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Encyclopedia > Greeks
Greeks
(Έλληνες)
Total population

approx. 16,000,000 The noun Greek refers to: A native or inhabitant of Greece, or a person of Greek descent. ... {pd} File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... statue of John Capodistria in Panepistimiou Street, Athens John Capodistria, (in Greek Ioannis Kapodistrias or Ιωάννης Καποδίστριας, and in Italian Giovanni Capo dIstria, Count Capo dIstria) (February 11, 1776 - October 9, 1831), Greek-born diplomat of the Russian Empire and later first head of state of independent Greece... For the Shakespeare play, see Pericles, Prince of Tyre. ... For the Vangelis album, see El Greco (album). ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Greece Greece 10,196,539 (2001 census) [1]
Flag of the United States United States 1,380,258a (2006 estimate) [2]
Flag of Cyprus Cyprus 624,754 (2001 census) [3]
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 400,000 (estimated) [4]
Flag of Australia Australia 365,147 (2006 census) [5]
Flag of Germany Germany 320,000 (2008 estimate) [6]
Flag of Canada Canada 242,685b (2006 census) [7]
Flag of Russia Russia 97,827 (2002 census) [8]
Flag of Ukraine Ukraine 91,500 (2001 census) [9]
Flag of Albania Albania 58,785 (1989 census) [10]
Flag of South Africa South Africa 55,000 (2008 estimate) [11]
Flag of Brazil Brazil 40,000 (2008 estimate) [12]
Flag of Belgium Belgium 35,000 (2008 estimate) [13]
Flag of Argentina Argentina 30,000 (2008 estimate) [14]
Elsewhere see Greek diaspora
Language(s)
Greek
Religion(s)
Predominantly Greek Orthodox[15]
Footnotes

a An estimated 3,000,000 claim Greek descent.[16]
Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ...

b An additional 3,395 Cypriots live in Canada of undeclared ethnicity.

The Greeks (Greek: Έλληνες [ˈelines]) are a nation and ethnic group defined by a common language and culture who populate Greece and nearby regions of the Balkan peninsula and Cyprus. Additionally, there are significant Greek populations throughout various countries due to the Greek diaspora.[17] For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece...


Greek colonies and communities have been historically established in most corners of the Mediterranean but Greeks have always been centered around the Aegean coasts, where Greek has been spoken since antiquity.[18] Until the early 20th century Greeks were uniformly distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, Pontus, Cyprus and Constantinople, regions which coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization.[19] Mediterranean redirects here. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ...


In the aftermath of the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922) in 1923, a large-scale population exchange between Greece and Turkey transferred and confined ethnic Greeks almost entirely into the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. Other ethnic Greek populations can be found from Southern Italy to the Caucasus and in diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, the vast majority of Greeks are at least nominally adherents of Greek Orthodoxy.[20][15] Combatants Greece Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Gen Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Gen Anastasios Papoulas, Gen Georgios Hatzianestis Ali Fethi Okyar, Ä°smet Ä°nönü, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Fevzi Çakmak Strength 200,000 men 120,000 men (plus village protectors) Casualties 23,500 dead; 20,820 captured 20,540 dead; 10,000 wounded The... Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece... Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: HellÄ“northódoxÄ“ EkklÄ“sía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ...

Contents

History

Part of the series on
Greeks

Greek culture
Art · Cinema · Cuisine
Dance · Dress · Literature
Music · Philosophy · Religion
Sport · Television The Culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, with its beginnings in the Mycenaean and Minoan Civilizations, continuing most notably into Classical Greece, through the influence of the Roman Empire and its Greek Eastern successor the Byzantine Empire. ... Greece has a rich and varied artistic history, spanning some 5000 years and beginning in the Cycladic and Minoan prehistorical civilization, giving birth to Western classical art in the ancient period (further developing this during the Hellenistic Period), to taking in the influences of Eastern civilizations and the new religion... Greek cuisine is the cuisine of Greece and of the Greeks . ... Greek dance is a very old and common tradition from the ancient land of Greece. ... The Culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, with its beginnings in the Mycenaean and Minoan Civilizations, continuing most notably into Classical Greece, through the influence of the Roman Empire and its Greek Eastern successor the Byzantine Empire. ... // Main article: Ancient Greek literature Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek from the oldest surviving written works in the Greek language until the 4th century and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. ... History (Timeline and Samples) Genres: Classical music -Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Rock Regional styles Aegean Islands - Arcadia - Argos - Athens - Crete - Cyclades - Dodecanese Islands - Epirus - Ionian Islands - Lesbos - Macedonia - Peloponnesos - Thessaloniki - Thessaly - Thrace - Cyprus The musical legacy of Greece is as diverse as its history. ... Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... // Television broadcasting in Greece began in 1966, with the first network, EPT (Elliniki Radiophonia Tileorassi) broadcasting out of Athens, as a state-owned monopoly. ...

By region or country
(including the diaspora)

Greece · Cyprus
Albania · Argentina · Armenia
Australia · Belgium · Brazil
Bulgaria · Canada · Chile
Egypt · France · R.o.M.
Georgia · Germany · Hungary
Italy · Kazakhstan · Mexico
New Zealand · Panama
Poland · Romania · Russia
Saudi Arabia · Serbia
South Africa · Sweden
Switzerland · Turkey
Ukraine · United Kingdom
United States · Uruguay
Uzbekistan · Venezuela ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece... The Greek community in Serbia is numbering around 15,000 people. ...

Subgroups
Antiochians · Aromanians
Arvanites · Cappadocians
Cypriots · Greek Muslims
Hayhurums · Karamanlides
Macedonians · Maniots
Meglenites · Pontians
Romaniotes · Sarakatsani
Slavophone Greeks
Tsakonians · Urums Antiochian Greeks are the members of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch who have resided in the territory of contemporary Turkish province of Hatay. ... Aromanians (also called: Macedo-Romanians or Aroumans; in Aromanian they call themselves Armãnji, Rrãmãnji) are a people living throughout the southern Balkans, especially in northern Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, and as an emigrant community in Romania (Dobruja). ... Arvanites (Greek: Αρβανίτες, see also below about names) are a population group in Greece who traditionally speak Arvanitika, a form of Albanian. ... Cappadocian, also known as Cappadocian Greek or Asia Minor Greek, is a dialect of the Greek language, formerly spoken in Cappadocia (Central Turkey). ... Greek Muslims, also known as Greek-speaking Muslims, are Muslims of Greek ethnic origin, and are found primarily in Turkey, Cyprus, and Greece, although migrations to Lebanon and Syria have been reported[1]. The vast majority of the autochthonous Muslim minority in Greece (including the Greek-speaking Muslims), most of... Hayhurum is the name given to Armenian-speaking Christians who are members of Greek Orthodox Church. ... Karamanlides are a Turkish-speaking ethnic group that are of Orthodox Christian faith. ... A map showing Mani. ... Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Megleno-Romanians in dark yellow Megleno-Romanians (In Megleno-Romanian: Vlashi, in Greek: Βλαχομογλενίτες Vlachomoglenítes) is an exonym for a people inhabiting six villages in the Moglená (Μογλενά) region of Macedonia spanning the Pella and Kilkis prefectures of Macedonia, Greece, as well as the... The term Pontic Greeks, Pontian Greeks, Pontians or Greeks of Pontus (Greek: or , Turkish: ) can refer to Greeks specifically from the area of Pontus in the region of the former Empire of Trebizond on the Black Sea coast of Eastern Turkey, or in other cases more generally all Greeks from... Language(s) Greek, Yevanic and the local languages of the areas where they live. ... For the dog breed, see Bulgarian Shepherd Dog. ... A Tsakonian (Greek: Τσάκωνας Tsákonas) is a speaker of Tsakonian, or more broadly, one who lives in a traditionally Tsakonian-speaking area and follows certain Tsakonian cultural traditions, such as the Tsakonian dance, even if that person is no longer able to speak Tsakonian fluently. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

Religion
Greek Orthodox Church
Roman Catholicism
Greek Catholicism
Greek Evangelicalism
Judaism · Islam
Neopaganism Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Hellēnorthódoxē Ekklēsía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Greece is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... The Greek Byzantine Catholic Church is a particular Church within the Roman Catholic Church and uses the Byzantine liturgical rite in the Greek language. ... The Greek Evangelical Church (Greek: Ελληνική Ευαγγελική Εκκλησία Elliniki Evangeliki Ekklisia) is a Protestant denomination in Greece. ... There have been organized Jewish communities in Greece for more than two thousand years. ... A disused mosque or dzami outside of Ioannina, which became part of Greece in 1913. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hellenic polytheism. ...

Languages and dialects
Greek
Calabrian Greek
Cappadocian Greek
Cretan Greek · Griko
Cypriot Greek · Pontic Greek
Tsakonian · Yevanic
Meglenitic · Aromanian
Arvanitika · Slavika
Karamanlidika · Urum The Greek-Calabrian dialect or Greek-Bovesian is the version of Italian Greek used in Calabria, as opposed to the other Italian-Greek dialect spoken in the Grecìa Salentina, remnant of the ancient and Byzantine Greek colonisation of the region. ... Cappadocian, also known as Cappadocian Greek or Asia Minor Greek, is a dialect of the Greek language, formerly spoken in Cappadocia (Central Turkey). ... Cretan Greek (Cretan dialect, Greek: Κρητική διάλεκτος or Kritika Κρητικά) is a dialect of the Greek language, spoken by more than half a million people in Crete and several thousands in the diaspora. ... Griko, sometimes spelled Grico, is a Modern Greek dialect which is spoken by people in the Magna Graecia region in southern Italy and Sicily, and it is otherwise known as the Grecanic language. ... This article is about the modern Greek dialect of Cyprus. ... Pontic Greek is a form of the Greek language originally spoken on the shores of the Black Sea, the Pontus, today mainly in Greece. ... Tsakonian (also Tsakonic) (Standard Greek Τσακωνική Διάλεκτος — Tsakonic language — is a dialect of, or language closely related to, Standard Modern Greek, spoken in the Tsakonian region of the Peloponnese, Greece. ... Yevanic, otherwise known as Yevanika, Romaniote and Judeo-Greek, was the language of the Romaniotes, the group of Greek Jews whose existence in Greece is documented since the 4th century BCE. Its linguistic lineage stems from Attic Greek and the Hellenistic Koine (Κοινή Ελληνική) and includes Hebrew elements as well. ... Megleno-Romanian (known as VlăheÅŸte by speakers and Moglenitic, Meglenitic or Megleno-Romanian by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian, and Romanian spoken in the Moglená region of Greece, in a few villages in the Republic of Macedonia and also in a few villages in Romania. ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Arvanitika or Arvanitic (native name: arbërisht, Greek: αρβανίτικα arvanitika) is the variety of Albanian traditionally spoken by the Arvanites, a population group in Greece. ... Slavic (Greek: σλάβικα slávika, also referred to as εντόπια entópia (meaning local), reported self-identifying names: makedonski, slavomakedonski (Macedonian), pomashki, bugarski, balgarski (Bulgarian) [1]) are terms sometimes used to designate the dialects spoken by the Slavophone (i. ... Turkish ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ... Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in Georgia. ...

History This article covers the Greek civilization. ...

v  d  e

Greek has been spoken in the Greek peninsula (i.e. the southern Balkan region) for over 3,500 years and in western Asia Minor for a little less.[21] It has an almost unbroken literary history which makes it one of the oldest surviving branches of the Indo-European languages. From Ancient Greece the Greeks have inherited a sophisticated culture and language documented over three millennia.[22] Balkan redirects here. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ...


Greece was the first modern state to be created in the Balkans when the Greeks liberated a part of their historic homelands from the Ottoman Empire. The large Greek Diaspora and merchant class were instrumental in transmitting the ideas of western Romantic nationalism and Philhellenism. These, together with the conception of Hellenism formulated during the last centuries of the Eastern Roman Empire, formed the basis of the Greek Enlightenment. [23] Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Philhellenism (the love of Greek culture) was the intellectual fashion at the turn of the 19th century that led Europeans like Lord Byron to lend their support for the Greek movement towards independence from the Ottoman Empire. ...


Mycenaean

Further information: Mycenaean Greece
Kouros,Archaic period
Kouros,Archaic period

The proto-Greeks arrived in the area now referred to as 'Greece' (the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula) at the end of the third millennium BCE. There they mingled with the native pre-Hellenic populations and by the 16th century BCE this fusion had created the civilization we call Mycenaean today.[24] The Mycenaeans were the first Greek speaking people, as attested by the Iliad and Odyssey and later the deciphering of their Linear B script. The language behind the script was found to be an early form of Greek.[25] Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The great kouros of Samos, the largest surviving kouros in Greece (Samos Archaeological Museum) A kouros (plural kouroi) is a statue of a male youth, dating from the Archaic Period of Greek sculpture (about 650 BC to about 500 BC). ... (Redirected from 16th century BCE) (17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC - other centuries) (1600s BC - 1590s BC - 1580s BC - 1570s BC - 1560s BC - 1550s BC - 1540s BC - 1530s BC - 1520s BC - 1510s BC - 1500s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... This article is about Homers epic poem. ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ...


The Mycenaeans quickly penetrated the Aegean and by the 15th century BCE had reached Rhodes, Crete, Cyprus and the shores of Asia Minor. From 1,200 BCE the Dorians, another Greek speaking people, followed from Epirus. The Dorian Migration was followed by a poorly attested period of migrations, appropriately called the Greek Dark Ages, but by 800 BCE the landscape of Classical Greece was discernible.[citation needed] Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... This article or section should include material from Dorian invasion The Dorians were one of the ancient Hellenic (Greek) races. ... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... The Greek Dark Ages (ca. ...


There are some elements of cultural continuity between the Greek Dark Ages or Early Iron Age (1100 BCE - 750 BCE), and the Archaic and Classical Greece (750 BCE onwards) of the Polis. In the Odyssey and the Iliad, the Greeks of Prehistory are viewed as the forefathers of the early classical civilization of Homer's own time.[26] Achilles and Odysseus were viewed by Greeks as examples of the ideal citizen of a Polis.[citation needed] Parthenon This article is on the term Classical Greece itself. ... A polis (πόλις, pronunciation pol-is) plural: poleis (πόλεις) is a city, a city-state and also citizenship and body of citizens. ... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ...


The Mycenaean pantheon included many of the divinities attested in later Greek religion including Zeus, Poseidon, Athena, Artemis, Ares-"Enyalios", Hermes, Dionysus and Eilithyia. It was also influenced by the Minoan pantheon. There was some continuity of religion and cult from the Late Bronze Age into later Greek times.[27] Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, there for the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... This is the Greek name of the capital of the Hellenic Republic (Greece). ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient Greek god; for other uses, see Ares (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ...

Classical

Main article: Ancient Greece
Further information: Ancient Greek dialects and Greek tribes

The classical period of Greek civilization covers a time span from the early fifth century BCE to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BCE. It is so named because it set the standards by which Greek civilization would be judged in later eras. In that time Greeks contributed to the future development of arts and sciences by creating a legacy of influence upon Western civilization.[28] The ethnogenessis of the Greek nation is marked by the first Olympic Games in 776 BCE when the idea of a common Hellenism amongst the Greek speaking tribes was first translated into a shared cultural experience.[17] Hellenism was supremely a matter of common culture. [17] I took this myself File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... I took this myself File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Winged Victory of Samothrace The Winged Victory of Samothrace, also called Nike of Samothrace, is a marble sculpture of the Greek goddess Nike (Victory), discovered in 1863 on the island of Samothrace (Greek Samothraki) by the French consul and amateur archaeologist Charles Champoiseau. ... This article is about the museum. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Ancient Greek, in classical antiquity before the development of the Koiné as the lingua franca of Hellenism, was divided into several dialects. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


Herodotus writes that the Athenians declared, before the battle of Plataea, that they would not go over to Mardonius, because in the first place, they were bound to avenge the burning of the Acropolis; and, secondly, they would not betray their fellow Greeks, to whom they were bound by:[29] Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Pausanias Mardonius â€  Strength 110,000 (Herodotus) ~40,000 (Modern Consensus) 300,000 (Herodotus) 50,000-70,000 [1][2][3] (Modern Consensus) Casualties 10,000+ (Ephorus and Diodorus) 1,360 (Plutarch) 759 (Herodotus) 43,000 survived (Herodotus) The Battle of Plataea was the final... Mardonius was a Persian commander during the Persian Wars with Greece in the 5th century BC. He was the son of Gobryas and the son-in-law of Darius I of Persia, whose daughter Artozostra he had married. ... Acropolis (Gr. ...

  • A common language (ομόγλωσσον homoglosson – the use of one of the dialects of the Greek language),
  • Common blood (όμαιμον homaimon – descent from Hellen, son of Deucalion),
  • Common shrines, statues and sacrifices (practice of the ancient Greek religion)
  • Common habits and customs.

As Thucydides observes the name of Hellas spread from a valley in Thessaly to the Greek-speaking populations sometime after the compositions of Homer (the Panellenes of Iliad 2.530 are the troops of Thessaly,[30] contrasting with the Achaeans) and not long before his own time.[31] Hellen, combined into one group the smaller tribes that participated in the Delphic Amphictyon, such as the Aeolians, the Achaeans, and the Dorians.[32] Note: Hellen was not the same person as Helen of Troy, or Helenus, son of King Priam of Troy. ... Deucalion In Greek mythology, Deucalion, or Deukálion (new-wine sailor) was the name of at least two figures: a son of Prometheus, and a son of Minos. ... Shrine is also used as a conventional translation of the Japanese Jinja. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, thus the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... The Achaeans (in Greek , Achaioi) is the collective name given to the Greek forces in Homers Iliad (used 598 times). ... The Amphictyonic League (Amphictyony) was a form of Greek Hellenic religious organization that was formed to support specific temple or sacred place. ... The Aeolians were one of the ancient Greek tribes. ...

As early as the 5th century BCE, Isocrates, after speaking of common origin and religion, says: "the name Hellenes suggests no longer a race but a culture and education,... the title Hellenes is applied best to those who share our culture rather than to those who share our common blood".[33] Following Alexander the Great's conquests, Greek became the lingua franca of the Eastern Mediterranean and was widely spoken by educated non-Greeks. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 343 × 598 pixel Image in higher resolution (1048 × 1828 pixel, file size: 322 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pericles User:Phantis... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 343 × 598 pixel Image in higher resolution (1048 × 1828 pixel, file size: 322 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pericles User:Phantis... For the Shakespeare play, see Pericles, Prince of Tyre. ... Kresilas was a Greek sculptor from Kydonia. ... Berlin, Old Museum, June 2003 The Altes Museum or Old Museum (until 1845 Royal Museum) located on Berlins Museum Island was built between 1825 and 1828 by the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the neoclassical style to house the Prussian Royal familys art collection. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Isocrates (436–338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


However, while the Greeks of the Classical era understood themselves to belong to a common Greek ethnicity their first loyalty was to their city and they saw nothing incongruous about warring, often brutally, with other Greek Polis'. The Peloponnesian War, a large scale Greek "civil" war between Athens and Sparta and their allies, is a notable such incident which highlights the lack of a common national (as opposed to ethnic) identity among Greeks. This local patriotism, (topikismos) remains a part of Greek culture.[34] A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... A polis (πόλις, pronunciation pol-is) plural: poleis (πόλεις) is a city, a city-state and also citizenship and body of citizens. ... Athenian War redirects here. ...


The feuding Greek city states were only united under the banner of Alexander the Great's Panhellenic ideals, though some might contend that Macedon’s overwhelming military strength might have played a role. Regardless, the combined armies of Greece were pointed at the Greek's nemesis, the Persian Empire.[35] Following victories at the battles of Granicus, Issus and Gaugamela the Greeks toppled the world's largest empire. Greek armies advanced as far as modern day India and Tajikistan, setting up colonies and trade routes along the way. While the empire created did not survive Alexander’s death, the cultural implications of the spread of Hellenism across most of the known world were to prove long lived. Two thousand years later there are still communities like the Kalash in Pakistan and the Nuristani in Afghanistan who claim to be descended from Greek settlers.[35][36] Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... Combatants Macedon Greek allies Persia Greek mercenaries Commanders Alexander the Great Spithridates, Mithridates, Memnon of Rhodes, other Strength 5,000 cavalry 26,000 infantry 15,000 cavalry 12,000 Persian infantry 4-5,000 Greek mercenaries Casualties Between 100-200 4,000 killed 2,000 captured {{{notes}}} The Battle of... For other uses, see Battle of Issus (disambiguation). ... Combatants Macedon Achaemenid Persia Commanders Alexander the Great Darius III Strength 9,000 peltasts,[1] 31,000 hoplites,[1][2] 7,000 cavalry[2] 1,000,000 total (See Size of Persian army) Casualties 4,000 40,000[3] The Battle of Gaugamela (IPA: ) took place in 331 BC between... For other uses, see Kalash (disambiguation). ... The Nuristani are a religious/ethnic group in the Nurestan Province of Afghanistan. ...

Hellenistic

Further information: Hellenistic civilization

When Alexander the Great's armies overthrew the Persian Empire and spread Greek culture from the Adriatic to the Indian Ocean they were laying the foundations for a new era. The beginning of the Hellenistic age is usually placed at Alexander's death. This Hellenistic age, so called because it witnessed the partial hellenization of many non-Greek cultures and a combination of Greek, Middle Eastern and Indian elements, lasted until the conquest of Egypt by Rome in 30 BCE. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bust of Richard Bently by Roubiliac A bust is a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ... Cleopatra redirects here. ... The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt began following Alexander the Greats conquest in 332 BC and ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. It was founded when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt, creating a powerful Hellenistic state from southern Syria... The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Persia redirects here. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Hellenization (or Hellenisation) is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Greek becomes Greek (Hellenistic civilization). ... The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt began following Alexander the Greats conquest in 332 BC and ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. It was founded when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt, creating a powerful Hellenistic state from southern Syria...


This age saw the Greeks move towards larger cities and a reduction in the importance of the city-state. These larger cities were parts of the still larger Kingdoms of the Diadochi. Greeks however remained aware of their past, chiefly through the study of the works of Homer and the Classical authors.[37] An important factor in maintaining Greek identity was contact with barbarian (non-Greek) peoples which was deepened in the new cosmopolitan environment of the multi ethnic Hellenistic Kingdoms. This led to a strong desire among Greeks to organize the transmission of Hellenic paideia to the next generation.[38] In general Diadochi (in Greek Διάδοχοι, transcripted Diadochoi) means successors, such that the neoplatonic refounders of Platos Academy in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato). ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ... To the ancient Greeks, Paideia (παιδεία) was the process of educating man into his true form, the real and genuine human nature. ...


In the religious sphere, this was a period of profound change. The spiritual revolution that took place saw a waning of the old Greek religion, whose decline beginning in the 3rd century BCE continued with the introduction of new religious movements from the East.[39] The cults of deities like Isis and Mithra were introduced into the Greek world.[40] In the Indo-Greek kingdoms of the East and the Greco-Bactrian a new Hellenized form of a local religion was spreading, Greco-Buddhism and Greco-Buddhist missionaries would play an important role in propagating it to China.[41] Further East, the Greeks of Alexandria Eschate who introduced the cultivation of grapes to the Far East, became known to the Chinese as the Dayuan.[42] This article discusses the ancient goddess Isis. ... Mithra (Avestan Miθra, modern Persian مهر Mihr, Mehr, Meher) is an important deity or divine concept (so called Yazata) in Zoroastrianism and later Persian mythology and culture. ... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st-2nd century CE, Gandhara (Modern Pakistan). ... Alexandria Eschate (Greek , “Alexandria the Furthest”) was founded by Alexander the Great in 329 BCE as his most advanced base in Central Asia. ... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ...

Roman

Main article: Byzantine Greeks
The 11th century Trebizond Gospel was commissioned by the Komnenoi. Scenes of marriage and family life. Left illumination is a scene of marriage. The right illumination depicts a conversation among family members.

The new Eastern Religions introduced into the Greek world paved the way for the expansion of Christianity among Roman era Greeks. Early Christianity was profoundly shaped by the Greek world of ideas and the Greek speaking Christians (the so called εξ ελλήνων χριστιανοί or Hellenists) formed the majority of the Early Church and provided most of the Greek Fathers.[40] Eventually the word Hellene came to mean a Hellenic polytheist or a pagan in general and Greek speakers referred to themselves as Rhomaioi (Romans in Greek, an ethnonym still in use today). Distinctions of ethnicity still existed in the Roman empire, but became secondary to religious considerations. The renewed empire used Christianity as a tool to maintain its cohesion and promoted a robust Roman national identity. [43] Byzantine Greeks or Byzantines, is a conventional term used by modern historians to refer to the medieval Greek or Hellenized citizens of the Byzantine Empire, centered mainly in Constantinople, southern Balkans, the Greek islands, the coasts of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and the large urban centres of Near East and... Image File history File links Trapezunt_gospel. ... Illumination representing Mark the Evangelist. ... Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus The Comnenus or Komnenos family was an important dynasty in the history of the Byzantine Empire. ... // Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Early Christianity is the Christianity of the three centuries between the death of Jesus ( 30) and the First Council of Nicaea (325). ... The Early Christians is a term used to refer to the early followers of Jesus of Nazareth, before the emergence of established Christian orthodoxy. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


The Eastern Roman Empire (which was later misnamed by Western historians as the Byzantine Empire, a name that would have meant nothing to Greek speakers of the era[44]) was dominated by Greek culture to such an extent that Emperor Heraclius (575 CE - 641 CE) finally decided to make Greek the Roman Empire's official language. [45] From then on, the Roman and Greek cultures were virtually fused in the East into a single Greco-Roman world. By that time, the Latin West had began referring to the Eastern Roman Empire as Empire of the Greeks (Imperium Graecorum).[46] Greek speakers at the time however referred to themselves as Rhomaioi (Romans) and were conscious and proud of their Roman Imperial and Christian religious heritages.[44] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... For the Patriarch of Jerusalem, see Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem. ... The Greco-Roman period of history refers to the culture of the peoples who were incorporated into the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ...

"At least three quarters of the ancient Greek classics that survived did so through Byzantine manuscripts."
Michael H. Harris[47]
"Much of what we know about antiquity – especially Hellenic and Roman literature and Roman law - would have been lost forever, if it weren’t for the scholars and the scribes of Constantinople."
J.J. Norwich[48]

The Roman Greeks contributed to Western Civilization by their preservation of the literature of the Classical era: Byzantine grammarians were those principally responsible for carrying, in person and in writing, ancient Greek grammatical and literary studies to early Renaissance Italy to which the influx of Greek scholars gave a major boost. [49] Roman Greeks never stopped teaching Homer and the Classics and cultivated the philosophical schools of Platonism and Aristotelism for over two millennia, until the Fall of Constantinople in the 15th century. [50] For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance -French Renaissance -German Renaissance -English Renaissance The Italian Renaissance was the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century following the Middle Ages. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires...


To the Slavic world Roman Greeks contributed by the dissemination of literacy and Christianity. The most notable example of the later was the work of the two Rhomaioi brothers Saints Cyril and Methodius from Thessalonica, who are credited today with inventing the first Slavic alphabet.[51] For details about each of the saints, see Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius. ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Tablet inscribed with the Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavonic alphabet. ...


A distinct Greek nationalism re-emerged in the 11th century within specific circles and became more forceful after the fall of Constantinople to the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade in 1204, and the establishment of a number of Greek kingdoms (such as the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus).[52] When the empire was revived in 1261, it became in many ways a Greek national state. Adherence to Greek Orthodox rites and the Greek language, became the defining characteristic of its people. That new notion of nationhood engendered a deep interest in the classical past. There was a powerful secularist tradition in this, culminating in the ideas of the Neo-Platonist Byzantine philosopher George Gemistus Plethon who wished to revive the ancient Greek religion. However it was the combination of Orthodoxy with a specifically Greek identity that shaped the Byzantine Greeks notions of themselves in the empire's twilight years.[52] Belligerents Crusaders Holy Roman Empire Republic of Venice Montferret Champagne Blois Amiens ÃŽle-de-France Saint-Pol Burgundy Flanders Balkans Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Hungary Croatia Dalmatia Commanders Otto IV Boniface I Theobald I Lois I Alexios V Doukas Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Emeric I The Fourth Crusade... The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. ... The Despotate of Epirus was one of the medieval Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire, founded in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... Georgius Gemistos Plethon (or Pletho), (c. ...

Ottoman

Hermes o Logios, Greek literary magazine of the 18th and 19th c.
Hermes o Logios, Greek literary magazine of the 18th and 19th c.
Further information: Phanariotes

Under the Ottoman Empire's millet system, religion was the defining characteristic of "national" groups (milletler), so the exonym "Greeks" (Rumlar from the name Rhomaioi) was applied by the Ottomans to all members of the Orthodox Church, regardless of their language or ethnic origin. Conversely, those who adopted Islam during that period were considered part of the same Muslim millet, regardless of their language or origin.[23] The Greek speakers were the only ethnic group to actually call themselves Rhomaioi, (as opposed to being so named by others) and some even considered their ethnicity (genos) to be Hellenic.[53] For most Greek speakers however the Hellenes were an ancient, semi-mythical race of giants to whom they were inferior in strength and achievement. [54] For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... An image of the extravagance attributed to Phanariotes in Wallachia: Nicholas Mavrogenes riding through Bucharest in a deer-drawn carriage (late 1780s) Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks (Greek: Φαναριώτες, Romanian: Fanarioţi) were members of those prominent Greek families residing in Phanar[1] (Φανάρι, modern Fener),[2] the chief Greek quarter of... Millet (stress on the e) is an Ottoman Turkish term for a legally protected religious minority. ... An exonym is a name for a place or people that is created by people outside of that place and is different from the name used in the native language. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Eastern Christianity. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


The roots of Greek success in the Ottoman Empire can be traced to the Greek tradition of education and the need of the Ottomans for skilled and educated negotiators as the power of their empire declined and they were compelled to rely on treaties more than force of arms.[55] However it was the wealth of the extensive Greek merchant class that provided the material basis for the intellectual revival that was the prominent feature of Greek life in the half century and more leading to the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821. Impelled by the brand of local patriotism that has always been of feature of the Greek world they endowed libraries and schools. Not coincidentally, on the eve of 1821 the three most important centres of Greek learning, schools-cum-universities, were situated in Chios, Smyrna and Aivali, all three major centres of Greek commerce.[56] Starting in the 15th century many Greeks sought better employment and education opportunities by leaving for the West, particularly Italy but also Central Europe and Germany as well as Russia. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... Chios (IPA: )[2] (Greek: , alternative transliterations Khios and Hios) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea seven kilometres (five miles) off the Turkish coast. ... Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today Ä°zmir in Turkey) that was founded by ancient Greeks at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. ... Occident redirects here. ... By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance -French Renaissance -German Renaissance -English Renaissance The Italian Renaissance was the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century following the Middle Ages. ...

Modern

Greek heroine Manto Mavrogenous, by Adam Friedel, 1827.
Greek heroine Manto Mavrogenous, by Adam Friedel, 1827.
Main articles: Diafotismos and Greek War of Independence

This relationship between ethnic Greek identity and Greek Orthodox religion continued after the creation of the modern Greek state in 1830. According to the second article of the first Greek constitution of 1822 a Greek was defined as any Christian resident of the Kingdom of Greece, a clause removed by 1840.[57] A century later, when the Treaty of Lausanne was signed between Greece and Turkey in 1923, the two countries agreed to use religion as the determinant for ethnic identity for the purposes of population exchange.[58] Manto Mavrogenous Manto Magdalena Mavrogenous (Greek: Μαντώ Μαγδαληνή Μαυρογένους), (1796-July 1840) was a Greek heroine of the Greek War of Independence in 1821. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wikisource. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty signed in Lausanne that settled the Anatolian part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by annulment of the Treaty of Sèvres signed by the Ottoman Empire as the consequences of the...


While the majority of Greeks today are descended from Greek speaking Rhomioi there are sizeable groups of ethnic Greeks who trace their descent to Aromanian-speaking Vlachs, Albanian-speaking Arvanites and Slavic-speaking Greeks.[59] None of the latter groups were ever considered less Greek than the Rhomioi and their contribution to the liberation and foundation of the modern Greek state was decisive.[60] Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Vlachs (also called Vallachians, Wallachians, Wlachs, Wallachs, Olahs or Ulahs, Macedonian: Власи Vlasi, Greek: , Albanian: Vllehë, Turkish: , Ukrainian: , Polish: ) is a blanket term covering several modern Latin peoples (linguistic) descending from the Latinised population in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. ... Arvanitika or Arvanitic (native name: arbërisht, Greek: αρβανίτικα arvanitika) is the variety of Albanian traditionally spoken by the Arvanites, a population group in Greece. ... Arvanites (Greek: Αρβανίτες, see also below about names) are a population group in Greece who traditionally speak Arvanitika, a form of Albanian. ...


In many important respects, the Greek state adhered from its founding to remarkably secular principles. For instance, Jews were granted full citizens rights in 1830, the year Greece's independence was formally recognized, thus making Greece one of the first states in Europe with an emancipated Jewish community. This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Dates of Jewish emancipation. ...


Today, the deeper integration of Greece into the Western strategic system and the effects of migration (both emigration from Greece in the 1950s and 1960s, and immigration into Greece in more recent years) have led to a perception of multiculturalism similar to that of Western European nations. The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ...

Identity

Greek heroine Laskarina Bouboulina, 1827 lithograph.
Greek heroine Laskarina Bouboulina, 1827 lithograph.

The terms used to define Greekness have varied throughout history. By Western standards, the term Greeks has traditionally referred to any native speakers of the Greek language, whether Mycenaean, Byzantine or modern Greek. While Byzantine Greeks called themselves Rhomioi, they valued the classical tradition, considered themselves the political heirs of Rome, and deemed themselves the ethnic, cultural, and literary heirs of ancient Greece.[61] The use of the older self-descriptive ethnic term Hellenes begun to be revived during the era following the Greco-Latin clashes between the Greeks and the Western Crusaders in the 12th century. It regained some popularity through its use by late Byzantine Emperors and scholars such as Gemistus Pletho and Ciriaco Pizzicolli.[52] It became fairly common with the emergence, in the late 18th century, of the nation-state and its gradual consolidation, but it was not until the early 19th century that its popular use was firmly re-established.[23] Image File history File links Bouboulina_Friedel_engraving_1827. ... Image File history File links Bouboulina_Friedel_engraving_1827. ... An 1827 engraving of Bouboulina by Friedel. ... Mycenaean is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, spoken on the Greek mainland and on Crete in the 16th to 11th centuries BC, before the Dorian invasion. ... Medieval Greek (Μεσαιωνική Ελληνική) is a linguistic term that describes the fourth period in the history of the Greek language. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. ... Georgius Gemistos (or Plethon, Pletho), (c. ... Ciriaco Pizzicolli (full: Ciriaco dei Pizzicolli), also known as Cyriac of Ancona (c. ...


The Greeks today are a nation in the meaning of an ethnos (έθνος in Greek), defined by possessing Greek culture, and having a Greek mother tongue, rather than by citizenship, race, religion or by being subjects of any particular state. However, Greeks are also identified as a genos (γένος in Greek) in the sense that most share a common ancestry. The term Greek also referred to the Eastern Orthodox Christian inhabitants of the Rum Millet of the Ottoman Empire.[23] The term Ethnicity redirects here. ... The Culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, with its beginnings in the Mycenaean and Minoan Civilizations, continuing most notably into Classical Greece, through the influence of the Roman Empire and its Greek Eastern successor the Byzantine Empire. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ... Genos (plural gene, clan) is the ancient Greek term for small kinship groups which identified themselves as a unit, referred to by a single name. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ...

Polyonymity

Main article: Names of the Greeks
Family group on a funerary stele from Athens, National Archaeological Museum, Athens
Family group on a funerary stele from Athens, National Archaeological Museum, Athens

Throughout the centuries, the Greeks have been known by a number of names, including: The Greeks have been known by a number of different names throughout history. ...

  • Hellenes (Έλληνες) - In mythology, Hellen, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha (the Greek equivalents of Adam and Eve and Noah), received from the nymph Orseis three sons, Aeolus, Dorus and Xuthus. Aeolus and Dorus, and two sons of Xuthus, Achaeus and Ion were the legendary founders, respectively, of the four principal tribes of Hellas, the Aeolians, Dorians, Achaeans and Ionians. Originally, only members of a small tribe in Thessaly were called Hellenes,[62] but the term soon extended to the rest of the peninsula and came to encompass all Greek speakers. In early Christian times Hellene came to mean "pagan". It remains in Greece today, the primary national name.[52]
  • Greeks (Γραικοί) - In mythology, Graecus was the brother of Latinus and nephew of Hellen.[63] It was the name of a Boeotian tribe (Graii lit. gray)[64] that migrated to the Italian peninsula in the 8th century BCE and, probably through contact with natives there, came to represent all Greek speakers.[65] Aristotle and Apollodorus mention that it was the name used by Greeks before adopting the name Hellenes.[66] It was later re-borrowed as an ethnonym by the Greeks themselves.[67]
  • Rhomioi (Ρωμιοί) - Romans is the name by which the Byzantine Greeks called themselves during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages while the term Byzantine would have been meaningless to them. The name in antiquity signified the inhabitants of the city of Rome in Italy, but after Caracalla's decree and the gradual formation of a Roman national identity among imperial subjects, it soon lost its exclusive connection with the Latins. Later, while in the West the term Roman acquired a new meaning in connection with the church and the Pope of Rome the Greek form Romaioi remained attached to the Greeks of the Eastern Roman Empire who still call themselves by that name today.[68] The term Roman (Ρωμαίος) represented for the Greeks their Roman citizenship and the word Romaioi came to represent the Greek inhabitants of the Byzantine Empire. Among Greeks it remains the most often used national name after Hellene and it is used by Turkey to signify the Greek Orthodox minority. It is found also in the Koran; Surah 30 is entitled Ar-Rum, variously translated as The Romans, Byzantines, or Greeks.
  • Achaeans, Argives, and Danaans are names used interchangeably by Homer, to signify the Greek allied forces. Danaans is attested in the Aeneid phrase timeo Danaos et dona ferentes, (engl. beware of Greeks bearing gifts)[69]
  • Yavan or 'Javan', traditionally in Hebrew, Javan was the name of the tribe (and then the nation) which, according to the Torah, migrated from early Biblical times to establish the Balkan peninsula.[70]
  • Yona or Yavana, (Ίωνες), were names used by Indians who encountered Alexander the Great and his successors who ruled areas of Central Asia. Originally from the Persian Yauna, itself a transliteration of the Greek Ionia, is the name by which the Greeks are known in the East today. The term became established in Asia by the Persians, who were in contact with the Ionian tribes in western Asia Minor from the 6th century BCE and extended the name to all Hellenes.[71]

Note: Hellen was not the same person as Helen of Troy, or Helenus, son of King Priam of Troy. ... Deucalion In Greek mythology, Deucalion, or Deukálion (new-wine sailor) was the name of at least two figures: a son of Prometheus, and a son of Minos. ... Deucalion and Pyrrha throwing rocks that become babies. ... In Greek mythology, Orseis, (Greek: ) was the water-nymph (Naiad) of a spring in Thessalia, Greece, and the mythical ancestor of the Greeks. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In Greek mythology, Dorus is the name of several individuals: Dorus was a son of Hellen and founder of the Dorian nation. ... In Greek mythology, Xuthus (Classical Greek ) was a son of Hellen and Orseis and founder (through his sons) of the Achaean and Ionian nations. ... For other uses, see Achaeus. ... According to Greek mythology, Ionas (sometimes called also Ion) was the illegitimate child of Creüsa, daughter of Erechtheus and wife of Xuthus. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, thus the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... Graecus (or Græcus in Greek ) was, according to Hesiods (probably) Eoiae (Greek : Ηοίαι) or Catalogue of Women[1] on the origin of the Greeks, the son of Pandora and Zeus and brother of Magnetas and Macedon. ... Latinus or Latinos in Greek mythology, in Hesiods Theogony, was the son of Odysseus and Circe who ruled the Tyrsenoi, that is the Etruscans, with his brothers Agrius and Telegonus. ... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Apollodorus was a common name in ancient Greece. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Constitutio Antoniniana (Latin: Constitution [or Edict] of Antoninus) was an edict issued in 212, by the Roman Emperor Caracalla. ... The Latins were an ancient Italic people who migrated to central Italy, (Latium Vetus - Old Latium), in the 2nd millennium B.C., maybe from the Adriatic East Coast and Balkanic Area, perhaps from pressures by Illyrian peoples. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Surat Ar-Rum (The Romans, The Byzantines) is the 30th sura of the Quran with 60 ayat. ... The Achaeans (in Greek , Achaioi) is the collective name given to the Greek forces in Homers Iliad (used 598 times). ... Argos (Greek: Άργος, Árgos) is a city in Greece in the Peloponnesus near Nafplio, which was its historic harbor, named for Nauplius. ... This article is about the ancient people of the Achaeans. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story... The Biblical character Javan (Hebrew יָוָן, Standard Hebrew Yavan, Tiberian Hebrew Yāwān) was the fourth son of Noahs son Japheth. ... For the village on Guam, see Yona Yona is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greek speakers. ... Farsi redirects here. ... For the village on Guam, see Yona Yona is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greek speakers. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ...

Genetic origins

Modern studies have constructed Greek genetic trees revealing a strong degree of homogeneity between Greeks from different geographical locations. Median networks revealed that most of the Greek haplotypes are clustered to the five known haplogroups and that a number of haplotypes are shared among Greeks and other European and Near Eastern populations. Within the loci studied, the genetic composition of the Greeks indicates a significantly low level of heterogeneity compared with other European populations.[72][73] The levels of the R1a1 haplotype, associated by some with Slavic migrations,[74] have been found to be less than 12% (by way of comparison the relevant percentage for Syria is 10% and Poland 60%).[75] This confirms other studies that disprove the thesis that the Greeks have mingled substantially with Slavic people.[76][77] A 7%–22% contribution of Y chromosomes by Greeks to Southern Italy was estimated by admixture analysis in the same study.[76] Yet other studies point out the significant frequency drop of the R1a marker over the short geographic distance between Greece and its slavic northern neighbours.[78] This article is about the general scientific term. ... A haplogroup is a large group of haplotypes, which are series of alleles at specific locations on the chromosome. ... A haplotype, a contraction of the phrase haploid genotype, is the genetic constitution of an individual chromosome. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup R1a1 (M17) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup, that is spread across Eurasia. ... Magna Graecia (Latin for Greater Greece, Megalê Hellas/Μεγάλη Ελλάς in Greek) is the name of an area in ancient southern Italy and Sicily that was colonised by ancient Greek settlers in the 8th century BCE. Originally, Magna Graecia was the name used by the Romans to describe the greater...


Modern scholars and scientists have supported the notion that there is a racial connection to the ancient Greeks. Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi, and Alberto Piazza, have found evidence of a genetic connection between the ancient and modern Greeks.[79] Recent genetic analyses of Greek populations have provided evidence of statistically significant continuity between ancient and modern Greeks (low admixture attributed to genetic isolation due to physical barriers).[80][81][82][83] Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (born January 25, 1922) is an Italian population geneticist born in Genoa, who has been a professor at Stanford University since 1970 (now emeritus). ...


Modern and ancient

Some authors in the West and Turkey[84] have posited that the Greeks of today are not culturally or demographically related to the Greeks of classical antiquity. Notable among them was 19th century Austrian historian Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer. Fallmerayer averred that demographic continuity in Greece was interrupted brutally by successive waves of invasion and migration between the sixth and eighth centuries by Avars, Slavs, and Albanians who occupied and settled in most of Central Greece and the Peloponnese.[85] According to this narrative, the centre of gravity of the ancient Greek ethnos was shifted outside the boundaries of modern Greece, and so the "demographic evidence is at best tenuous, at worst non-existent".[85] The traditional view has it that the Fallmerayer thesis, rooted in nineteenth century racialism,[86] provoked an "outraged" Greek response, of which Constantine Paparrigopoulos was the spearhead;[87] however, modern scholarly opinion tends to see both Fallmerayer and Paparrigopoulos as taking positions influenced by and intelligible only within the political and intellectual decline of Western philhellenism.[87] Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer (10 December 1790 – 26 April 1861) was an Austrian traveller, journalist and historical investigator, best known for his now discredited theory that the Greeks of the present day are predominantly of Albanian and Slav descent, a theory that was finally shown to be incorrect in the 1990s... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Central Greece (Greek: Στερεά Ελλάδα - Stereá Elláda) is one of the thirteen peripheries of Greece. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Constantine Paparregopoulus Constantine Paparrigopoulos (Κωνσταντίνος Παπαρρηγόπουλος) (1815-1891) is considered the founder of modern Greek historiography. ... Philhellenism (the love of Greek culture) was the intellectual fashion at the turn of the 19th century that led Europeans like Lord Byron to lend their support for the Greek movement towards independence from the Ottoman Empire. ...


Fallmerayer's controversial (some say racist)[87][86] views were later incorporated in Nazi theoretician Alfred Rosenberg's Der Mythus des 20es Jahrhunderts and found adherents in the Third Reich who echoed them in their writings.[88][89][90] They were also actively promoted by the Axis occupation authorities in Greece who hoped to extinguish any sympathy their troops might feel for the Greeks.[88] Other Western authors say that it is Westerners who are the "true heirs" of Greece since Greeks today, whom they label "modern Greeks", are the product of "genetic dissonance" and "mingling with slaves".[91] While the point of demographic continuity has been contested by several authors in the West and Greece, ideas of race have never been such a prominent feature in the Greek world, either ancient,[92] or later.The medieval Greek mythological hero Digenis Acritas was so named because of his dual, Greek and Syrian, parentage.[93] German soldiers raising the Reich War Flag over the Acropolis. ... Digenis Acritas (Greek: Διγενής Ακρίτας) is the most famous epic poem that emerged out of the 12th century Byzantine Empire, following the Acritic songs tradition. ...


The most obvious link between modern and ancient Greeks is their language, which has a documented tradition from at least the 14th century BCE to the present day, albeit with a break during the Greek Dark Ages. The Byzantinist Robert Browning, compares its continuity of tradition to Chinese alone.[22] At its inception Hellenism was a matter of common culture[17] and the national continuity of the Greek world is more certain than its demographic.[85] Even during the Slavic migrations, in Ionia and Constantinople there was a Hellenic revival in language, philosophy and literature and on classical models of thought and scholarship. Such revivals would manifest again in the tenth and fourteenth centuries providing a powerful impetus to the sense of cultural affinity with ancient Greece and its classical heritage.[85] The cultural changes undergone by the Greeks are, despite a surviving common sense of ethnicity, undeniable[85] At the same time the Greeks have retained their language and alphabet, certain values, a sense of religious and cultural difference and exclusion, (the word barbarian was used by twelfth-century historian Anna Comnena to describe non-Greek speakers),[94] a sense of Greek identity and common sense of ethnicity despite the many political and social changes of the past two millennia The Greek Dark Ages (ca. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ... Anna Comnena or better Komnene (Greek: Άννα Κομνηνή, Anna Komnēnē) (December 1, 1083 – 1153). ...


Demographics

Today Greeks are the majority ethnic group in the Hellenic Republic[1] where they constitute 93% of that country's population and the Republic of Cyprus[3] where they comprise 78% of the island's population (excluding Turkish settlers in the occupied part of the country). Greek populations have not traditionally exhibited high rates of growth; nonetheless the population of Greece has shown regular increase since the country's first census in 1828. Most of the population growth since the state's foundation has resulted from annexation of new territories and the influx of 1.5 million Greek refugees following the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey.[95] About 80% of the population of Greece is urban[96] with 28% concentrated in the city of Athens.[97] The Demographics of Greece refer to the demography of the population that inhabits the Greek peninsula, a region where the Greek language has been continuously spoken for over 3500 years. ... Motto none Anthem (transliteration) Hymn to Freedom 1 Location of Cyprus (orange) within the European Union (camel). ... Greece, officially called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. ... Cyprus (in Greek Kypros Κύπρος and in Turkish Kıbrıs) is an island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, 113 kilometres (70 miles) south of Turkey and around 120 km west of the Syrian coast. ... Cartoon depicting a Turk and a Greek arguing over the exchange. ...


Greeks from Cyprus have a history of emigration, usually to the English speaking world as a result of the island's colonization by the British Empire. Waves of emigration followed the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974, while the population decreased between mid-1974 and 1977 as a result of emigration, war losses and a temporary decline in fertility. After the ethnic cleansing[98][99][100] of a third of the Greek population of the island in 1974 there was also an increase in the number of Greek Cypriots leaving, especially for the Middle East. This contributed to a decrease in population which tapered off in the 1990's. More than two thirds of the Greek population in Cyprus is urban.[101] For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country or region to settle in another. ... Combatants  Turkey  Cyprus  Greece On the 20th of July 1974, Turkey launched a military invasion by air, land and sea against Cyprus purportedly to restore constitutional order following an Athens orchestrated coup by the Cypriot National Guard against the President of Cyprus, Makarios III. Though Turkey had consistently refused to... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ...


There is a sizeable Greek minority of about 60,000 people, in Albania.[10] The Greek minority of Turkey which numbered upwards of 200,000 people after the 1923 exchange has now dwindled to a few thousand, following the 1955 Istanbul Pogrom and other state sponsored violence and discrimination. There are also smaller Greek minorities in the rest of the Balkan countries, the Levant and the Black Sea states, remnants of the Old Greek Diaspora (pre-19th century).[102] The Istanbul Pogrom (also known as Istanbul Riots; Greek: (Events of September); Turkish: (Events of September 6-7)), was a pogrom directed primarily at Istanbuls 100,000-strong Greek minority on September 6 and 7, 1955. ... ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece...


The New Greek Diaspora (post-19th century) has mainly been towards the Western, in particular the English-speaking, World. The Greek population outside Greece and Cyprus is around 5 million, though estimates vary.[102] The trend towards migration to the (modern) West began in the 15th century and continues to this day as Greeks are attracted to the educational and professional opportunities available in the Western World. After Greece the second largest concentration of Greeks in one country is in the United States, while New York City and Melbourne are among the largest "Greek" cities. Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: Countries in which English is the first language of a large fraction of the population are shown in blue. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ...


Diaspora

Main article: Greek diaspora

The total number of Greeks living outside Greece and Cyprus today is a contentious issue. Where Census figures are available it shows around 3 million Greeks outside of Greece and Cyprus. Estimates provided by the Council of Hellenes Abroad {SAE} put the figure at around 7 million worldwide. According to George Prevelakis of Sorbonne University the number is closer to just below 5 million.[102] Integration, intermarriage and loss of the Greek language also influence the definition and self-definition of Greeks of the Diaspora.Important centres of the New Greek Diaspora today are Chicago, London, New York, Melbourne and Toronto.[102] Recently a law was passed by the Hellenic Parliament that enables Diaspora Greeks to vote in the elections of the Greek state. ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece... ... ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece...


Ancient

Greek Diaspora 6th c. BCE
Greek Diaspora 6th c. BCE

In ancient times the trading and colonising activities of the Greek tribes and city states spread people of Greek culture, religion and language around the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, especially in Sicily, southern Italy, Spain, the South of France and the Black sea coasts. Under Alexander the Great's Empire Greek ruling classes were established in the Middle East, India and in Egypt. The Hellenistic period is characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and Kingdoms in Asia and Africa. Under the Roman Empire movement of people spread Greeks across the Empire and in the eastern territories Greek became the lingua franca rather than Latin. The Roman Empire became Christianized in the fourth century AD, and in the Byzantine period practice of the Greek Orthodox form of Christianity became a defining hallmark of Greek identity.[103] Image File history File links Location_greek_ancient. ... Image File history File links Location_greek_ancient. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Hellenistic period (4th - 1st c. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


Modern

Greek Diaspora 20th c.
Greek Diaspora 20th c.

During and after the Greek War of Independence, Greeks of the Diaspora were important in establishing the fledgling state, raising funds and awareness abroad. Greek merchant families already had contacts in other countries and during the disturbances many set up home around the Mediterranean (notably Marseilles in France, Livorno in Italy, Alexandria in Egypt), Russia (Odessa and Saint Petersburg), and Britain (London and Liverpool) from where they traded, typically in textiles and grain. Businesses frequently comprised the whole extended family, and with them they brought schools teaching Greek and the Greek Orthodox church.[104] As markets changed and they became more established, some families grew their operations to become shippers, financed through the local Greek community, notably with the aid of the Ralli or Vagliano Brothers. With economic success the Diaspora expanded further across the Levant, North Africa, India and the USA.[105] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 65 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Greek language Greek diaspora ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 65 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Greek language Greek diaspora ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... Marseilles redirects here. ... Livorno (archaic English: ) is a port city on the Tyrrhenian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: HellÄ“northódoxÄ“ EkklÄ“sía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... Shipping is arguably the oldest form of occupation of the Greeks. ... The five Ralli Brothers, Zannis a. ... Panayis Athanase Vagliano Greek: a. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


In the twentieth century many Greeks left their traditional homelands for economic reasons resulting in large migrations from Greece and Cyprus to the United States, Great Britain, Australia, Canada, Germany, and South Africa, especially after the Second World War (1939-45), the Greek Civil War (1946-49), and the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus in 1974.[106] A Greek-American is a citizen of the United States who has significant Greek heritage. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Combatants  Turkey  Cyprus  Greece On the 20th of July 1974, Turkey launched a military invasion by air, land and sea against Cyprus purportedly to restore constitutional order following an Athens orchestrated coup by the Cypriot National Guard against the President of Cyprus, Makarios III. Though Turkey had consistently refused to...


Culture

Main article: Greek culture

Greek culture has evolved over thousands of years, with its beginnings in the Mycenaean civilization, continuing in Classical Greece and the Roman Empire. It was profoundly affected by Christianity which it also shaped and traditions of the Eastern Roman Empire. When that was dissolved by the Ottoman Empire it had to endure through several centuries of adversity which nevertheless included some cultural exchanges. The Neohellenic Enlightenment is credited with revitalizing Greek culture and giving birth to the synthesis of ancient and medieval elements that characterize it today. Their heritage makes the Greeks a part of the European, Balkan and Mediterranean worlds.[107] Greece is often referred to as the cradle of Western civilisation and ancient Athens was considered to be its center. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... Parthenon This article is on the term Classical Greece itself. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


Language

Main article: Greek language
from a 6th century Iliad

Greeks speak the Greek language, an Indo-European language which forms a branch in itself, although it is more closely related to Armenian (see also Graeco-Armenian) and the Indo-Iranian languages.[108] It has the longest documented history of any language in the branch.[109] Greek literature has a continuous history of nearly 3,000 years, and has been written in the Greek alphabet since the 9th century BCE.[110] Several notable works have been originally written in Greek, including the Odyssey, Iliad and New Testament among others. Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Graeco-Armenian (also Helleno-Armenian) refers to the hypothesis that the Greek language and the Armenian language share a common ancestor post-dating the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE). ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... // Main article: Ancient Greek literature Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek from the oldest surviving written works in the Greek language until the 4th century and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. ... This page contains special characters. ...


Greek demonstrates several linguistic features that are shared with the other Balkan languages, such as Albanian, Bulgarian and Romanian (see Balkan sprachbund), and has absorbed numerous foreign words (primarily of Western European and Turkish origin). Due to the movements of Philhellenism and the Neohellenic Enlightenment in the 19th century, which emphasized the modern Greeks' ancient heritage, these foreign influences were excluded from official use via the creation of Katharevousa, a somewhat artificial form of Greek purged of all foreign influence and words, as the official language of the Greek state. In 1976, however, the Greek parliament voted to make Dimotiki (based on the dialect of the Peloponnese) the official language, making Katharevusa obsolete.[111] The Balkan sprachbund or linguistic area is the ensemble of areal features—similarity in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among languages of the Balkans, which belong to various branches of Indo-European, such as Albanian, Greek, Romance and Slavic. ... Philhellenism (the love of Greek culture) was the intellectual fashion at the turn of the 19th century that led Europeans like Lord Byron to lend their support for the Greek movement towards independence from the Ottoman Empire. ... Katharevousa (Greek Καθαρεύουσα, IPA: ) is a form of the Greek language, created during the early 19th century by Adamantios Korais (1748-1833). ... Dhimotiki (Greek Δημοτική, IPA //) or Demotic Greek is the standard language of Greece. ...


Greek has a wide variety of dialects of varying levels of mutual intelligibility, which in addition to official variety (Standard Modern Greek - Κοινή Νεοελληνική), include the Cypriot, Pontic, Cappadocian, Griko (Calabrian Greek) and Tsakonian (the only surviving representative of ancient Doric Greek) varieties.[112] Yevanic, also known as Romaniote or Judeo-Greek, is the language of the Greek Jews (Romaniotes), and survives in small communities in Greece, New York and Israel. Pontic Greek is a form of the Greek language originally spoken on the shores of the Black Sea, the Pontus, today mainly in Greece. ... Cappadocian, also known as Cappadocian Greek or Asia Minor Greek, is a dialect of the Greek language, formerly spoken in Cappadocia (Central Turkey). ... Griko, sometimes spelled Grico, is a Modern Greek dialect which is spoken by people in the Magna Graecia region in southern Italy and Sicily, and it is otherwise known as the Grecanic language. ... The Greek-Calabrian dialect or Greek-Bovesian is the version of Italian Greek used in Calabria, as opposed to the other Italian-Greek dialect spoken in the Grecìa Salentina, remnant of the ancient and Byzantine Greek colonisation of the region. ... Tsakonian (also Tsakonic) (Standard Greek Τσακωνική Διάλεκτος — Tsakonic language — is a dialect of, or language closely related to, Standard Modern Greek, spoken in the Tsakonian region of the Peloponnese, Greece. ... Distribution of Greek dialects, ca. ... Yevanic, otherwise known as Yevanika, Romaniote and Judeo-Greek, was the language of the Romaniotes, the group of Greek Jews whose existence in Greece is documented since the 4th century BCE. Its linguistic lineage stems from Attic Greek and the Hellenistic Koine (Κοινή Ελληνική) and includes Hebrew elements as well. ... Language(s) Greek, Yevanic and the local languages of the areas where they live. ...


In addition to Greek, many Greeks in Greece are bilingual in other languages. Such languages include Arvanitic, Aromanian (also known as Vlach), Slavic (also known as Dopia), Russian, Italian, English, and Turkish.[113] In the Diaspora, Greeks also speak the languages of the areas in which they live. Some members of the Diaspora cannot speak Greek, but are still considered Greeks by ethnic origin or descent.[114] Arvanitic or Arvanitika (Greek: Αρβανίτικα; native name: Arbëríshte; spelled in the Greek-based Arvanitic alphabet) is the variety of Albanian traditionally spoken by the Arvanites, a population group in Greece. ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Slavic (Greek: σλάβικα slávika, also referred to as εντόπια entópia (meaning local), reported self-identifying names: makedonski, slavomakedonski (Macedonian), pomashki, bugarski, balgarski (Bulgarian) [1]) are terms sometimes used to designate the dialects spoken by the Slavophone (i. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece...


Religion

from a 4th-century Bible
from a 4th-century Bible
Main article: Greek Orthodoxy

The majority of Greeks are Eastern Orthodox Christians, belonging to the Greek Orthodox Church. During the first centuries after Christ, the New Testament was originally compiled in Koine Greek language, which is mutually intelligible with modern Greek to a great extent, as most of the early Christians and Church Fathers were Greek speakers. While the Orthodox Church was always intensely hostile to the old religion it did help Greeks retain their sense of identity during the Ottoman rule through its use of Greek in the liturgy and its modest educational efforts.[115] There are also small groups of ethnic Greeks adhering to other Christian denominations or religions. The main heterodox denominations in the Greek world are Greek Jews, Greek Catholics, Greek Muslims, Greek Evangelicals and other Protestant groups. About 2,000 people are members of Hellenic Polytheistic congregations.[116][117][118] Greek Orthodox Church can refer to: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Hellēnorthódoxē Ekklēsía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Koine redirects here. ... Main article: Greek language Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ... Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, there for the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... Language(s) Greek, Yevanic and the local languages of the areas where they live. ... The Greek Catholic Church is a Catholic Church of the Eastern Rite. ... Greek Muslims, also known as Greek-speaking Muslims, are Muslims of Greek ethnic origin, and are found primarily in Turkey, Cyprus, and Greece, although migrations to Lebanon and Syria have been reported[1]. The vast majority of the autochthonous Muslim minority in Greece (including the Greek-speaking Muslims), most of... The Greek Evangelical Church (Greek: Ελληνική Ευαγγελική Εκκλησία Elliniki Evangeliki Ekklisia) is a Protestant denomination in Greece. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hellenic polytheism. ...

Art

Main article: Greek art
El Greco's Assumption of the Virgin (1577-1579).
El Greco's Assumption of the Virgin (1577-1579).

Greek art has a long and varied history. Greeks have made several contributions to the visual, literary and performing arts.[119] In the West ancient Greek art was influential in shaping the Roman and later the modern Western artistic heritage. Following the Renaissance in Europe, the humanist aesthetic and the high technical standards of Greek art inspired generations of European artists. Well into the 19th century, the classical tradition derived from Greece played an important part the art of the Western World.[120] In the East, Alexander the Great's conquests initiated several centuries of exchange between Greek, Central Asian and Indian cultures, resulting in Greco-Buddhist art, whose influence reached as far as Japan.[121] Greece has a rich and varied artistic history, spanning some 5000 years and beginning in the Cycladic and Minoan prehistorical civilization, giving birth to Western classical art in the ancient period (further developing this during the Hellenistic Period), to taking in the influences of Eastern civilizations and the new religion... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x1325, 172 KB) Summary Assumption of the Virgin (1577) was El Greco’s first commission in Spain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x1325, 172 KB) Summary Assumption of the Virgin (1577) was El Greco’s first commission in Spain. ... For the Vangelis album, see El Greco (album). ... The Charioteer of Delphi, Delphi Archaeological Museum. ... Fresco from the Villa of the Mysteries. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century...


Byzantine Greek art, which grew from classical art, provided a stimulus to the art of many nations. Its influences can be traced from Venice in the West to Kazakhstan in the East and Byzantine art is one of the most striking features of that civilization.[122][123] Portrait of a young woman, A.D. 110–20 Encaustic on wood; 43. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople - the image of Christ Pantocrator on the walls of the upper southern gallery. ...


In turn Greek art was influenced by Eastern Civilizations in Classical Antiquity and the new religion of Orthodox Christianity during Byzantine times while modern Greek art is heavily influenced by Western art.[124] Notable Greek artists include Renaissance painter El Greco, soprano Maria Callas, and composer Vangelis. Greek Alexandrian Constantine P. Cavafy and Nobel laureates George Seferis and Odysseas Elitis are among the most important poets of the twentieth century. Modern Greek Art is the term used to describe Greek art during the period between the emergence of the new independent Greek state and the 20th century. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For the Vangelis album, see El Greco (album). ... Maria Callas in a casual moment, 1960s Maria Callas (Greek: Μαρία Κάλλας) (December 2, 1923 – September 16, 1977) was an American born, Greek dramatic coloratura soprano and perhaps the best-known opera singer of the post-World War II period. ... Evangelos Odysseas Papathanassiou (Greek: Ευάγγελος Οδυσσέας Παπαθανασίου IPA: ) is a world-renowned Greek composer of electronic, new age and classical music and musical performer, under the artist name Vangelis Papathanassiou (Βαγγέλης Παπαθανασίου) or just Vangelis (a diminutive of Evangelos) [IPA: or ]. He is best known for his Academy Award winning score for the film Chariots... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Constantine P. Cavafy, also known as Konstantin or Konstantinos Petrou Kavafis, or Kavaphes (Greek Κωνσταντίνος Π. Καβάφης) (April 29, 1863 – April 29, 1933) was a major Alexandrine poet who worked as a journalist and civil servant. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Giorgos Seferis (1900-1971) is the pen name of Greek poet Giorgos Seferiadis. ... Cover of Complete Poems of Elytis Odysseas Elytis (Greek: Οδυσσέας Ελύτης) (November 2, 1911-March 18, 1996) was a Greek poet, considered as one of the most important representatives of modernism in Greece. ...

Science

Further information: Greek mathematicsMedicine in ancient Greece, and Byzantine science

The Greeks of the Classical era made several notable contributions to science and helped lay the foundations of modern scientific principles. The scholarly tradition of the Greek academies was maintained during Roman times with several academic institutions in Constantinople, Antioch, Alexandria and other centres of Greek learning. Byzantine science was essentially classical science.[125] Greek mathematics, as that term is used in this article, is the mathematics written in Greek, developed from the 6th century BC to the 5th century AD around the Eastern shores of the Mediterranean. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The frontispiece of the Vienna Dioscurides shows a set of seven famous physicians. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2400x3604, 4580 KB) Nicholas Negroponte Publicity Photo (600dpi JPG) Credit: Webb Chappell Permission by Negroponte himself (see talk page) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Nicholas Negroponte ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2400x3604, 4580 KB) Nicholas Negroponte Publicity Photo (600dpi JPG) Credit: Webb Chappell Permission by Negroponte himself (see talk page) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Nicholas Negroponte ... Nicholas Negroponte Nicholas Negroponte (born 1943) is an architect and computer scientist best known as the founder and Chairman Emeritus of Massachusetts Institute of Technologys Media Lab. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ...


The Greek world has a long tradition of valuing and investing in padeia (education). Paideia was one of the highest societal values in the Greek and Hellenistic world while the first European institution described as a university was founded in 9th century Constantinople and operated in various incarnations until the city's fall to the Ottomans in 1453.[126] The University of Constantinople was also Christian Europe's first secular institution of higher learning since no theological subjects were taught.[127] As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


As of 2007 Greece had the eighth highest percentage of tertiary enrolment in the world (with the percentages for female students being higher than for male) while Greeks of the Diaspora are equally active in the field of education.[128] Hundreds of thousands of Greek students attend Western universities every year while the faculty lists of leading Western universities contain a striking number of Greek names.[129] Notable Greek scientists of modern times include Georgios Papanikolaou (inventor of the Pap test), Nicholas Negroponte,Constantin Carathéodory, Michael Dertouzos, and Dimitri Nanopoulos. George Papanikolaou on a Greek 10,000 Drachma note. ... The pap smear as we know it is an invention of Dr. Georgios Papanikolaou (1883-1962), an American of Greek birth, the father of cytopathology. ... Nicholas Negroponte Nicholas Negroponte (born 1943) is an architect and computer scientist best known as the founder and Chairman Emeritus of Massachusetts Institute of Technologys Media Lab. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The late Michael L Dertouzos Michael L Dertouzos (1936 - 2001) was a Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Director of the M.I.T. Laboratory for Computer Science (LCS) from 1974 to 2001. ... Professor Dimitri Nanopoulos (born 1948) is a Greek physicist. ...

Symbols

National flag
of Greece.
National emblem
of Greece.
Double-headed eagle
flag of the
Greek Orthodox Church.
The pre-1978
flag of Greece.

The most widely used symbol used by Greeks is the flag of Greece, which features nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white representing the nine syllables of the Greek national motto "Ελευθερία ή θάνατος" (Eleftheria i thanatos – freedom or death), which was also the motto of the Greek War of Independence. The blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bears a white cross, which represents Greek Orthodox Christianity. The Greek flag is also widely used by the Greek community in Cyprus (which has officially adopted a neutral flag so as to ease ethnic tensions with the Turkish minority – see flag of Cyprus), and by the Greek minority in Albania, which has led to ethnic clashes with the ethnic Albanian majority).[130] Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Flag Ratio: 2:3 (Naval Flag 1822-1828, Sea Flag 1828-1969; 1975-1978 (Flag Ratio 7:12), National Flag 1969-1975; 1978 to date) The flag of Greece (Greek: , popularly referred to as the Γαλανόλευκη or the Κυανόλευκη, the blue-white) is based on nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating... Greek flag Eleftheria i thanatos (Greek: , pron. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... Flag ratio: 3:5 The flag of Cyprus was adopted on August 16, 1960. ...


The pre-1978 (and first) flag of Greece, which features a Greek cross (crux immissa quadrata) on a blue background, is widely used as an alternative to the official flag, and they are often flown together. The national emblem of Greece features a blue escutcheon with a white cross totally surrounded by two laurel branches. A common design involves the current flag of Greece and the pre-1978 flag of Greece with crossed flagpoles and the national emblem placed in front.[131] This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The National Emblem of Greece consists of a blue escutcheon with a white cross totally surrounded by two laurel branches. ...


Another highly recognizable and popular Greek symbol is the double-headed eagle, the imperial emblem of the Byzantine Empire and a common symbol in Eastern Europe. It is not currently part of the modern Greek flag or coat of arms, although it is officially the insignia of the Greek Army and the flag of the Church of Greece. It had been incorporated in the Greek coat of arms between 1925 and 1926.[132] Flag Ratio: 2:3 (Naval Flag 1822-1828, Sea Flag 1828-1969; 1975-1978 (Flag Ratio 7:12), National Flag 1969-1975; 1978 to date) The flag of Greece (Greek: , popularly referred to as the Γαλανόλευκη or the Κυανόλευκη, the blue-white) is based on nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating... Byzantine redirects here. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... The Hellenic Army, (Greek: Ελληνικός Στράτος) is the land force of Greece (The Hellenic Republic). ... The Church of Greece (Greek: EkklÄ“sía tês Helládos, IPA: /eklisia tis elaðos/) is one of the fifteen autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches which make up the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ...

Surnames

See also: Surnames#Greece

Greek surnames are most commonly patronymics. Occupation, characteristic and location/origin-based surnames names also occur. Prior to the introduction of written records in the 19th century, surnames were not formally maintained and could be changed by occupation or characteristic. After the advent of widespread written records, surnames have remained constant handed down from father to children. A family name, or surname or last name, is the part of a persons name that indicates to what family he or she belongs. ... Look up patronymic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A family name, or surname or last name, is the part of a persons name that indicates to what family he or she belongs. ...


Some surnames are prefixed with Papa-, indicating ancestry from a priest. Archi- and Mastro- signify "first" and "tradesman" respectively. Prefixes such as Konto-, Makro-, and Chondro-, describe body characteristics, such as "short", "tall/long" and "fat". Gero- and Palaio- signify "old" or "wise". Other prefixes include Hadji- which was an honorific deriving from the Arabic Hadj or pilgrimage, and indicate that the person had made a pilgrimage (in the case of Christians to Jerusalem) and Kara- which is attributed to the Turkish word for "black" deriving from the Ottoman era.[133] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Hajj or Haj is the Pilgrimage to Mecca (or, Makkah) and is the fifth of the Five Pillars of Islam. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so is obliged to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


Most Greek patronymic suffixes are diminutives, which vary by region. The most common Hellenic patronymic suffixes are -poulos /-poulou (from Peloponessus, a suffix which means "the little", representing "the son of " i.e. "Michalopoulos", the "son of Michael" or "Papadopoulos", the "son of the priest"). The suffix -akis /-aki is associated primarily with Crete but also Mani, where it is rendered -akos /-akou, and the Aegean islands, is a patronymic signifying "little" and "son of".[134] It became almost universal by the mid 20th century in Crete, but was only adopted there in the 19th century. The suffix -idis-ides /-idou or -iadis /-iadou is the oldest last name and clan form in use and is associated with Greeks originating in Asia Minor and the Pontus. It is also analogous to the English -son. Zeus, for example was also referred to as Cronides ("son of Cronus").[135] Peloponnesos (Greek: Πελοπόννησος, sometime Latinized as Peloponnesus or Anglicized as The Peloponnese) is a large peninsula in Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Isthmus of Corinth. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Map of Greece highlighting the Mani peninsula. ... Aegean Sea Islands: map showing island groups. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Statue of Zeus Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th-century engraving. ...


Sea

Main article: Greek shipping
6th century map by Cosmas Indicopleustes.
6th century map by Cosmas Indicopleustes.

The traditional Greek homelands have been the Greek peninsula and the Aegean, the Black Sea and Ionian coasts of Asia Minor, the islands of Cyprus and Sicily and the south of the Italian peninsula. In Plato's Phaidon Socrates remarks that "we (Greeks) live like ants or frogs around a pond".[136] This image is attested by the map of the Old Greek Diaspora, which corresponded to the Greek world until the creation of the Greek state in 1832. The sea and trade were natural outlets for Greeks since the Greek peninsula is rocky and does not offer good prospects for agriculture.[17] Shipping is arguably the oldest form of occupation of the Greeks. ... Cosmas Indicopleustes (literally Mr. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Magna Graecia (Latin for Greater Greece, Megalê Hellas/Μεγάλη Ελλάς in Greek) is the name of an area in ancient southern Italy and Sicily that was colonised by ancient Greek settlers in the 8th century BCE. Originally, Magna Graecia was the name used by the Romans to describe the greater... Platos Phaedo (IPA: , Greek: Φαίδων, Phaidon) is one of the great dialogues of his middle period, along with the Republic and the Symposium. ... For other uses, see Greece (disambiguation). ... This article is about the body of water. ...


The sea has always been a defining feature of Greek culture, with numerous songs and poems about the sea and seascapes attested in Greek art. In war among the many battles that the Greek Nation was called to fight the most decisive one was the sea battle at Salamis which has been described as one of the most important battles in history. A notable Greek explorer was the 6th century merchant and later monk Cosmas Indicopleustes ("Cosmas who sailed to India").[137] In later times the Rhomioi plied the sea-lanes of the Mediterranean and controlled trade until an embargo imposed by the Roman Emperor on trade with the Muslims opened the door for the later Italian pre-eminence in trade. For other uses, see Battle of Salamis (disambiguation). ... Cosmas Indicopleustes (literally Mr. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ...


The Greek shipping tradition recovered during the Ottoman rule when a substantial merchant middle class developed, aided in part by the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (21 July 1774) between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire. It granted Russia some economic and political rights in the Ottoman Empire, such as allowing Ottoman Eastern Orthodox Christians to sail under the Russian flag. This was in effect a Russian guarantee on all Greek ships that flew the Russian flag, spurring the creation of a merchant marine on the three nautical islands of Hydra, Spetses and Psara.[34] These sailors also played an important part in the Greek War of Independence. The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (also spelled Kuchuk Kainarji) was signed on July 21, 1774, between the Russian Empire (represented by Field-Marshal Rumyantsev) and the Ottoman Empire after the Ottoman Empire was defeated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Flag of the Russian Federation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Merchant Navy. ... For other uses, see Hydra. ... Spetses ( Modern Greek: Σπέτσες, Ancient/Katharevousa: Σπέτσαι, Spetsai) is an island of Greece, sometimes included as one of the Saronic Islands. ... Psara (Greek: Ψαρά) is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea. ...


Today, Greek shipping continues to prosper to the extent that Greece has the largest merchant fleet in the world, and many more ships under Greek ownership fly flags of convenience.[138] The most notable shipping magnate of the 20th century was Aristotle Onassis,[139][140] others being Yiannis Latsis, George Livanos, and Stavros Niarchos. A famous Greek poet of the 20th century was the Chinese-born seaman Nikos Kavvadias who expressed the spirit of Greek cosmopolitanism and effortless and unpretentious multiculturalism.[141] Polish Magnate (17th century) Magnate, from the Late Latin magnas, a great man, itself from Latin magnus great, designates a noble or other man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities. ... Aristotelis Sokratis (also Ari) Onassis (in Greek, Αριστοτέλης Ωνάσης) (January 20, 1900 – March 15, 1975) was the most famous shipping magnate of the 20th century. ... Yiannis Latsis (September 14, 1910–April 17, 2003) also known as John S. Latsis, was a Greek shipping tycoon notable for his great wealth, influential friends, and charitable activities. ... Georges Livanos was born in 1926 in New Orleans. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nikos Kavvadias (Greek: Νίκος Καββαδίας) (1910 – February 10, 1975) was a Greek poet and writer; currently one of the most popular poets in Greece. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ...


Timeline

The history of the Greek people is closely associated with the history of Greece, Cyprus, Constantinople, and Asia Minor. During the Ottoman rule of Greece, a number of Greek enclaves around the Mediterranean were cut off from the core, notably in Southern Italy, the Caucasus, Syria and Egypt. By the early 20th century, over half of the overall Greek-speaking population was settled in Asia Minor (now Turkey). During the 20th century, a huge wave of migration to the United States, Australia, Canada and elsewhere created a Greek diaspora. This article covers the Greek civilization. ...


Some key historical events have also been included for context, but this timeline is not intended to cover history not related to migrations. There is more information on the historical context of these migrations in History of Greece. This article covers the Greek civilization. ...

Time Events
30th century BCE Proto-Greek tribes migrate into the Balkans
20th century BCE Greek settlements established on the Balkans
17th century BCE Decline of Minoan civilization, possibly due to the eruption of Thera. Settlement of Achaeans and Ionians, Mycenaean civilization
13th century BCE First colonies established in Asia Minor
11th century BCE Doric tribes move into peninsular Greece
9th century BCE Major colonization of Asia Minor
8th century BCE First major colonies established in Sicily and Southern Italy
6th century BCE Colonies established across the Mediterranean and the Black Sea
4th century BCE Campaign of Alexander the Great; Greek colonies established in newly founded cities of Ptolemaic Egypt and Asia
2nd century BCE Conquest of Greece by the Roman Empire. Migrations of Greeks to Rome.
4th century Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, Migrations of Greeks throughout the Empire, mainly towards Constantinople
7th century Slavic conquest of several parts of Greece, Greek migrations to Southern Italy, Byzantine Emperors capture main Slavic bodies and transfer them to Cappadocia,Bosphorus re-populated by Macedonian and Cypriot Greeks
8th century Byzantine dissolution of surviving Slavic settlements in Greece and full recovery of the Greek peninsula
9th century Retro-migrations of Greeks from all parts of the Empire (mainly from Southern Italy and Sicily) into parts of Greece that were depopulated by the Slavic Invasions (mainly western Peloponnesus and Thessaly)
13th century Byzantine Empire dissolves, Constantinople taken by the Fourth Crusade; becoming the capital of the Latin Empire. Liberated after a long struggle by the Empire of Nicaea, but fragments remain separated. Migrations between Asia Minor, Constantinople and mainland Greece take place
15th century
     -
19th century
Conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire. Greek diaspora into Europe begins. Ottoman settlements in Greece. Phanariot Greeks occupy high posts in Eastern European millets.
1830s Creation of the Modern Greek State. Immigration to the New World begins. Large-scale migrations from Constantinople and Asia Minor to Greece take place
Time Events
1913 Macedonia partitioned; Unorganized migrations of Greeks, Bulgarians and Turks towards their respective states
1914-1923 Pontic Greek Genocide, approximately 353,000 Pontian Greeks killed [142][143][144][145][146][147]
1919 Treaty of Neuilly; Greece and Bulgaria exchange populations, with some exceptions.
1922 The Destruction of Smyrna (nowadays Izmir) more than 40 thousands Greeks killed, End of significant Greek presence in Asia Minor
1923 Treaty of Lausanne; Greece and Turkey agree to exchange populations with limited exceptions of the Greeks in Constantinople, Imbros, Tenedos and the Muslim minority (mainly Greeks, Pomaks, Roms and Turks) of Western Thrace. 1,5 million of Asia Minor and Pontic Greeks settle in Greece, and some 450 thousands of Muslims settle in Turkey
1940s Hundred of thousands Greeks died from starvation during the Axis Occupation of Greece
1947 Communist regime in Romania begins evictions of the Greek community, approx. 75,000 migrate.
1948 Greek Civil War. Tens of thousands of Greek communists and their families flee into Eastern Bloc nations. Thousands settle in Tashkent
1950s Massive emigration of Greeks to West Germany, the United States, Australia, Canada, and other countries.
1955 Istanbul Pogrom against Greeks. Exodus of Greeks from the city accelerates; less than 2,000 remain today.
1958 Large Greek community in Alexandria flees Nasser's regime in Egypt.
1960s Republic of Cyprus created, as an independent Greek state, under Greek, Turkish and British protection. Economic emigration continues
1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus. Almost all Greeks living in Northern Cyprus flee to the south and the United Kingdom
1980s Many civil war refugees were allowed to re-emigrate to Greece. Retro-migration of Greeks from Germany begins
1990s Collapse of Soviet Union. Approx. 100,000 ethnic Greeks migrate from Georgia, Armenia, southern Russia and Albania to Greece
2000s Some statistics indicate the beginning of a trend of reverse migration of Greeks from the United States and Australia

The Proto-Greek language is the common ancestor of the Greek dialects, including the Mycenean language, the classical Greek dialects Attic-Ionic, Aeolic, Doric and North-Western Greek, and ultimately the Koine and Modern Greek. ... Balkan redirects here. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on the island of Crete. ... Santorini (Greek Σαντορίνη, IPA: ) is a small, circular archipelago of volcanic islands located in southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km south-east from Greeces mainland. ... The Achaeans (in Greek , Achaioi) is the collective name given to the Greek forces in Homers Iliad (used 598 times). ... The Ionians were one of the three main ancient Greek ethno-linguistic groups, linked by their use of the Ionic dialect of the Greek language. ... This article is about the Greek archaeological site. ... This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... This article or section should include material from Dorian invasion The Dorians were one of the ancient Hellenic (Greek) races. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt began following Alexander the Greats conquest in 332 BC and ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. It was founded when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt, creating a powerful Hellenistic state from southern Syria... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a... For other uses, see Cappadocia (disambiguation). ... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Belligerents Crusaders Holy Roman Empire Republic of Venice Montferret Champagne Blois Amiens ÃŽle-de-France Saint-Pol Burgundy Flanders Balkans Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Hungary Croatia Dalmatia Commanders Otto IV Boniface I Theobald I Lois I Alexios V Doukas Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Emeric I The Fourth Crusade... Arms of the Latin Empire of Constantinople The Latin Empire with its vassals and the Greek successor states after the partition of the Byzantine Empire, c. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece... Phanariotes (from Phanar, the chief Greek quarter at Istambul, where the oecumenical patriarchate is situated) were those members of families resident in the Phanar quarter who between the years 1711 and 1821 were appointed voivodes of the Danubian principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... The historical Pontus region New York Times headlines which observes that the entire Christian population of Trabzon was wiped out. More relevant headlines[1] Pontic Greek Genocide[2][3][4] is a controversial term used to refer to the fate of Pontic Greeks during and in the aftermath of World... The Pontian Greeks are Greeks from the shores of the Black Sea, the Pontus. ... The Treaty of Neuilly, dealing with Bulgaria for its role as one of the Central Powers in World War I, was signed on the November 27, 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. ... Great Fire of Smyrna as on 14 September 1922 The Great Fire of Smyrna is the name commonly given to the fire that ravaged Ä°zmir/Smyrna starting 13 September 1922 and lasted for four days until the 17 September. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... For the district, see Gökçeada (district). ... Tenedos, known as Bozcaada officially and by its Turkish inhabitants, (Greek: , Tenedhos), is a small island in the Aegean Sea, part of the Bozcaada district of Çanakkale province in Turkey. ... Thrace or Greek Thrace or West Thrace or Western Thrace (Greek Θράκη or Ελληνική Θράκη or Δυτική Θράκη, Thrákı or Ellınıki Thrákı or Dıtıki Thrákı; Turkish Trakya or Yunan Trakyası or Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. ... German soldiers raising the Swastika over the Acropolis. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... The Istanbul Pogrom (also known as Istanbul Riots; Greek: (Events of September); Turkish: (Events of September 6-7)), was a pogrom directed primarily at Istanbuls 100,000-strong Greek minority on September 6 and 7, 1955. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... The History of modern Egypt is generally accepted as beginning in 1882, when Egypt became a de facto British colony. ... Cyprus (in Greek Kypros Κύπρος and in Turkish Kıbrıs) is an island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, 113 kilometres (70 miles) south of Turkey and around 120 km west of the Syrian coast. ... Combatants  Turkey  Cyprus  Greece On the 20th of July 1974, Turkey launched a military invasion by air, land and sea against Cyprus purportedly to restore constitutional order following an Athens orchestrated coup by the Cypriot National Guard against the President of Cyprus, Makarios III. Though Turkey had consistently refused to...

See also

Indo-European topics

Indo-European languages
Albanian · Armenian · Baltic
Celtic · Germanic · Greek
Indo-Iranian (Indo-Aryan, Iranian)
Italic · Slavic  

extinct: Anatolian · Paleo-Balkans (Dacian,
Phrygian, Thracian) · Tocharian For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages (within the context of Indo-European studies also Indic[1]) are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages, which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language. ... The Paleo-Balkan languages were the Indo-European languages which were spoken in the Balkans in ancient times: Dacian language Thracian language Illyrian language Paionian language Ancient Macedonian language The only remnant of them is Albanian, but it is still disputed which language was its ancestor. ... The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. ... The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people of the central Asia Minor. ... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ...

Indo-European peoples
Albanians · Armenians
Balts · Celts · Germanic peoples
Greeks · Indo-Aryans
Iranians · Latins · Slavs

historical: Anatolians (Hittites, Luwians)
Celts (Galatians, Gauls) · Germanic tribes
Illyrians · Italics  · Sarmatians
Scythians  · Thracians  · Tocharians
Indo-Iranians (Rigvedic tribes, Iranian tribes)  For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ... http://www. ... This article concerns those peoples who consider themselves, or have been considered by others, to be Celts in modern times, ie post 1800. ... Charlemagne, first to unify the Germanic tribal confederations. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... The Latins were an ancient Italic people who migrated to central Italy, (Latium Vetus - Old Latium), in the 2nd millennium B.C., maybe from the Adriatic East Coast and Balkanic Area, perhaps from pressures by Illyrian peoples. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Distribution of the Luwian language (after Melchert 2003) Luwian hieroglyphic inscription from the city of Carchemish. ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... The Aryan tribes mentioned in the Rigveda are described as semi-nomadic pastoralists, subdivided into villages (vish) and headed by a tribal chief (raja) and administered by a priestly caste. ... Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. They remain dominant throughout Classical Antiquity in Scythia and Persia. ...

Proto-Indo-Europeans
Language · Society · Religion
 
Urheimat hypotheses
Kurgan hypothesis · Anatolia
Armenia · India · PCT
 
Indo-European studies

The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) were a patrilineal society of the Bronze Age (roughly 5th to 4th millennium BC), probably semi-nomadic, relying on animal husbandry. ... Map of Indo European migrations from ca. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the seventh to fifth millennium BC. The Anatolian hypothesis of Proto-Indo-European origin is the suggestion that the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) lived in Anatolia during the Neolithic era, and associates the distribution of historical Indo-European languages with... The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) suggests that the Indo-European languages originated in Europe and have existed there since the Paleolithic. ... Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ... Aromanians (also called: Macedo-Romanians or Aroumans; in Aromanian they call themselves Armãnji, Rrãmãnji) are a people living throughout the southern Balkans, especially in northern Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, and as an emigrant community in Romania (Dobruja). ... Arvanites (Greek: Αρβανίτες, see also below about names) are a population group in Greece who traditionally speak Arvanitika, a form of Albanian. ... Antiochian Greeks are the members of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch who have resided in the territory of contemporary Turkish province of Hatay. ... The Demographics of Greece refer to the demography of the population that inhabits the Greek peninsula, a region where the Greek language has been continuously spoken for over 3500 years. ... Motto none Anthem (transliteration) Hymn to Freedom 1 Location of Cyprus (orange) within the European Union (camel). ... A Greek-American is a citizen of the United States who has significant Greek heritage. ... A Greek-Australian is a Greek living in Australia, it includes those Greeks with Australian citizenship and also permanent residents it does not necessarily include those of Greek descent whereby many generations of such have been absorbed into common Australian culture. ... Greek Canadians are the Canadian citizens of Greek origin. ... Greek Cypriot refers to the ethnic Greek population of Cyprus. ... ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece... Pytheas (Πυθέας) is the first known Greek to come to Britain, and Pretannia , to become Britannia, is Diodoruss hellenised version of the name already used by some of the local peoples of the time to describe themselves, Pretani. ... Greeks (Greek: Έλληνες Ellines, Hungarian: Görögök) are one of the thirteen officially recognized ethnic minorities in Hungary since The Rights of National and Ethnic Minorities Act was enacted by the Hungarian parliament on July 7, 1993. ... There has been a Greek presence in what is now Romania for at least 27 centuries. ... Greeks in Turkey (Turkish: Rumlar) are Greek-speaking Eastern Orthodox Christians who mostly live in Istanbul and on the two islands off the western entrance to the Dardanelles: Imbros and Tenedos (Turkish: Gökçeada and Bozcaada) and also on the Princes Islands. ... Greek Muslims, also known as Greek-speaking Muslims, are Muslims of Greek ethnic origin, and are found primarily in Turkey, Cyprus, and Greece, although migrations to Lebanon and Syria have been reported[1]. The vast majority of the autochthonous Muslim minority in Greece (including the Greek-speaking Muslims), most of... Hayhurum is the name given to Armenian-speaking Christians who are members of Greek Orthodox Church. ... Karamanlides are a Turkish-speaking ethnic group that are of Orthodox Christian faith. ... A map showing Mani. ... Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Megleno-Romanians in dark yellow Megleno-Romanians (In Megleno-Romanian: Vlashi, in Greek: Βλαχομογλενίτες Vlachomoglenítes) is an exonym for a people inhabiting six villages in the Moglená (Μογλενά) region of Macedonia spanning the Pella and Kilkis prefectures of Macedonia, Greece, as well as the... This an alphabetical list of ancient Greeks. ... This is a list of notable Greek Americans. ... This is a list of Greek people. ... The term Pontic Greeks, Pontian Greeks, Pontians or Greeks of Pontus (Greek: or , Turkish: ) can refer to Greeks specifically from the area of Pontus in the region of the former Empire of Trebizond on the Black Sea coast of Eastern Turkey, or in other cases more generally all Greeks from... Language(s) Greek, Yevanic and the local languages of the areas where they live. ... For the dog breed, see Bulgarian Shepherd Dog. ... A Tsakonian (Greek: Τσάκωνας Tsákonas) is a speaker of Tsakonian, or more broadly, one who lives in a traditionally Tsakonian-speaking area and follows certain Tsakonian cultural traditions, such as the Tsakonian dance, even if that person is no longer able to speak Tsakonian fluently. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b According to the 2001 census, the total population of Greece was 10,964,020 out of which 93% (or 10,196,539) were Greeks.
  2. ^ Selected Population Profile in the United States: Greek. United States of America: Census Bureau (2006). Retrieved on 2008-04-13.
  3. ^ a b 2001 census, in the Cypriot government-controlled area.
  4. ^ United Kingdom: Greek population in the UK No exact figure available, this is the figure for London alone.
  5. ^ 2006 Census Tables by Topic: 56.3 KiBPDF
  6. ^ Bilateral Relations: Greece. Federal Republic of Germany (March 2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-13.
  7. ^ Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data. Statistics Canada. Retrieved on 2008-04-13.
  8. ^ Norwegian Institute of International Affairs: Centre for Russian Studies: 2002 census
  9. ^ 2001 census. State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. Retrieved on 2008-04-13.
  10. ^ a b UNPO: Mission Report on the situation of the Greek minority in AlbaniaPDF
  11. ^ Hellenic Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Greece and sub-Saharan African Countries Bilateral Relations.
  12. ^ Hellenic Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Brazil, The Greek Community.
  13. ^ Hellenic Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Belgium, The Greek Community.
  14. ^ Hellenic Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Argentina, The Greek Community.
  15. ^ a b CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%.
  16. ^ United States Department of State: Background Note: Greece
  17. ^ a b c d e J.M.Roberts, The New Penguin History of the World, The Greeks, Fifth Edition, 2007, p.p.171-172, ISBN 9780141030425
  18. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, The Greeks, 2008, O.Ed.
  19. ^ R. Beaton, The Medieval Greek Romance,1996,Routledge, ISBN 0415120322
  20. ^ Greece. Encarta.
  21. ^ World Book 2005, "Greece"
  22. ^ a b Browning, R. Medieval and Modern Greek, Cambridge University Press, 1983. ISBN 0-521-23488-3
  23. ^ a b c d Mazower, Mark, The Balkans: A short history,2002, Modern Library, ISBN 081296621X
  24. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, The Greeks, 2008, O.Ed.
  25. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica,Mycenaean language, 2008, O.Ed.
  26. ^ Podzuweit, Christian (1982). "Die mykenische Welt und Troja". In: B. Hänsel (ed.), Südosteuropa zwischen 1600 und 1000 v. Chr., 65–88
  27. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, Aegean civilizations, Religion, 2008, O.Ed.
  28. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, ancient Greek civilization, 2008, O.Ed.
  29. ^ Herodotus, 8.144. Quote: "τὸ Ἑλληνικόν, ἐὸν ὅμαιμόν τε καὶ ὁμόγλωσσον, καὶ θεῶν ἱδρύματά τε κοινὰ καὶ θυσίαι ἤθεά τε ὁμότροπα ("Again, there is our common brotherhood with the Greeks: our common language, the altars and the sacrifices of which we all partake, the common character which we bear")".
  30. ^ Homer, Iliad, 2.530
  31. ^ Thucydides, Histories, I, 132
  32. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, Hellen, 2008, O.Ed.
  33. ^ Isocrates,Panegyric 4.50
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  35. ^ a b The Columbia Encyclopedia, Alexander the Great, Sixth Edition, 2001-07, O.Ed.
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  37. ^ Michael Grant, The Hellenistic Greeks: From Alexander to Cleopatra, 1990, ISBN 0297820575
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2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) is a democratic, international organization. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... Greek Muslims, also known as Greek-speaking Muslims, are Muslims of Greek ethnic origin, and are found primarily in Turkey, Cyprus, and Greece, although migrations to Lebanon and Syria have been reported[1]. The vast majority of the autochthonous Muslim minority in Greece (including the Greek-speaking Muslims), most of... Department of State redirects here. ... World Book Encyclopedia is, according to its publisher in the United States, the number-one selling print encyclopedia in the world [1]. The first edition (1917) contained 8 volumes. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Catalogue of Women (Greek: γυναικῶν κατάλογος, gynaikon katalogos) is an epic of ancient Greek literature. ... Meteorology (or Meteorologica) is a text by Aristotle which contains his theories about the earth sciences. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Anthony D. Smith (born 1928) is a noted English theorist of nationalism. ... The Alexiad (original Greek title : Αλεξιάς) is a medieval biographical text written around the year 1148 by the Byzantine historian Anna Comnena, daughter of Emperor Alexius I. Within the Alexiad, she describes the political and military history of the Byzantine Empire during the reign of her father (1081-1118), making it... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... National Review Online is the online presence of the prominent conservative political magazine National Review. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References and Further Reading

  • Paul Cartledge, The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization, 2000, T.V. Brooks, ISBN 1575000938
  • Humphrey Davy Findley Kitto, The Greeks, 1991, Penguin Books, ISBN 0140135219
  • Per Bilde , Conventional Values of the Hellenistic Greeks, 1997, Aarhus University Press, ISBN 8772885556
  • Michael Grant, The Hellenistic Greeks: From Alexander to Cleopatra, 1990, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 0297820575
  • John Pentland Mahaffy, William Alexander Goligher, Hellenistic Greeks, 1928
  • Stephen Xydis, Medieval Origins of Modern Greek Nationalism, Balkan Studies, Vol. 9 (1968), 1-20.
  • Michael Herzfeld, Ours Once More: Folklore, Ideology, and the making of Modern Greece, 1982. ISBN 0292760183
  • Victor Roudometof, From Rum Millet to Greek Nation: Enlightenment, Secularization, and National Identity in Ottoman Balkan Society, 1453-1821, Journal of Modern Greek Studies 16:1 (May 1998), pp. 11-48.
  • Peter Mackridge, Eleni Yannakakis, eds., Ourselves and Others : The Development of a Greek Macedonian Cultural Identity since 1912, 1997. ISBN 1-85973-133-3.
  • Peter Bien, Inventing Greece, Journal of Modern Greek Studies 23:2 (October 2005), pp. 217-234.
  • John Koliopoulos, Thanos Veremis, Greece: The Modern Sequel : from 1831 to the Present,2002, ISBN 1850654638
  • David Holden, Greece Without Columns: The Making of the Modern Greeks, 1972,ISBN 0397007795

External links

  • Greeks on Greekness: The Construction and Uses of the Greek Past among Greeks under the Roman Empire, a conference on how Greeks imagined Greekness in relation to the past during the first two centuries of the Roman Empire.
  • Transnational Communities Programme at the University of Oxford, includes papers on the Greek Diaspora
  • World Council of Hellenes Abroad (SAE), Umbrella Diaspora Organization

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