FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Greek sea gods
Greek deities
series
Primordial deities
Titans and Olympians
Chthonic deities
Personified concepts
Other deities
Aquatic deities
Cleanup Taskforce article This article is being improved by the Cleanup Taskforce to conform with a higher standard of article quality. It is liable to frequent change until completed. Please see its Cleanup Taskforce page for more details.

The ancient Greeks had a very small number of see gods. // Greek mythology consists of a large collection of narratives that explain the origins of the world and detail the lives and adventures of a wide variety of gods, goddesses, heroes, and heroines. ... The ancient Greeks proposed many different ideas about the primordial gods in their mythology. ... In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek Τιτάν, plural Τιτάνες) were a race of powerful deities that ruled during the legendary Golden Age. ... The twelve gods of Olympus. ... In mythology chthonic (from Greek χθονιος-pertaining to the earth; earthy) designates, or pertains to, gods or spirits of the underworld, especially in Greek mythology. ... MuSE is an acronym that stands for Multiple Streaming Engine. ... Asclepius (Greek also rendered Aesculapius in Latin and transliterated Asklepios) was the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology, according to which he was born a mortal but was given immortality as the constellation Ophiuchus after his death. ... Neptune reigns in the city centre, Bristol, formerly the largest port in England outside London. ... Oceanus or Okeanos refers to the ocean, which the Greeks and Romans regarded as a river circling the world. ... In Greek mythology, Ceto, or Keto (sea monster) was a hideous aquatic monster, a daughter of Gaia and Pontus. ... Nereus: in Greek Mythology, eldest son of Pontus and Gaia, the Sea and the Earth. ... In Greek mythology, Glaucus (shiny or bright or bluish-green) referred to several different people. ... This article is about the Greek sea nymph. ... Mosaic from Herculaneum depicting Neptune and Amphitrite Amphitrite, in ancient Greek mythology, was a sea-goddess, and wife of Poseidon, identified with Salacia the wife of Neptune in Roman mythology. ... In Greek mythology, Tethys was a Titaness and sea goddess who was both sister and wife of Oceanus. ... Triton is a Greek god, the messenger of the deep. ... In Greek mythology, Ophion (serpent), also called Ophioneus ruled the world with Eurynome before the two of them were cast down by Cronus and Rhea, according to some sources. ... Proteus as seen by Andrea Alciato In Greek mythology, Proteus is an early sea-god, one of several deities whom Homer calls the Old Man of the Sea, whose name suggests the first, as protogonos is the firstborn. No mention is made of his parents, until for later mythographers he... In Greek mythology, Phorcys, or Phorkys was a primeval sea god, son of Pontus and Gaia. ... In Greek mythology, Pontus (or Pontos, sea) was an ancient, pre-Olympian sea-god, son of Gaia and Aether, the Earth and the Air. ... In Greek and Roman mythology, the Oceanids were the three thousand children of the Titans Oceanus and Tethys. ... In Greek mythology, the Nereids (NEER-ee-eds) are blue-haired sea nymphs, the fifty daughters of Nereus and Doris. ... Naiad by John William Waterhouse, 1893 In Greek mythology, the Naiads (from the Greek νάειν, to flow, and νἃμα, running water) were a type of nymph who presided over fountains, wells, springs, streams, and brooks, as river gods embodied rivers, and some very ancient spirits inhabited the still waters of... Image File history File links Blue_vacuum_cleaner. ...


The philosopher Play dough once remarked that the gease people were like frogs sitting around a pond -- their many cities hugging close to the Mediterranean coastline from the Hellenic homeland to Asia Minor, Libya, Sicily and Southern Italy. It was natural, therefore, to develop a rich variety of aquatic divinities. The range of Greek sea gods of the classical era range from primordial powers and an Olympian on the one hand, to heroized mortals, chthonic nymphs, trickster-figures, and monsters on the other. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Ancient Greece is the period of Greek history spanning much of the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins and lasting for close to a millennium, until the rise of Christianity. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Sicilian redirects here. ... Map of Magna Graecia Italy. ... The twelve gods of Olympus. ... Hero cult was one of the most distinctive features of ancient Greek religion. ... In mythology chthonic (from Greek χθονιος-pertaining to the earth; earthy) designates, or pertains to, gods or spirits of the underworld, especially in Greek mythology. ... For other uses of nymph see Nymph (disambiguation). ... The trickster figure Rénert the Fox as depicted in an 1869 childrens book by Michel Rodange. ...


These gods are valuable to study for several reasons. First, because the sea loomed so large in Greek life of all periods, a great deal of moral, cosmological and mythopoetic thought is wrapped up in its divinities. Second, the sheer variety and strangeness of the Greek sea gods seem to hold forth hints about the pre-history of Greek religion. Greek religion is the polytheistic religion practiced in ancient Greece in form of cult practices, thus the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ...

Contents


Types of Sea-Gods

Primordial powers

Some early Greek thinkers made the sea-divinities into primordial powers. Oceanus and Tethys are the mother and father of the gods in the Iliad, while the Spartan poet Alcman made the sea-nymph Thetis a demiurge-figure. Orpheus's song in Book I of the Argonautica hymns the sea-nymph Eurynome as first queen of the gods, as wife of the ocean-born giant Ophion. Oceanus or Okeanos refers to the ocean, which the Greeks and Romans regarded as a river circling the world. ... In Greek mythology, Tethys was a Titaness and sea goddess who was both sister and wife of Oceanus. ... The Iliad (Ancient Greek Ιλιάς, Ilias) tells part of the story of the siege of the city of Ilium, i. ... Sparta (Doric: Σπάρτα, Attic (and Koine): Σπάρτη) was a state in ancient Greece, whose territory included, in Classical times, all Laconia and Messenia, and which was the most powerful state of the Peloponnesus. ... Alcman (Greek , also Alkman) (7th cent. ... This article is about the Greek sea nymph. ... It has been suggested that Nebro be merged into this article or section. ... The head of Orpheus, from an 1865 painting by Gustave Moreau. ... This article or section should be merged with Jason. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... In Greek mythology, there were many women with the name Eurýnomê (far ruling). Wife of Ophion and a daughter of Oceanus (may be the same as the following) An Oceanid who mothered the Charites (may be the same as the following) Daughter of King Nisus of Megara and mother of... In Greek mythology, Ophion (serpent), also called Ophioneus ruled the world with Eurynome before the two of them were cast down by Cronus and Rhea, according to some sources. ...


The pre-Socratic cosmogony of Thales, who made water the first element, may be seen as a natural outgrowth of this poetic thinking. Pre-Socratic philosophers are often very hard to pin down, and it is sometimes very difficult to determine the actual line of argument they used in supporting their particular views. ... Thales of Miletus (ca. ... Several ancient Classical Element ideas exist. ...


The primacy of aquatic gods is reminiscent of, and may have been borrowed from, ancient Near Eastern mythology - where Tiamat (salt water) and Apsu (fresh water) are the first gods of the Enuma Elish, and where the Spirit of God is said to have "hovered over the waters" in Genesis. Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, the Fertile Crescent, Anatolia), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from... The word mythology (Greek: μυθολογία, from μυθος mythos, a story or legend, and λογος logos, an account or speech) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use supernatural events or characters to explain the nature of the universe and humanity. ... For other uses, see Tiamat (disambiguation). ... In Sumerian mythology Abzu or Apsu was the god of fresh water, also representing the primeval water and sometimes the cosmic abyss. ... Enûma Elish is the creation epic of Babylonian mythology. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin), also called The First Book of Moses, is the first book of Torah (five books of Moses), and is the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of...


Poseidon and the Heroes

Poseidon, as god of the sea, was an important Olympian power; he was the chief patron of Corinth, many cities of Magna Graecia, and also of Plato's legendary Atlantis. Neptune reigns in the city centre, Bristol, formerly the largest port in England outside London. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Κόρινθος; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Map of Magna Graecia Italy. ... Plato ( Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn, wide, broad-shouldered) (c. ... Athanasius Kirchers map of a possible Atlantis location. ...


Historians of ancient religion generally agree that Poseidon was a horse-god before he was a sea-god. As such, he was intimately connected with the pre-historic office of king - whose chief emblem of power and primary sacrificial animal was the horse. Thus, on the Mycenean Linear B tablets found at Pylos, the name PO-SE-DA-WO-NE (Poseidon) occurs frequently in connection with the wanax ("king"), whose power and wealth were increasingly maritime rather than equestrian in nature. Surprisingly, Poseidon's name is found with greater frequency than that of Zeus (DI-U-JA), and is commonly linked (often in a secondary role) with Demeter (DA-MA-TE). Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 nugget For other uses, see Horse (disambiguation). ... Map of Bronze Age Greece as described in Homers Iliad Mycenaean is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, spoken on the Greek mainland and on Crete in the 16th to 11th centuries BC, before the Dorian invasion. ... Linear B script sample Linear B is a script that was used for writing Mycenaean, an early form of Greek. ... Pylos (Greek Πύλος), formerly Navarino, is the name of a bay and a town on the west coast of the Peloponnese, in the district of Messenia in southern Greece. ... Statue of Zeus Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th-century engraving. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter; for other uses, see Demeter (disambiguation). ...


When the office of wanax disappeared during the Greek Dark Ages, the link between Poseidon and the kingship was largely, although not entirely, forgotten. In classical Athens, Poseidon was remembered as both the opponent and doublet of Erechtheus, the first king of Athens. Erechtheus was given a hero-cult at his tomb under the title Poseidon Erechtheus. The Greek Dark Ages (ca. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína (IPA: )) is the capital of Greece and one of the most famous cities in the world, named after goddess Athena. ... Erechtheus in Greek Mythology was the name of a king of Athens, and a secondary name for two other characters In Homers Iliad the name is applied to the earth-born son of Hephaestus later mostly called Erichthonius by later writers. ... Hero cult was one of the most distinctive features of ancient Greek religion. ...


In another possible echo of this archaic association, the chief ritual of Atlantis, according to Plato's Critias, was a nocturnal horse-sacrifice offered to Poseidon by the kings of the imagined island power. Athanasius Kirchers map of a possible Atlantis location. ... Plato ( Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn, wide, broad-shouldered) (c. ...


In keeping with the mythopoetic equation between horsemanship and seamanship, the equestrian heroes Castor and Pollux were invoked by sailors against shipwreck. Ancient Greeks interpreted the phenomenon now called St. Elmo's Fire as the visible presence of the two demigods. In Greek mythology, Castor (or Kastor) and Pollux (sometimes called Polydeuces) were the twin sons of Leda and the brothers of Helen of Troy and Clytemnestra. ... St. ...


Old Men and Nymphs

Several names of sea gods conform to a single type: that of Homer's halios geron or Old Man of the Sea: Nereus, Proteus, Glaucus and Phorkys. Each one is a shape-shifter, a prophet, and the father of either radiantly beautiful nymphs or hideous monsters. Nymphs and monsters blur, for Hesiod relates that Phorcys was wed to the "beautiful-cheeked" Ceto, whose name is merely the feminine of the monstrous Cetus, to whom Andromeda was due to be sacrificed. Each appearance in myth tends to emphasize a different aspect of the archetype: Proteus and Nereus as shape-shifters and tricksters, Phorcys as a father of monsters, Nereus and Glaucus for truth-telling, Nereus for the beauty of his daughters. Nereus: in Greek Mythology, eldest son of Pontus and Gaia, the Sea and the Earth. ... Proteus as seen by Andrea Alciato In Greek mythology, Proteus is an early sea-god, one of several deities whom Homer calls the Old Man of the Sea, whose name suggests the first, as protogonos is the firstborn. No mention is made of his parents, until for later mythographers he... In Greek mythology, Glaucus (shiny or bright or bluish-green) referred to several different people. ... In Greek mythology, Phorcys, or Phorkys was a primevil sea god, son of Pontus and Gaia. ... Hesiod (Hesiodos, ), the early Greek poet and rhapsode, presumably lived around 700 BCE. Historians have debated the priority of Hesiod or of Homer, and some authors have even brought them together in an imagined poetic contest. ... In Greek mythology, Ceto, or Keto (sea monster) was a hideous aquatic monster, a daughter of Gaia and Pontus. ... Cetus (a name from Greek mythology, referring to a Whale or Sea monster, see Ceto) is a constellation of the southern sky, in the region known as the Water, near other watery constellations like Aquarius, Pisces, and Eridanus. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Boast of Cassiopeia. ...


Each one of these Old Men is the father or grandfather of many nymphs and/or monsters, who often bear names that are either allegorical (Thetis, "establishment"; Telesto, "success") or geographical (Rhode from "Rhodes"; Nilos, "Nile"). Each cluster of Old Man and daughters is therefore a kind of pantheon in miniature, each one a different possible configuration of the spiritual, moral and physical world writ small - and writ around the sea. This article is about the Greek sea nymph. ... Telesto is a figure in Greek mythology. ... A Pantheon (Greek: παν, pan, all + Θεός, Theos, God), is a set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology, such as the gods of Hinduism, Greek mythology, Norse mythology, and Egyptian mythology. ...


The tantalizing figure of the halios geron has been a favorite of scholarship. The Old Men have been seen as everything from survivals of old Aegean gods who presided over the waves before Poseidon (Kerenyi) to embodiments of archaic speculation on the relation of truth to cunning intelligence (Detienne). Aegean civilization is the general term for the prehistoric civilizations in Greece and the Aegean. ... Neptune reigns in the city centre, Bristol, formerly the largest port in England outside London. ... La Vérité by the French painter Jules Joseph Lefebvre Common dictionary definitions of truth mention some form of accord with fact or reality. ... Intelligence is the mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ...


Homer's Odyssey contains a haunting description of a cave of the Nereids on Ithaca, close by a harbor sacred to Phorcys. The Neoplatonist philosopher Porphyry read this passage as an allegory of the whole universe - and he may not have far off the mark. The Homère Caetani bust at the Louvre, a 2nd century Roman copy of a 2nd century BC Greek original. ... Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, the Nereids (NEER-ee-eds) are blue-haired sea nymphs, the fifty daughters of Nereus and Doris. ... For other places named Ithaca, see Ithaca (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Phorcys, or Phorkys was a primeval sea god, son of Pontus and Gaia. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is a school of philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century A.D. Based on the teachings of Plato and the Platonists, it contained enough unique interpretations of Plato that some view Neoplatonism as substantively different from what Plato wrote and believed. ... Porphyry (c. ...


Otherworld and Craft

The sea - at once barren and prosperity-bringing, loomed large and ambivalently in the Greek mind. Aside from the ebb and flow of piracy sea-travel was fraught with superhuman hazard and uncertainty until the Industrial Revolution. It is impossible to assess the spiritual crisis in Aegean culture's relations with the sea's dangers and the capacity of its divinities that must have been engendered by the tsunamis that accompanied the volcanic explosion and collapse of Thera, ca. 1650 Р1600 BCE. Can the sense of the sea and its deities have survived the cataclysm unchanged? It seems unlikely. The sea could therefore stand as a powerful symbol of the unknown and otherwordly. Although many people thought about the sea and there depths, no one would enter the watery grave. The Flag of 18th Century pirate Calico Jack This article is about sea piracy; for other uses of Piracy or Pirate, see Pirate (disambiguation). ... The tsunami that struck Mal̩ in the Maldives on December 26, 2004. ... View from the top of Thira Santorini is a small, circular group of volcanic islands located in the Aegean Sea, 75 km south-east of the Greek mainland, (latitude: 35. ...


Headline text


Thus Cape Tanaerum, the point at which mainland Greece juts most sharply into the Mediterranean, was at once an important sailor's landmark, a shrine of Poseidon, and the point at which Orpheus and Heracles were said to have entered Hades. Taenarum or cape Tenaron is where Hercules (Herakles) went to find the entrance to Hades (or Άδης in Greek) to fulfill his last labor of capturing Cerberus. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Neptune reigns in the city centre, Bristol, formerly the largest port in England outside London. ... The head of Orpheus, from an 1865 painting by Gustave Moreau. ... Hercules, a Roman bronze (Louvre Museum) In Greek mythology, Heracles, or Herakles (glory of Hera, Ἥρα + κλέος, ) was a divine hero, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, stepson of Amphitryon and great-grandson of Perseus. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure vase made in the 4th century BC. Hades (From , Hadēs, or , Háidēs, Greek for unseen) refers to both the ancient Greek abode of the dead and the god of that underworld. ...


This motif is apparent in the paradoxical festivals of the shadowy sea-deity Leucothea ("white goddess"), celebrated in many cities throughout the Greek world. Identifying her with the drowned heroine Ino, worshippers would offer sacrifice while engaged in frenzied mourning. The philosopher Xenophanes once remarked that if Leucothea were a goddess, one should not lament her; if she were mortal, one should not sacrifice to her. In Greek mythology, Leucothea (Greek Leukothea, the White Goddess) was one of the aspects under which an ancient sea goddess was recognized. ... Hero cult was one of the most distinctive features of ancient Greek religion. ... 173 Ino is an asteroid. ... Xenophanes of Colophon (Greek: Ξενοφάνης, 570 BC-480 BC) was a Greek philosopher, poet, and social and religious critic. ...


At the same time, man's (always partial) mastery over the dangerous sea was one of the most potent marks of human skill and achievement. This theme is exemplified in the second choral ode of Sophocles's Antigone: A Roman bust. ...

Wonders are many, and none is more wonderful than man. This power spans the sea, even when it surges white before the gales of the south-wind, and makes a path under swells that threaten to engulf him. (lines 332-338)

Certain sea divinities are thus intimately bound up with the practice of human skill. The Telchines, for example, were a class of half-human, half-otter aquatic daemons said to have been the first inhabitants of Rhodes. These beings were at once revered for their metalwork and reviled for their death-dealing power of the evil eye. In Aeschylus's Prometheus Bound, the imprisoned craftsman is aided by the daughters of Ocean; and Hephaestus had his forge on "sea-girt Lemnos". In Greek mythology, the Telchines were the original inhabitants of the island of Rhodes, and were known in Crete and Cyprus. ... Rhodes, Greek Ρόδος (pron. ... Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create parts or structures. ... John Phillip, The Evil Eye (1859), a self-portrait depicting the artist sketching a Spanish gypsy who thinks she is being given the evil eye The evil eye is a widely distributed element of folklore, in which it is believed that the envy elicited by the good luck of fortunate... Aeschylus This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... Prometheus Bound is an Ancient Greek play. ... Oceanus or Okeanos refers to the ocean, which the Greeks and Romans regarded as a river circling the world. ... Hephaestus, Greek god of forging, riding a Donkey; Greek drinking cup (skyphos) made in the 5th century B.C. Hephaestus (World Book «hih FEHS tuhs») (Greek: Ἡφαιστος Hêphaistos) is the Greek god whose approximate Roman equivalent is Vulcan; he is the god of blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy... Lemnos (mod. ...


The nexus of sea, otherworld and craft is most strikingly embodied in the Kabeiroi of Samothrace, who simultaneously oversaw salvation from shipwreck, metalcraft, and mystery-rites. The Kabeiroi (Cabiri) in Greek myth were a race of gods or god-like beings, closely connected with Hephaistos and with the Mother Goddess. ... Samothrace Samothrace (in Greek: Σαμοθρακη, Samothraki) is an island in Greece, in the northern Aegean Sea. ... A shipwreck is the remains of a ship after it has sunk or been beached as a result of a crisis at sea. ... A mystery religion is any religion with an arcanum, or secret wisdom. ...


Art and Literature

In Homer's heavily maritime Odyssey, Poseidon rather than Zeus is the primary mover of events. The Homère Caetani bust at the Louvre, a 2nd century Roman copy of a 2nd century BC Greek original. ... Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... Neptune reigns in the city centre, Bristol, formerly the largest port in England outside London. ... Statue of Zeus Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th-century engraving. ...


Although the sea-nymph Thetis appears only at the beginning and end of the Iliad, being absent for much of the middle, she is a surprisingly powerful and nearly omniscient figure when she is present. She is easily able to sway the will of Zeus, and to turn all the forges of Hephaestus to her purposes. Her prophecy of Achilles' fate bespeaks a degree of foreknowledge not available to most other gods in the epic. This article is about the Greek sea nymph. ... The Iliad (Ancient Greek Ιλιάς, Ilias) tells part of the story of the siege of the city of Ilium, i. ... Statue of Zeus Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th-century engraving. ... Hephaestus, Greek god of forging, riding a Donkey; Greek drinking cup (skyphos) made in the 5th century B.C. Hephaestus (World Book «hih FEHS tuhs») (Greek: Ἡφαιστος Hêphaistos) is the Greek god whose approximate Roman equivalent is Vulcan; he is the god of blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy... The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821-1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles, also Akhilleus or Achilleus (Ancient Greek ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad. ...


In Hellenistic art, the theme of the marine thiasos or "assembly of sea-gods" became a favorite of sculptors, allowing them to show off their skill in depicting flowing movement and aquiline grace in a way that land-based subjects did not. The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance...


Further reading

  • Karl Kerenyi, The Gods of the Greeks, 5:"The Old Ones of the Sea"
  • Marcel Detienne, The Masters of Truth in Archaic Greece

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m