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Encyclopedia > Green anarchism
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Green anarchism is a school of thought within anarchism which puts an emphasis on the environment. Some green anarchists can be described as anti-civilization anarchists and sometimes anarcho-primitivists, though not all green anarchists and anti-civilization anarchists are primitivists. Likewise, there is a strong critique of technology among some green anarchists, though not all reject it entirely. Sometimes green anarchism is said to be techno-positive or techno-negative to differentiate between those who advocate use of advanced green technology to create and maintain an anarchist society and those who mainly see civilization and modern technology as something negative. Anarchist redirects here. ... Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization. ... Theory Issues Culture By region Lists Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization. ... Theory Issues Culture By region Lists Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization. ...

Contents

Background

Green Anarchism incorporates a set of related political theories that is derived from philosophical and social movements such as social ecologists, feminism, egoism, the Situationists, surrealism, the Luddites, Anarcho-primitivism, post- and anti-leftists, indigenous, anti-industrialism, and pre-civilized people. Niccolò Machiavelli, ca 1500, became the key figure in realistic political theory, crucial to political science Political Science is the systematic study of the allocation and transfer of power in decision making. ... A philosophical movement is either the appearance or increased popularity of a specific school of philosophy, or a fairly broad but identifiable sea-change in philosophical thought on a particular subject. ... American Civil Rights Movement is one of the most famous social movements of the 20th century. ... Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Egoism may refer to any of the following: psychological egoism - the doctrine that holds that individuals are always motivated by self-interest ethical egoism - the ethical doctrine that holds that individuals ought to do what is in their self-interest rational egoism - the belief that it is rational to act... The Situationist International (SI) was a small group of international political and artistic agitators with roots in Marxism, Lettrism and the early 20th century European artistic and political avant-gardes. ... Max Ernst. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Theory Issues Culture By region Lists Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization. ... Post-left anarchy is a recent current in anarchist thought that promotes a critique of anarchisms relationship to traditional leftism. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... Deindustrialization (also spelled deindustrialisation) is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ...


Although green anarchism develops themes present in the political action of the Luddites and the writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, when primitivism emerged it was influenced more directly by the works of theorists such as the Frankfurt School Marxists Theodor Adorno and Herbert Marcuse; anthropologists Marshall Sahlins and Richard Borshay Lee; and others such as Lewis Mumford, Jean Baudrillard and Gary Snyder. Many advocates of Green Anarchism and primitivism consider Fredy Perlman as the modern progenitor of their views. The Luddites were a group of English workers in the early 1800s who protested – often by destroying machines – against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution that they felt threatened their jobs. ... Rousseau redirects here. ... For related articles, see Critical theory and Critical theory (Frankfurt School) Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist critical theory, social research, and philosophy. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg. ... Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-born philosopher, sociologist and a member of the Frankfurt School. ... See Anthropology. ... Marshall Sahlins (born 1930) is a prominent American anthropologist. ... Richard Borshay Lee is an anthropologist who has studied at the University of Toronto and Berkeleys University of California, where he received a Ph. ... Lewis Mumford (October 19, 1895 – January 26, 1990) was an American historian of technology and science. ... Jean Baudrillard (July 29, 1929 – March 6, 2007) (IPA pronunciation: [1]) was a French cultural theorist, philosopher, political commentator, and photographer. ... Young Gary Snyder, on one of his early book covers Gary Snyder (born May 8, 1930) is an American poet (originally, often associated with the Beat Generation), essayist, lecturer, and environmental activist. ... Fredy Perlman (August 20, 1934 -- July 26, 1985) was an author, publisher and activist. ...


Contemporary writers espousing green anarchism include, techno-negative: Derrick Jensen, George Draffan, and John Zerzan and techno-positive: Murray Bookchin as well as countless authors of various zines and pamphlets, anonymous and otherwise. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... John Zerzan (born 1943) is an American anarchist and primitivist philosopher and author. ... Murray Bookchin[1] (born January 14, 1921) is an American libertarian socialist speaker and writer, and founder of the Social Ecology school of anarchist and ecological thought. ... A zine—an abbreviation of the word fanzine, and originating from the word magazine[1][2]—is most commonly a small circulation, non-commercial publication of original or appropriated texts and images. ... Polish soldiers reading a German leaflet during the Warsaw Uprising A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). ...


Critique

The following is mainly a presentation of the techno-negative views on society. Techno-positive anarchists adhere to a more classical anarchist analysis.


Civilization

A clearcut in the Rouge Valley of Alberta, Canada. Clearcuts are a prime example of what green anarchists consider to be capitalism's effect on the environment.

The green anarchist critique focuses on the institutions of domination that make up society, all grouped under the broad term “civilization”. Such institutions include the the state, capitalism, industrialism, globalization, domestication, patriarchy, science, technology, and/or work. These institutions, according to green anarchists, are inherently destructive and exploitative (to humans and the environment) – therefore, they cannot be reformed into anything better. This movement generally rejects furthering their cause through current political lines, favoring direct and autonomous action, sabotage, insurrection, bioregionalism, and reconnecting with the wild to create meaningful change. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Clearfelling or clearcutting is the process where every tree is taken in a logging operation. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... A critic (derived from the ancient Greek word krites meaning a judge) is a person who offers a value judgement or an interpretation. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... This article is about work. ... Exploitation means many different things. ... This article is about modern humans. ... For the Canadian urban guerrilla group Direct Action, see Squamish Five. ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... Insurrection could refer to: * in a general sense, it means Rebellion * it is also a title of a Star Trek film, see Star Trek: Insurrection ... Bioregional democracy (or the Bioregional State) is a set of environment concerns, e. ... Rewilding is the process of undoing domestication. ...


Civilization is taken to be the totality of institutions (described above) that are responsible for the destruction of human freedom and the environment. Physically, civilization is demarcated by the domestication of plants, animals, and humans (though its beginning has been traced back through time, language, art, and symbolic culture – see John Zerzan). Agriculture introduced the concept of a surplus along with the conditions for the rise of these institutions. Before agriculture, humans often lived as autonomous bands of hunter-gatherers. Essentially, hunter-gatherers are perceived to be part of human anarchist ancestry since all humans practised that mode of life for around two million years. Civilization is often seen as more of a paradigm of systems rather than a tangible thing, and one that places human beings above and outside of the natural world. This is seen as the first step towards, and justification for, the destruction of nature (humans included). For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... John Zerzan (born 1943) is an American anarchist and primitivist philosopher and author. ... Surplus means the quantity left over, after conducting an activity; the quantity which has not been used up, and can refer to: budget surplus, the opposite of a budget deficit economic surplus Surplus product or surplus value in Marxian economics physical surplus in the economic theory of Piero Sraffa Operating... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... For other uses, see Paradigm (disambiguation). ...


Technology

Technology is seen as a system rather than a specific physical tool. Technology, it is argued, requires the exploitation of the environment through the creation and extraction of resources, and the exploitation of people through labor, work, and slavery, industrialism, specialization and the division of labor. There is no “neutral” form of technology as things are always created in a certain context with certain aims and functions. Green technology is often rejected as an attempt to reform this exploitative system, merely changing it on the surface to make it seem environmentally friendly, despite sustained levels of human and natural exploitation. In place of technology, green anarchists favor living ranging from low use of technology to no use at all, using sustainable and local resources. Wage labour is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer in which the worker sells their labour under a contract (employment), and the employer buys it, often in a labour market. ... Slave redirects here. ... Specialization, also spelled Specialisation, is an important way to generate propositional knowledge, by applying general knowledge, such as the theory of gravity, to specific instances, such as when I release this apple, it will fall to the floor. Specialization is the opposite of generalization. ... Division of labour is the breakdown of labour into specific, circumscribed tasks for maximum efficiency of output in the context of manufacturing. ... Green technology is a technology that offers a more environmentally friendly solution compared to an existing technology. ...


Green anarchists do not advocate a return to the stone age or the replication of hunter-gatherer lifestyles, but instead a deep questioning of the reality humans have been given, and a wish to see those questions (namely the questioning of civilization) put into effective praxis by creating new communities that exist without these institutions of domination, while at the same time resisting the current ones in place. Look up praxis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Solutions

Green and black flag of green anarchism.
Green and black flag of green anarchism.

Many green anarchists argue that small eco-villages (of no more than a few hundred people) are a scale of human living preferable to civilization, and that infrastructure and political systems should be re-organized to ensure that these are created. Green Anarchists assert that social organizations must be designed to work with natural forces, rather than against. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 480 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 900 pixel, file size: 12 KB, MIME type: image/png) Created by myself, using Adobe Photoshop CS. A darker Green & Black flag of Green Anarchism, Eco-Anarchism, and Anarcho-Primitivism. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 480 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 900 pixel, file size: 12 KB, MIME type: image/png) Created by myself, using Adobe Photoshop CS. A darker Green & Black flag of Green Anarchism, Eco-Anarchism, and Anarcho-Primitivism. ... Ecovillages are socially, economically and ecologically sustainable villages of 50 to 150 people. ... A political system is a system of politics and government. ... A social animal is a loosely defined term for an organism that is highly interactive with other members of its species to the point of having a recognizable and distinct society. ... Force of Nature may refer to: Force of Nature, a non-religious expression synonymous with Act of God Force Of Nature, a song by the British rock band Oasis Force of Nature (comics), a team of supervillians and occasional eco-terrorists appearing in comic books published by Marvel Comics Force...


Many green anarchists consider traditional forms of social organization such as the village, band, or tribe to be preferred units of human life, not for some Noble Savage concept of spiritual superiority, but because these social organizations appear to work better than civilization. Family is considered to be more important to many green anarchists than work roles. Green anarchist philosophy can be explained as an interpretation of anthropological and biological truths, or natural laws. Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... A Band Society is the simplest form of human society. ... http://www. ... A section of Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe; Wests depiction of this American Indian has been considered an idealization in the tradition of the Noble savage (Fryd, 75) In the 17th century culture of Primitivism the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization, was considered... Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος = human) consists of the study of humankind (see genus Homo). ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ... In law, natural law is the doctrine that just laws are immanent in nature (that can be claimed as discovered but not created by such things as a bill of rights) and/or that they can emerge by natural process of resolving conflicts (as embodied by common law). ...


Some green anarchists, identifying themselves as primitivists, advocate a complete process of 'rewilding' and a return to nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyles while many green anarchists only wish to see an end to industrial society and do not necessarily oppose domestication or agriculture. Key theorists in the former category include Derrick Jensen and John Zerzan while the 'Unabomber' Theodore Kaczynski belongs in the latter. Rewilding is the process of undoing domestication. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... John Zerzan (born 1943) is an American anarchist and primitivist philosopher and author. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


Other green anarchists, mainly techno-positivists, propose other forms of organizations like archology or technates. Look up Technocracy, technocrat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Many green anarchists choose to focus not on philosophical issues for a future society, but on the defense of the earth and social revolution in the present. Resisting systems in the present, and creating alternative, sustainable ways of living are often deemed more important than frivolous protesting.


Practice

The symbol of Earth First!: a Monkey wrench and stone hammer.

Many Green Anarchists hold their ideals passionately, turning words into actions. Organizing themselves through groups like Earth First!, Root Force, or more drastically, the Earth and Animal Liberation Fronts, they may take direct action against what they see as systems of oppression, such as the logging industry, the meat and dairy industries, animal testing laboratories, genetic engineering facilities, and more rarely, government institutions. The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... The symbol of Earth First!: a Monkey wrench and stone hammer Earth First! is a radical environmentalist organization[1] that emerged in the USA, in the great southwestern desert during the spring of 1980. ... Root Force is a biocentric, decentralized, international direct-action campaign devoted to [dismantling] the system that is killing and enslaving [the] planet and its people. ... The Earth Liberation Front (ELF) is the collective name for anonymous and autonomous individuals or groups that, according to the now defunct Earth Liberation Front Press Office, use economic sabotage and guerrilla warfare to stop the exploitation and destruction of the natural environment. ... Beagles stolen by British ALF activists from a testing laboratory owned by the Boots Group. ... For the Canadian urban guerrilla group Direct Action, see Squamish Five. ... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ... Logging is the process in which trees are felled (cut down) usually as part of a timber harvest. ... The meat industry is the industrial aspect of agriculture. ... Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or more properly, an animal husbandry enterprise, raising female cattle for long-term production of milk, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy for processing and eventual retail sale. ... For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ... Kenyans examining insect-resistant transgenic Bt corn. ...


Such actions are normally, though not always, non-violent. Though not necessarily Green anarchists, activists have used the names Animal Rights Militia and Justice Department, among others, to claim responsibility for openly violent attacks. Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... The Animal Rights Militia (ARM) is a name used by animal-rights activists who are prepared to carry out acts of violence against human beings. ... The Justice Department is a militant animal-rights organization, set up in Britain in 1993, and active there and in the United States. ...


See also

Theory Issues Culture By region Lists Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization. ... Deep ecology is a recent branch of ecological philosophy (ecosophy) that considers humankind as an integral part of its environment. ... Deindustrialization is the process by which the manufacturing-based economy of a country or region declines. ... The symbol of Earth First!: a Monkey wrench and stone hammer Earth First! is a radical environmentalist organization[1] that emerged in the USA, in the great southwestern desert during the spring of 1980. ... Ecofeminism is a biocentric environmental movement with cultural and social concerns. ... Eco-socialism or Green socialism is an ideology fusing Green movement values with socialism. ... Green Anarchy is a magazine published three times a year out of Eugene, Oregon by a collective. ... The magazine Green Anarchist was for a while the principle voice in the UK advocating an explicit fusion of libertarian socialist and ecological thinking (Green anarchism), although such ideas had arguably been co-sympathetic for decades if not generations beforehand. ... The term Green Scare, alluding to the Red Scares, periods of fear over communist infiltration of U.S. society, is a term popularized by environmental activists to refer to legal action by the U.S. government against the radical environmentalist movement. ... Green syndicalism has been used as a name for the philosophy of the green guild or sustainable trades movement. ... An intentional community is a planned residential community designed to promote a much higher degree of social interaction than other communities. ... The term Luddite is a political/historical term relating to a political movement during the Industrial Revolution; currently it is primarily used as a pejorative, describing those perceived as being uncompromisingly or unnecessarily opposed to technological innovations. ... Operation Backfire is an ongoing multi-agency criminal investigation, led by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), into destructive acts in the name of animal rights and environmental causes in the United States. ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ... Permaculture Mandala summarising the ethics and principles of permaculture design. ... Seasteading is the concept of homesteading the sea, for example building an artificial island in international waters to establish a tax haven micronation. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Green anarchism: Definition and Links by Encyclopedian.com (447 words)
Green anarchism is a branch of anarchism that focuses on the ecological and environmental[?] aspects of that philosophy - and means of ensuring human respect for ecology, e.g.
Green anarchism is often confused with primitivism or the less extreme eco-anarchism which advocates small-scale eco-villages.
However, not all green anarchists advocate a return to primitive styles of life; many support the use of advanced technology in an ecologically friendly way, and do not see an inherent conflict between human technology and biodiversity.
Anarchism (675 words)
Anarchism is a generic name given to theories and movements which call for the abolition of government and other forms of authority - the simplest possible civics.
Anarchism first achieved mass media attention during the Second Industrial Revolution, when anarchists assassinated rulers of Russia (1881); in the French Republic (1894); in Italy (1900); and in the United States (1901).
Some critics of anarchism suggest that it is a rhetorical form, whereby individuals can cloak the pursuit of their own interests behind an interlocking web of abstract concepts.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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