FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.

 Home Encyclopedia Statistics States A-Z Flags Maps FAQ About

 WHAT'S NEW

SEARCH ALL

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

(* = Graphable)

Encyclopedia > Greek numerals
Numeral systems by culture
Hindu-Arabic numerals
Western Arabic
Eastern Arabic
Khmer
Indian family
Brahmi
Thai
East Asian numerals
Chinese
Japanese
Korean

Alphabetic numerals
Armenian
Cyrillic
Ge'ez
Hebrew
Ionian/Greek
Sanskrit

Other systems
Attic
Etruscan
Roman
Babylonian
Egyptian
Mayan
List of numeral system topics
Positional systems by base
Decimal (10)
2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128
3, 9, 12, 24, 30, 36, 60, more…
v  d  e

The earliest system of numerals in Greek were the acrophonic Attic numerals, operating much like Roman numerals (which derived from this scheme), with the following formula: Ι = 1, Π = 5, Δ = 10, ΠΔ = 50, Η = 100, ΠΗ = 500, Χ = 1000, ΠΧ = 5000, Μ = 10000 and ΠΜ = 50000. Acrophony is giving a letter in an alphabet a name which begins with the letter. ... Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodianus. ...

Starting in the 4th century BC, the Attic numerals were replaced with a quasi-decimal alphabetic system, sometimes called the Ionic numeral system. Each unit (1, 2, ..., 9) was assigned a separate letter, each tens (10, 20, ..., 90) a separate letter, and each hundreds (100, 200, ..., 900) a separate letter. This requires 27 letters, so the 24-letter Greek alphabet was extended by using three obsolete letters: digamma (ϝ, also used are stigma ϛ or, in modern Greek, στ) for 6, qoppa (ϟ) for 90, and sampi (ϡ) for 900.[1]. To distinguish numerals from letters they are followed by the "keraia" (Greek κεραῖα - antenna), a symbol similar to an acute sign (Unicode U+0734). (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 4th century BC started on January 1, 400 BC and ended on December 31, 301 BC. // Overview Events Bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum. ... Ionian numerals were used by the ancient Greeks, possibly before the 7th century BC. They are also known by the names Milesian numerals or Alexandrian numerals. ... Digamma (upper case , lower case ) is an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet, used primarily as a Greek numeral. ... Stigma is a ligature of the Greek letters sigma and tau, sometimes used nowadays to represent the Greek numeral 6. ... Qoppa Qoppa is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 90. ... Sampi (Upper case &#992;, lower case &#993;) is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 900. ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...

The alphabetic system operates on the additive principle in which the numeric values of the letters are added together to form the total. For example, 241 is represented as σμαʹ (200 + 40 + 1). Ionian numerals were used by the ancient Greeks, possibly before the 7th century BC. They are also known by the names Milesian numerals or Alexandrian numerals. ...

To represent numbers from 1,000 to 999,999 the same letters are reused to serve as thousands, tens of thousands, and hundreds of thousands. A "left karaia" (Unicode U+0375) is put in front of thousands to distinguish them from the standard use. For example, 2006 is represented as ͵βϛʹ (2000 + 6).

Letter Value Letter Value Letter Value
αʹ 1 ιʹ 10 ρʹ 100
βʹ 2 κʹ 20 σʹ 200
γʹ 3 λʹ 30 τʹ 300
δʹ 4 μʹ 40 υʹ 400
εʹ 5 νʹ 50 φʹ 500
ϝʹ or ϛʹ or στʹ 6 ξʹ 60 χʹ 600
ζʹ 7 οʹ 70 ψʹ 700
ηʹ 8 πʹ 80 ωʹ 800
θʹ 9 ϟʹ 90 ϡʹ 900

The Greeks also used the myriad to denote 10,000 (Μʹ) and the myriad myriad for one hundred million (ΜΜʹ). In his text The Sand Reckoner the natural philosopher Archimedes proposed advanced ways to name very high numbers, such as the number of grains of sand on a beach, and the number of grains of sand on all the beaches on all the worlds in the universe. Myriad is a classical Greek name for the number 104 = 10 000, or a group of 10 000 people, etc. ... The Sand Reckoner is probably the most accessible work of Archimedes, in some sense, it is the first research-expository paper. ... Archimedes (Greek: ; c. ...

## Hellenistic zero

Hellenistic astronomers extended alphabetic Greek numerals into a sexagesimal positional numbering system by limiting each position to a maximum value of 50 + 9 and including a special symbol for zero, which was also used alone like our modern zero, more than as a simple placeholder. However, the positions were usually limited to the fractional part of a number (called minutes, seconds, thirds, fourths, etc.)—they were not used for the integral part of a number. This system was probably adapted from Babylonian numerals by Hipparchus c. 140 BC. It was then used by Ptolemy (c. 140), Theon (c. 380), and Theon's daughter Hypatia (died 415). The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ... Positional notation is a system in which each position has a value represented by a unique symbol or character. ... A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols, or a word in a natural language that represents a number. ... 0 (zero) is both a number â€” or, more precisely, a numeral representing a number â€” and a numerical digit. ... The integers are commonly denoted by the above symbol. ... Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. ... Hipparchus. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 145 BC 144 BC 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC - 140 BC - 139 BC 138 BC... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; c. ... Events Pope Pius I succeeded Pope Hyginus. ... Theon (c. ... This article is about the year 380 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A380. ... An imagined portrait of Hypatia of Alexandria Hypatia of Alexandria (Greek: Î¥Ï€Î±Ï„Î¯Î±; 370â€“415) was a popular Hellenized Egyptian philosopher, mathematician, astronomer/astrologer, and teacher who lived in Alexandria, in Hellenistic Egypt, and who contributed greatly to that citys intellectual community. ... Events The Visigoths leave Gallia Narbonensis and relocate in Spain Wallia becomes king of the Visigoths. ...

The Greek sexagesimal place holder or zero symbol changed over time. The symbol used on papyri during the second century was a very small circle with an overbar several diameters long, terminated or not at both ends in various ways. Later, the overbar shortened to only one diameter, similar to our modern o macron (ō) which was still being used in late medieval Arabic manuscripts whenever alphabetic numerals were used. But the overbar was omitted in Byzantine manuscripts, leaving a bare ο (omicron). This gradual change from an invented symbol to ο does not support the hypothesis that the latter was the initial of ουδεν meaning "nothing".[2] Papyrus plant Cyperus papyrus at Kew Gardens, London Papyrus is an early form of paper made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that grows to 5 meters (15 ft) in height and was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. ... ( 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors ( 96&#8211; 180) &#8211; Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... The Byzantine Empire (Greek name: - Basileia tÅn RomaiÅn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered around its capital of Constantinople. ...

Some of Ptolemy's true zeros appeared in the first line of each of his eclipse tables, where they were a measure of the angular separation between the center of the Moon and either the center of the Sun (for solar eclipses) or the center of Earth's shadow (for lunar eclipses). All of these zeros took the form 0 | 0 0, where Ptolemy actually used three of the symbols described in the previous paragraph. The vertical bar (|) indicates that the integral part on the left was in a separate column labeled in the headings of his tables as digits (of five arc-minutes each), whereas the fractional part was in the next column labeled minutes of immersion, meaning sixtieths (and thirty-six-hundredths) of a digit.[3] Adjective lunar Bulk silicate composition (estimated wt%) SiO2 44. ... The Sun is the star of our solar system. ... Photo taken during the 1999 eclipse. ... Earth (IPA: , often referred to as the Earth, Terra, the World or Planet Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... An eclipse refers to the phenomenon of one body passing into the shadow cast by another body. ...

## References

1. ^ Numerals: Stigma, Koppa, Sampi
2. ^ Otto Neugebauer, The Exact Sciences in Antiquity (second edition, Providence, RI: Brown University Press, 1957) 13-14, plate 2.
3. ^ Ptolemy's Almagest, translated by G. J. Toomer, Book VI, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998), pp.306-7)

Results from FactBites:

 Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Greek numerals (227 words) Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. The earliest system of numerals in Greek was acrophonic, operating much like Roman numerals with the following scheme: Ι = 1, Π = 5, Δ = 10, Η = 100, Χ = 1000, and Μ = 10000. This requires 27 letters, so the 24-letter Greek alphabet was extended by using three obsolete letters: digamma (ς) for 6, qoppa (ϙ;) for 90, and sampi (ϡ;) for 900.
 Greek numeration (217 words) In classical times these numerals were written in upper case. These numerals are used much like the more familiar Roman numerals, but without the convention of subtracting the value of any numeral smaller than the one to its right. The numerals are written with the larger values to the left.
More results at FactBites »

Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here