich to get richer and the poor to get poorer. Green economics will seek to moderate this tendency, producing a convergent economy where wealth tends towards the median value.


Ecologies produce, people create, local is more reliable

Three assumptions that seem to be universal among green economists are: Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...

  1. That living ecoregions are better valued as service-producing natural capital than as passive natural resources.
  2. That creative "enterprise" or individual capital must be differentiated from more general ideas or analyses of human capital or human resources, as what characterizes both evolution and intelligence is an unpredictable and creative movement towards greater energy economy, e.g. a tree spans a volume so as to most effectively convert available light to energy using its leaves.
  3. That local measurements are almost always better than global ones, and scale of measures must match the scale of the commons being managed.

However, for 'deep' Greens there is the all-important spiritual dimension to consider, with the belief is that life is, inter alia, holy and deserving of reverence. Buddhist Economics has something to say about this. People and nature cease to be mere factors of production, becoming instead, or as well, intrinsically valuable and worthwhile entities with rights and, where applicable, responsibilities, too. Because Marxism/Socialism are materialist philosophies their analysis are necessarily inadequate. Thus life is not merely mechanistic: it has goals beyond mere pleasure and physical survival. These must be recognised by the Green economic system if it is to be holistic and consistent internally and externally. An ecoregion is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... Natural capital, as described in the book Natural Capitalism, is a metaphor for the mineral, plant, and animal formations of the Earths biosphere when viewed as a means of production of oxygen, water filter, erosion preventer, or provider of other ecosystem services. ... Individual capital comprises inalienable or personal traits of persons, tied to their bodies and available only through their own free will, such as skill, creativity, enterprise, courage, capacity for moral example, non-communicable wisdom, invention or empathy, non-transferable personal trust and leadership. ... Human capital is a way of defining and categorizing the skills and abilities as used in employment and as they otherwise contribute to the economy. ... This article is about human resources, as it applies to business, labor, and economies. ... In England and Wales, a common is a piece of land over which other people -- often neighbouring landowners -- could exercise one of a number of traditional rights, such as allowing their cattle to graze upon it. ...


Small is beautiful

Of these three assumptions, the third is the oldest, and was first codified clearly in E. F. Schumacher's Small is Beautiful. It emphasized the value of a local point of view, like that of gardening, that would require "use-value" or "service value" to be assessed in context of a living ecoregion or economic process, and would de-emphasize the value of resource, commodity or product measures. In addition many de-emphasize protest, notably Brian Milani who has contributed significantly to a green micro-economics, e.g. of eco-villages, and notes that "efforts to encourage nature appreciation and environmental protection often reinforce the chasm between the human economy and non-human nature." Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Ernst Friedrich Fritz Schumacher (16 August 1911 – 4 September 1977) was an internationally influential economic thinker with a professional background as a statistician and economist in Britain. ... A gardener Gardening is the practice of growing flowering plants, vegetables, and fruits. ... An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ecovillages are socially, economically and ecologically sustainable villages of 50 to 150 people. ... Environmental movement is a term often used for any social or political movement directed towards the preservation, restoration, or enhancement of the natural environment. ...


He argues that "The environmental movement in particular should put more emphasis on establishing an educational network that both formalizes its educational tasks and systemizes connections with the rest of the community. But this, of course, assumes that the environmental movement becomes more aware of, and proactive about, economic alternatives." The environmental movement (a term that sometimes includes the conservation and green movements) is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement. ...


This bottom-up approach seems to mirror that which successfully promoted the emotionalist moral philosophy of Adam Smith and the classical economists, "that eventually caused fundamental changes in politics, culture, religion, and conceptions of human nature." A revolution not of politicians and theorists, but of gardeners, shop-keepers, and purchasers. For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Classical economics is a school of economic thought whose major developers include William Petty, Adam Smith, David Ricardo, and John Stuart Mill. ...


Can green go global?

At the other end of the scale is the view of Edward Goldsmith, that scientific understanding of human bodies, cognition, and Earth's ecology, constitutes "a single order" and "a single set of laws, whose generalities apply equally well to biological organisms, vernacular societies and ecosystems and to Gaia herself." Such views seem to inspire the Global Greens who believe that centralized measurements can perhaps be reformed, in line with a general ethic that emphasizes "Earth First" (the name of one influential NGO) and social and economic measurements as only secondary. Edward (Teddy) Goldsmith (b. ... The Global Greens (or formally: the Global Green Network) are an organization of cooperating Green parties. ... Earth First! is a radical environmental defense movement, pioneered in the early 1980s by Arizona desert activists Dave Foreman, Mike Roselle and others. ... “NGO” redirects here. ...


This "recognition that economy is nested within society which is nested within ecology, and that ecological flows (e.g. watersheds, air flows, gene flows) determine political power and bodily service relationships" is seen as pivotal by other greens who see The Enlightenment as being over, and a new movement, The Embodiment, replacing it on a cultural level. ... Embodiment is the way in which human (or any other animals) psychology arises from the brains and bodys physiology. ...


Can green fight global?

This is a common theme among Greens in general, who have a broad critique of dominator culture and monoculture which has flowered in the anti-globalization movement to unite with other critics of global capitalism. The element of buying locally, reducing the environmental effects of long distance shipping directly pushes against global trade, while support for indigenous tribes and groups around the world inadvertently supports it. This creates a dichotomy for businesses seeking to both buy locally, yet support indigenous groups producing environmentally friendly goods. (Example: Green Earth Market) Greens are people who support some or all of goals of a Green Party without necessarily working with or voting for that or any party. ... Dominator culture is a term coined by futurist and writer, Riane Eisler. ... Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ... Anti-WEF grafiti in Lausanne. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Launched in 2006, Green Earth Market is an American online retailer of environmentally friendly goods, offering products that are made locally (North America), of natural, organic, or recycled materials, and/or produced in a fair trade, sustainable, or organic production process or method utilizing energy conservation. ...


Some, following systems biology, differentiate "between Plant (energy-binding), Animal (space-binding), Human (time-binding) and Truth-binding mechanisms" among which they variously count religion, banking, capitalism and economics itself. For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ...


Biology versus buying

There is, as yet, no clear agreement between greens on detailed terms of reference. Difficulty of measuring diverse "ecological flows" makes the field also diverse. It is generally impossible to distinguish green economists, ecology theorists and systems theorists, as the green analysis deliberately uses metaphors from natural capital to describe or design infrastructural capital, i.e. employing biomimicry in the broadest sense. A good summary of attitudes is that of Lynn Margulis who holds that ethics, economics, and biology are indistinguishable, and that all three apply to any study of ecology: "economists study the way that humans make a living, and biologists study how all other species make a living." Natural capital, as described in the book Natural Capitalism, is a metaphor for the mineral, plant, and animal formations of the Earths biosphere when viewed as a means of production of oxygen, water filter, erosion preventer, or provider of other ecosystem services. ... Infrastructural capital refers to any physical means of production or means of protection beyond that which can be gathered or found directly in nature, i. ... Biomimicry (also biomimickry) is the conscious copying of examples and mechanisms from natural organisms and ecologies. ... Lynn Margulis Dr. Lynn Margulis (born March 15, 1938) is a biologist and University Professor in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ...


She also claims that certain tenets of biology are incompatible with ecology: Darwinian evolution "is totally wrong. It's wrong like infectious medicine was wrong before Pasteur. It's wrong like phrenology is wrong. Every major tenet of it is wrong," she writes, in Kevin Kelly's book "Out of Control : The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems and the Economic World". Charles Darwin Darwinism is a term for the underlying theory in those ideas of Charles Darwin concerning evolution and natural selection. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French microbiologist and chemist who demonstrated the germ theory of disease and developed techniques of inoculation, most notably the first vaccine against rabies. ... A 19th century phrenology chart. ... Kevin Kelly Kevin Kelly is the founding executive editor of Wired magazine, and former publisher of the Whole Earth Catalog. ...


Green economists vary drastically in how much they question conventional biology and ethics, how reliant they are on cognitive science as a neutral point of view for their micro-economics of human purchasing. Most however are committed to "moral purchasing" regimes that generally deny the value of nation-states or corporations to diffuse responsibility for moral harms done by one's consumption and purchase habits. Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... For other uses of objectivity, see objectivity (disambiguation). ... Microeconomics is the study of the economic behaviour of individual consumers, firms, and industries and the distribution of production and income among them. ... Ethical consumerism is the practice of boycotting products which a consumer believes to be associated with unnecessary exploitation or other unethical behaviour. ...


Value of life

Green economists struggle to understand why humans set the value of such commodities as gold higher than that of nature, (see diamond-water paradox) and why humans habitually reward social and sexual fitness (i.e. appearances) strongly over ecological fitness (i.e. energy efficiency, survival) whenever they have the luxury to build complex financial systems. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... The diamond-water paradox is the observation that water has a lower price than diamonds despite being more essential to human survival. ...


One explanation stems from consideration of scarcity. When gold is scarce and nature is plentiful, gold may be valued above nature. In the 21st century however, we are coming to realise that Nature's life-support systems can no longer be considered infinite.


A theoretical explanation of the tendency of commercial interests to value money above nature may lie in the structure of our consciousness. Our ecological understanding (in the sense of scientific knowledge and theory, as opposed to the holistic understanding of, say, an aboriginal hunter-gatherer) is a recently acquired cognitive construct. Our current economic behaviour is motivated at a level of emotional and instinctual reward. In short, mainstream ("grey") economics is emotionally motivated, and green economics is rationally motivated. Green seeks the long term good; grey seeks immediate gratification. In neurological terms, green is coming from the frontal cortex; grey is stemming from the limbic lobe or the amygdala. The frontal lobe is an area in the brains of vertebrates. ... Look up Amygdala in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


This clashes with the unfulfilled ambition of neoclassical economics to find scientific parity for its discipline with physics and chemistry. However, neoclassical and green economics may find points of overlap and come together in such doctrines as Natural Capitalism, which seems to reflect both green and neoclassical constraints. Neoclassical economics refers to a general approach (a metatheory) to economics based on supply and demand which depends on individuals (or any economic agent) operating rationally, each seeking to maximize their individual utility or profit by making choices based on available information. ... Natural capitalism is a set of trends and economic reforms to reward energy and material efficiency - and remove professional standards and accounting conventions that prevent such efficiencies. ...


This common ground expands in environmental finance which seeks to justify biodiversity directly as a unit of stored value, e.g. a rainforest standard replace the gold standard. Some refer to this as a "biosecurity standard" or "biosafety standard" of value, but these are not yet common usage - instead a broad strategy of using conventional financial instruments to save ecology deemed unique or irreplaceable has developed, without any agreement on any one standard of biodiversity's value. The field of environmental finance, part of both environmental economics and the conservation movement, exploits various financial instruments (most notably land trusts) to protect biodiversity. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... The gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold. ... A biosecurity guarantee attempts to ensure that ecologies sustaining either people or animals are maintained. ... Biosafety: prevention of large-scale loss of biological integrity, focusing both on ecology and human health. ... Financial instruments package financial capital in readily tradeable forms - they do not exist outside the context of the financial markets. ...


Are humans infinitely precious?

There is a philosophical problem in reconciling the ambition of the United Religions Initiative, generic global ethics and humanism to place an infinitely high value on human life - because this, as the greens see it, places a constantly-decreasing value on other life. Bishop William E. Swing A Bahai, Zoroastrian, Hindu, and Christian in interfaith collaboration URI Global Staff The United Religions Initiative (URI), founded by Bishop William E. Swing (The Seventh Bishop of the Diocese of California of the Episcopal Church), was inspired to bring people of diverse faith into cooperation... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ... See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities...


Some hold that humans cannot be treated differently from great apes or whales or any other keystone species, for the green analysis to have integrity. As with other species, society must then set a finite value on what it will do to avoid losing a human life. Otherwise, humans seeking survival at all costs in ever-growing numbers must ultimately overcome sustainability on all levels and cannibalize the Earth's natural capital into "resources" - another outworking of the Axiom of Interconnectedness. Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... This article is about the animal. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... Natural capital, as described in the book Natural Capitalism, is a metaphor for the mineral, plant, and animal formations of the Earths biosphere when viewed as a means of production of oxygen, water filter, erosion preventer, or provider of other ecosystem services. ...


A fact highlighted by the IPCC illustrates that valuation differences occur not just on an inter-species level, but also at an intra-species level. The IPCC found that a human life in developed nations is valued 15× higher than in the developing nations - measured strictly in terms of ability to pay to prevent global climate change. Most political Greens reject such an analysis as hopelessly unsustainable given modern terrorism and asymmetric warfare, but the attempt on the part of some aspects of environmental economics to apply financial value to non-financial entities is a cause of great offence to some workers in the field. IPCC is science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the risk of human-induced climate change. The Panel is open to all... A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... The term climate change is used to refer to changes in the Earths climate. ... Greens are people who support some or all of goals of a Green Party without necessarily working with or voting for that or any party. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Asymmetric warfare originally referred to war between two or more actors or groups whose relative power differs significantly. ... Environmental economics is a subfield of economics concerned with environmental issues (other usages of the term are not uncommon). ...


The solution to this problem may lie in the philosophical meaning of "value". If all value is to be referred to finance, then distortions and contracictions must occur, since finance is merely a symbol, not a universal reference point. If human life is given an infinite value in ethical and metaphysical terms, the clash disappears.


Influences and related theories

Important contributors to green economic theory and analysis include Murray Bookchin, Lewis Mumford, Miriam Kennet, Volker Heinemann, Rachel Carson, Brian Tokar, E. F. Schumacher, Robert Costanza, Lynn Margulis, David Korten, Buckminster Fuller, Herman Daly, Donella Meadows, Paul Hawken, Amory Lovins, Hunter Lovins, Kirkpatrick Sale, Jane Jacobs, and Robin Hanson. Green economic theory generally favors "local measures" and localized "grassroots" institutions over "global measures" and paternalistic and elite-driven global institutions (such as the IMF, World Bank, WTO, BIS, WIPO). Murray Bookchin[1] (born January 14, 1921) is an American libertarian socialist speaker and writer, and founder of the Social Ecology school of anarchist and ecological thought. ... Lewis Mumford (October 19, 1895 – January 26, 1990) was an American historian of technology and science. ... Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist and nature writer whose writings are often credited with launching the global environmental movement. ... Ernst Friedrich Fritz Schumacher (16 August 1911 – 4 September 1977) was an internationally influential economic thinker with a professional background as a statistician and economist in Britain. ... Dr. Robert Costanza(-[?]born Sept. ... Lynn Margulis Dr. Lynn Margulis (born March 15, 1938) is a biologist and University Professor in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. ... Dr. David C. Korten is an author and leader within the anti-globalization movement. ... Richard Buckminster “Bucky” Fuller (July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983)[1] was an American visionary, designer, architect, poet, author, and inventor. ... Herman Daly is an ecological economist and professor at the School of Public Policy of University of Maryland, College Park in the United States. ... Donella Dana Meadows (March 13, 1941 Elgin, Illinois, USA - February 20, 2001, New Hampshire) was a pioneering environmental scientist, a teacher and writer. ... Paul Hawken is an environmentalist, entrepreneur, journalist, and best-selling author. ... Amory Lovins Amory Bloch Lovins (born November 13, 1947 in Washington, DC) was trained in physics and has worked professionally as an environmentalist. ... L. Hunter Lovins (born 1950) is the founder of Natural Capitalism, Inc. ... Kirkpatrick Sale is an author, technology critic (neo-luddite) and tax resister. ... Jane Jacobs Jane Jacobs, OC, O.Ont (May 4, 1916 – April 25, 2006) was an American-born Canadian urbanist, writer and activist. ... Robin Hanson is an associate professor of economics at George Mason University. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... The World Bank (the Bank), a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), was formally established on December 27, 1945, following the ratification of the Bretton Woods agreement. ... “WTO” redirects here. ... BIS Headquarters in Basel The Bank for International Settlements (or BIS) is an international organization of central banks which exists to foster cooperation among central banks and other agencies in pursuit of monetary and financial stability. It carries out its work through subcommittees, the secretariats it hosts, and through its... The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations, and has as its core objectives the promotion of creative intellectual activity and the facilitation of the transfer of technology related to intellectual property to the developing countries in order to accelerate economic, social...


There are also a significant number of scientists working in fields outside of economics who have contributed to a green perspective. The list includes Edward O. Wilson, Rushworth Kidder, Mark Sagoff, Alain Lipietz, Amos Tversky and Donald Ludwig. E.O. Wilson with Dynastes hercules E. O. Wilson, or Edward Osborne Wilson, (born June 10, 1929) is an entomologist and biologist known for his work on ecology, evolution, and sociobiology. ... Rushworth M. Kidder founded the Institute for Global Ethics in 1990, and is the author of Moral Courage and How Good People Make Tough Choices: Resolving the Dilemmas of Ethical Living. ... Alain Lipietz (born September 19, French engineer, economist and politician, a member of the French Green Party. ... Amos Tversky (March 16, 1937 - June 2, 1996) was a pioneer of cognitive science, a longtime collaborator of Daniel Kahneman, and a key figure in the discovery of systematic human cognitive bias and handling of risk. ...


When Robin Hahnel and Michael Albert originally formulated their vision of participatory economics it was not specifically oriented towards a full treatment of the economics-environment relationship. Nevertheless they pointed out that their proposal included a price mechanism that internalized environmental costs, along with participatory planning mechanisms designed to deal with externalities, which had obvious implications for addressing the impacts of economic activity on the environment. In recent years the authors have introduced further mechanisms designed to deal with such problems as intergenerational justice, natural resource conservation, and a specific description of mechanisms addressing pollution problems. A debate attempting to clarify how this model, the participatory economics model, relates to the "social ecology" model, is linked below. A photo of Robin Hahnel Robin Hahnel is a Professor of Economics at American University. ... Michael Albert (born April 8, 1947) is a longtime activist, speaker, and writer, is co-editor of ZNet, and co-editor and co-founder of Z Magazine. ... Participatory economics, often abbreviated parecon, is a proposed economic system that uses participatory decision making as an economic mechanism to guide the allocation of resources and consumption in a given society. ... Participatory economics, often abbreviated parecon, is a proposed economic system that uses participatory decision making as an economic mechanism to guide the allocation of resources and consumption in a given society. ...


References

In chronological order:

  • E. F. Schumacher (1973; reissued 1998) Small Is Beautiful: A Study of Economics As If People Mattered. Vancouver: Hartley & Marks. ISBN 0-88179-169-5
  • E. F. Schumacher (1977; reissued 1997) This I Believe and Other Essays. Totnes: Green Books. ISBN 1-870098-66-8
  • Michael Jacobs (1993) The Green Economy. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 0-7748-0474-2
  • Clive Ponting (1991/1993) A Green History of the World: The Environment and the Collapse of Great Civilizations. New York: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-017660-8
  • Molly Scott Cato, Miriam Kennet (editors) (1999) Green economics: beyond supply and demand to meeting people's needs. Aberystwyth: Green Audit Books.
  • Colin Hines (2000) Localization: A Global Manifesto. London: Earthscan. ISBN 1-85383-612-5
  • Brian Milani (2000) Designing The Green Economy: The Postindustrial Alternative to Corporate Globalization. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. paperback ISBN 0-8476-9190-X, cloth ISBN 0-8476-9189-6
  • John Seymour (2002) The New Complete Book of Self-Sufficiency. London: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-7513-6442-8
  • Clive Lord (2003) A citizens' income: a foundation for a sustainable world. Charlbury: Jon Carpenter. ISBN 1-897766-87-4
  • Mike Woodin, Caroline Lucas (2004) Green Alternatives to Globalisation: A Manifesto. London: Pluto Press. paperback ISBN 0-7453-1932-7, hardcover ISBN 0-7453-1933-5
  • Deirdre Kent (2005) Healthy Money Healthy Planet: Developing Sustainability through New Money Systems Nelson, New Zealand: Craig Potton Publishing, Paperback ISBN 1-877333-29-8
  • Paul Mobbs (2005) Energy Beyond Oil. Leicester: Matador. ISBN 1-905237-00-6
  • Derek Wall (2005) Babylon and Beyond : The Economics of Anti-Capitalist, Anti-Globalist and Radical Green Movements. London: Pluto Press. ISBN 0-7453-2390-1
  • Molly Scott Cato (2006) Market, Schmarket: Building the Post-Capitalist Economy Cheltenham: New Clarion Press [2]. paperback ISBN 1-873797-50-8
  • The Green Economist Magazine, Edited by Judith Felton and Published by the Green Economics Institute http://www.greeneconomics.org.uk/
  • Miriam Kennet Ed., Procedings of the First Ever Green Economics Conference at Oxford University April 2005. Published by the Green Economics Institute.
  • Kennet. M, and Heinemann V., Setting the scene. Important innovations in Green Economics in International Journal of Green Economomics Spring 2006 Inderscience. Eds Miriam Kennet and Volker Heinemann Vols 1 Issue 1 and 2. http://www.inderscience.com/ijge 2006 In International Journal of Green Economics. Inderscience Academic Publishers.

Ernst Friedrich Fritz Schumacher (16 August 1911 – 4 September 1977) was an internationally influential economic thinker with a professional background as a statistician and economist in Britain. ... Small Is Beautiful is the title of a series of books by E. F. Schumacher[1]. The original 1973 publication is a collection of essays that brought Schumachers ideas to a wider audience, at a critical time in history. ... Ernst Friedrich Fritz Schumacher (16 August 1911 – 4 September 1977) was an internationally influential economic thinker with a professional background as a statistician and economist in Britain. ... John Seymour (12 June 1914 – 14 September 2004) was an influential figure in the self-sufficiency movement. ... Dorling Kindersley (DK) is an international publishing company specialising in reference books for adults and children. ... Mike Woodin Cllr Dr Michael Edward Woodin (November 6, 1965 - July 8, 2004) was the Principal Speaker of the Green Party of England and Wales and a city councillor for Oxford from 1994 to 2004. ... Caroline Lucas Dr Caroline Patricia Lucas MEP (born 9 December 1960) is an English politician, and Member of the European Parliament for the South East England region. ... Pluto Press is a progressive, independent publisher based in London. ... Dr. Derek Wall is a British politician and current Male Principal Speaker of the Green Party of England and Wales as well as an environmental and social activist, academic and writer whose work concentrates on Eco-socialism and the relationship between Marxism and the environment. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ...

See also

Eco-socialism or Green socialism is an ideology fusing Green movement values with socialism. ... Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field of academic research that addresses the dynamic and spatial interdependence between human economies and natural ecosystems. ... Environmental economics is a subfield of economics concerned with environmental issues (other usages of the term are not uncommon). ... Future energy development, providing for the worlds future energy needs, currently faces great challenges. ... Green syndicalism has been used as a name for the philosophy of the green guild or sustainable trades movement. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Over-consumption is a concept coined in developing nations to counter the rhetoric of over-population by which developed nations judge them as consuming more than their economy can support. ... The Technocracy Monad, representing balance, is the official symbol of The Technocracy movement is a social movement that started in the United States during the 1920s and 1930s and advocates a form of society where the welfare of human beings is optimized by means of scientific analysis and widespread use...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Green economics - Encyclopedia Article (1989 words)
Green economics loosely defines a theory of economics by which an economy is considered to be component of the ecosystem in which it resides.
The greens are often confused both with political Greens and with advocates of "more mainstream" environmental economics that does not question the neoclassical political economy of global market capitalism - and heavily exploits the neoclassical methods in its subfields environmental finance, Natural Capitalism, measuring well-being and sustainable development.
Green economists vary drastically in how much they question conventional biology and ethics, how reliant they are on cognitive science as a neutral point of view for their micro-economics of human purchasing.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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