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Encyclopedia > Greek numerals
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Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. They are also known by the names Milesian numerals, Alexandrian numerals, or alphabetic numerals. In modern Greece, they are still in use for ordinal numbers, and in much the same situations as Roman numerals are in the West; for ordinary (cardinal) numbers, Hindu-Arabic numerals are used. A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols, or a word in a natural language that represents a number. ... The Hindu-Arabic numeral system (also called Algorism) is a positional decimal numeral system documented from the 9th century. ... Numerals sans-serif Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also known as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, Western Arabic numerals, European numerals, or Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. ... The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Eastern Arabic numerals, Arabic-Indic numerals, Arabic Eastern Numerals) are the symbols (glyphs) used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan and parts of India, and also in the no longer used Ottoman Turkish... Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language of Cambodia. ... India has produced many numeral systems. ... The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ... The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Hindu-Arabic numerals from the 8th century, and in parallel with the latter until Modern times. ... Cyrillic numerals was a numbering system derived from the Cyrillic alphabet, used by South and East Slavic peoples. ...   Note: This article contains special characters. ... The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... The Sanskrit alphabetic numerals were created in about A.D. 510 by Ä€ryabhaa. ... Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodianus. ... The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. ... The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. ... Mayan numerals. ... This is a list of numeral system topics, by Wikipedia page. ... Positional notation is a system in which each position has a value represented by a unique symbol or character. ... The radix (Latin for root), also called base, is the number of various unique symbols (or digits or numerals) a positional numeral system uses to represent numbers. ... The decimal (base ten or occasionally denary) numeral system has ten as its base. ... The binary numeral system (base 2 numerals) represents numeric values using two symbols, typically 0 and 1. ... Quaternary is the base four numeral system. ... The octal numeral system is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. ... In mathematics and computer science, base-16, hexadecimal, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix or base of 16 usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F or a–f. ... Base32 is a derivation of Base64 with the following additional properties: The resulting character set is all uppercase, which can often be beneficial when using a case-sensitive filesystem. ... Base 64 is a positional numeral system using a base of 64. ... Uuencode is a form of ASCII armor that originated as a Unix program for encoding binary data for transmission over the uucp mail system. ... Ternary or trinary is the base-3 numeral system. ... Nonary is a base 9 numeral system, typically using the digits 0-8, but not the digit 9. ... A duodecimal multiplication table The duodecimal (also known as base-12 or dozenal) system is a numeral system using twelve as its base. ... As there are 24 hours in a day a numbering system based upon 24, and as the base 12 is convenient here some examples of the base 24 (quadrovigesimal) system. ... Base 30 or trigesimal is a positional numeral system using 30 as the radix. ... Base 36 refers to a positional numeral system using 36 as the radix. ... The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ... A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols, or a word in a natural language that represents a number. ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Commonly, ordinal numbers, or ordinals for short, are numbers used to denote the position in an ordered sequence: first, second, third, fourth, etc. ... The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... Alternative meaning: number of pitch classes in a set. ... Hindu-Arabic numerals also known as Arabic Numerals, Hindu numerals, European numerals, and Western numerals are the most common set of symbols used to represent numbers around the world. ...


The earliest system of numerals in Greek were the acrophonic Attic numerals, operating much like Roman numerals (which derived from this scheme), with the following formula: Ι = 1, Π = 5, Δ = 10, ΠΔ = 50, Η = 100, ΠΗ = 500, Χ = 1000, ΠΧ = 5000, Μ = 10000 and ΠΜ = 50000. Acrophony is giving a letter in an alphabet a name which begins with the letter. ... Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodianus. ...


Starting in the 4th century BC, the Attic numerals were replaced with a quasi-decimal alphabetic system, sometimes called the Ionic numeral system. Each unit (1, 2, ..., 9) was assigned a separate letter, each tens (10, 20, ..., 90) a separate letter, and each hundreds (100, 200, ..., 900) a separate letter. This requires 27 letters, so the 24-letter Greek alphabet was extended by using three obsolete letters: digamma (ϝ, also used are stigma ϛ or, in modern Greek, στ) for 6, qoppa (ϟ) for 90, and sampi (ϡ) for 900.[1]. To distinguish numerals from letters they are followed by the "keraia" (Greek κεραῖα - antenna), a symbol similar to an acute sign (Unicode U+0734). (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 4th century BC started on January 1, 400 BC and ended on December 31, 301 BC. // Overview Events Bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum. ... Ionian numerals were used by the ancient Greeks, possibly before the 7th century BC. They are also known by the names Milesian numerals or Alexandrian numerals. ... Digamma (upper case , lower case ) is an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet, used primarily as a Greek numeral. ... Stigma is a ligature of the Greek letters sigma and tau, sometimes used nowadays to represent the Greek numeral 6. ... Qoppa Qoppa is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 90. ... Sampi (Upper case Ϡ, lower case ϡ) is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 900. ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


The alphabetic system operates on the additive principle in which the numeric values of the letters are added together to form the total. For example, 241 is represented as σμαʹ (200 + 40 + 1). Ionian numerals were used by the ancient Greeks, possibly before the 7th century BC. They are also known by the names Milesian numerals or Alexandrian numerals. ...


To represent numbers from 1,000 to 999,999 the same letters are reused to serve as thousands, tens of thousands, and hundreds of thousands. A "left karaia" (Unicode U+0375) is put in front of thousands to distinguish them from the standard use. For example, 2006 is represented as ͵βϛʹ (2000 + 6).

Letter Value Letter Value Letter Value
αʹ 1 ιʹ 10 ρʹ 100
βʹ 2 κʹ 20 σʹ 200
γʹ 3 λʹ 30 τʹ 300
δʹ 4 μʹ 40 υʹ 400
εʹ 5 νʹ 50 φʹ 500
ϝʹ or ϛʹ or στʹ 6 ξʹ 60 χʹ 600
ζʹ 7 οʹ 70 ψʹ 700
ηʹ 8 πʹ 80 ωʹ 800
θʹ 9 ϟʹ 90 ϡʹ 900

In modern Greek, uppercase letters are preferred, as in Φίλιππος Βʹ = Philip II. Look up one in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 10 (ten) is an even natural number following 9 and preceding 11. ... 100 (one hundred) (the Roman numeral is C for centum) is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101. ... 2 (two) is a number, numeral, and glyph. ... 20 (twenty) is the natural number following 19 and preceding 21. ... 200 is the natural number following 199 and preceding 201. ... This article discusses the number three. ... 30 (thirty) is the natural number following 29 and preceding 31. ... This article is about the number 300. ... This article discusses the number Four. ... 40 (forty) is the natural number following 39 and preceding 41. ... Four hundred is the natural number following three hundred ninety-nine and preceding four hundred one. ... Look up five in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 50 (fifty) is the number following 49 and preceding 51. ... Five hundred is the natural number following four hundred ninety-nine and preceding five hundred one. ... Number 6, in this article, refers to the mathematical number. ... 60 (sixty) is the natural number following 59 and preceding 61. ... Six hundred is the natural number following five and hundred ninety-nine and preceding six hundred and one. ... Look up seven in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 70 (seventy) is the natural number following 69 and preceding 71. ... 700 (seven hundred) is the natural number following 699(six hundred ninety-nine) and preceding 701(seven hundred one). Cardinal Seven hundred Ordinal 700th Factorization Roman numeral DCC Binary 1010111100 Duodecimal 4A4 Hexadecimal 2BC Vigesimal 1F0 It is the sum of four consecutive primes (167 + 173 + 179 + 181). ... Look up eight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 80 (eighty) is the natural number following 79 and preceding 81. ... 800 (eight hundred) is the natural number following 799 and preceding 801. ... Look up nine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 90 (ninety) is the natural number preceded by 89 and followed by 91. ... Nine hundred is the natural number following eight hundred ninety-nine and preceding nine hundred one. ... Main article: Greek language Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ...


Higher numbers

The Greeks also used the myriad to denote 10,000 (Μʹ) and the myriad myriad for one hundred million (ΜΜʹ). In his text The Sand Reckoner the natural philosopher Archimedes proposed advanced ways to name very high numbers, such as the number of grains of sand on a beach, and the number of grains of sand on all the beaches on all the worlds in the universe. Myriad is a classical Greek name for the number 104 = 10 000, or a group of 10 000 people, etc. ... The Sand Reckoner is probably the most accessible work of Archimedes, in some sense, it is the first research-expository paper. ... Archimedes (Greek: ; c. ...


Hellenistic zero

Hellenistic astronomers extended alphabetic Greek numerals into a sexagesimal positional numbering system by limiting each position to a maximum value of 50 + 9 and including a special symbol for zero, which was also used alone like our modern zero, more than as a simple placeholder. However, the positions were usually limited to the fractional part of a number (called minutes, seconds, thirds, fourths, etc.)—they were not used for the integral part of a number. This system was probably adapted from Babylonian numerals by Hipparchus c. 140 BC. It was then used by Ptolemy (c. 140), Theon (c. 380), and Theon's daughter Hypatia (died 415). The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ... Positional notation is a system in which each position has a value represented by a unique symbol or character. ... A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols, or a word in a natural language that represents a number. ... 0 (zero) is both a number — or, more precisely, a numeral representing a number — and a numerical digit. ... The integers are commonly denoted by the above symbol. ... Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. ... Hipparchus. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 145 BC 144 BC 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC - 140 BC - 139 BC 138 BC... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; c. ... Events Pope Pius I succeeded Pope Hyginus. ... Theon (c. ... This article is about the year 380 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A380. ... An imagined portrait of Hypatia of Alexandria Hypatia of Alexandria (Greek: Υπατία; 370–415) was a popular Hellenized Egyptian philosopher, mathematician, astronomer/astrologer, and teacher who lived in Alexandria, in Hellenistic Egypt, and who contributed greatly to that citys intellectual community. ... Events The Visigoths leave Gallia Narbonensis and relocate in Spain Wallia becomes king of the Visigoths. ...


The Greek sexagesimal place holder or zero symbol changed over time. The symbol used on papyri during the second century was a very small circle with an overbar several diameters long, terminated or not at both ends in various ways. Later, the overbar shortened to only one diameter, similar to our modern o macron (ō) which was still being used in late medieval Arabic manuscripts whenever alphabetic numerals were used. But the overbar was omitted in Byzantine manuscripts, leaving a bare ο (omicron). This gradual change from an invented symbol to ο does not support the hypothesis that the latter was the initial of ουδεν meaning "nothing".[2] Papyrus plant Cyperus papyrus at Kew Gardens, London Papyrus is an early form of paper made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that grows to 5 meters (15 ft) in height and was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. ... ( 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors ( 96– 180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... The Byzantine Empire (Greek name: - Basileia tōn Romaiōn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered around its capital of Constantinople. ...


Some of Ptolemy's true zeros appeared in the first line of each of his eclipse tables, where they were a measure of the angular separation between the center of the Moon and either the center of the Sun (for solar eclipses) or the center of Earth's shadow (for lunar eclipses). All of these zeros took the form 0 | 0 0, where Ptolemy actually used three of the symbols described in the previous paragraph. The vertical bar (|) indicates that the integral part on the left was in a separate column labeled in the headings of his tables as digits (of five arc-minutes each), whereas the fractional part was in the next column labeled minutes of immersion, meaning sixtieths (and thirty-six-hundredths) of a digit.[3] Adjective lunar Bulk silicate composition (estimated wt%) SiO2 44. ... The Sun is the star of our solar system. ... Photo taken during the 1999 eclipse. ... Earth (IPA: , often referred to as the Earth, Terra, the World or Planet Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... An eclipse refers to the phenomenon of one body passing into the shadow cast by another body. ...


References

  1. ^ Numerals: Stigma, Koppa, Sampi
  2. ^ Otto Neugebauer, The Exact Sciences in Antiquity (second edition, Providence, RI: Brown University Press, 1957) 13-14, plate 2.
  3. ^ Ptolemy's Almagest, translated by G. J. Toomer, Book VI, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998), pp.306-7)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Greek numerals (227 words)
Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet.
The earliest system of numerals in Greek was acrophonic, operating much like Roman numerals with the following scheme: Ι = 1, Π = 5, Δ = 10, Η = 100, Χ = 1000, and Μ = 10000.
This requires 27 letters, so the 24-letter Greek alphabet was extended by using three obsolete letters: digamma (ς) for 6, qoppa (ϙ;) for 90, and sampi (ϡ;) for 900.
Greek numeration (217 words)
In classical times these numerals were written in upper case.
These numerals are used much like the more familiar Roman numerals, but without the convention of subtracting the value of any numeral smaller than the one to its right.
The numerals are written with the larger values to the left.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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