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Encyclopedia > Greek military junta
The Phoenix and the silhouette of the soldier bearing a bayonet rifle was the emblem of the Junta. On the header the word Greece and on the footer the words 21 April can be seen in Greek.
The Phoenix and the silhouette of the soldier bearing a bayonet rifle was the emblem of the Junta. On the header the word Greece and on the footer the words 21 April can be seen in Greek.

The Greek military junta of 1967-1974 or alternatively called "The Regime of the Colonels" (το καθεστώς των Συνταγματαρχών) or in Greece "The Junta" (η Χούντα) is a collective term to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967-1974. Image File history File links 21April1967emblem. ... Image File history File links 21April1967emblem. ... The phoenix from the Aberdeen Bestiary. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ...


The rule by the military started in the morning of April 21, 1967 with a coup d'état led by a group of colonels of the military of Greece, and ended in August, 1974. April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... The armed forces of Greece consist of the Hellenic Army Hellenic Navy Hellenic Air Force Hellenic Coast Guard The civilian authority for the Greek military is the Ministry of National Defence. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...

Contents


History of the Junta

Background

The 1967 coup and the following seven years of military rule were the epitome of 30 years of national division between the forces of the Left and the Right that can be traced to the time of the resistance against Axis occupation of Greece during WWII. After the liberation in 1945 Greece was plunged into a civil war between the forces of the Communist-led Greek resistance and the now returned government-in-exile. Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans, British troops Communist guerillas (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos Markos Vafiadis Strength 100,000 men 20,000 men and women Casualties 12,777 killed 37,732 wounded 4,527 missing 38,000 killed 40,000 captured or surrendered An ELAS soldier The Greek Civil... This article is becoming very long. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... An ELAS soldier The Greek Resistance is the blanket term for a number of armed and unarmed groups from across the political spectrum that resisted the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II. // Origins The rise of resistance movements in Greece was precipitated by the invasion and occupation of... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans, British troops Communist guerillas (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos Markos Vafiadis Strength 100,000 men 20,000 men and women Casualties 12,777 killed 37,732 wounded 4,527 missing 38,000 killed 40,000 captured or surrendered An ELAS soldier The Greek Civil... The Ethniko Apeleftherotiko Metopo (EAM) (Greek Εθνικό Απελευθερωτικό Μέτωπο (ΕΑΜ), National Liberation Front) was the main resistance movement in Greece during World War II. It was founded in 27 September 1941 by representatives of four left-wing parties : Lefteris Apostolou for the Communist Party of Greece (KKE), Christos Chomenidis, for the Socialist Party of...


American influence in Greece

The civil war ended with the military defeat of the Left in 1949. The Communist Party of Greece (KKE) was outlawed and many Communists had to either flee the country or face persecution. The CIA and the Greek military reconfirmed their mutual cooperation, especially after Greece joined NATO in 1952. In particular, the newly-founded KYP (the Greek Central Intelligence Service) and the LOK Special Forces (later actively involved in the 1967 coup) maintained a very close liaison with their American counterparts. In addition to preparing for a Soviet invasion, they agreed to guard against a leftist coup. The LOK in particular were integrated into the Gladio European stay-behind network. 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Party logo The Communist Party of Greece (Greek: Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας, Kommunistiko Komma Elladas), better known by its acronym ΚΚΕ (usually pronounced koo-koo-eh) , is the communist party in Greece. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article is becoming very long. ...

The junta principals. Left to right: Pattakos, Papadopoulos and Makarezos
The junta principals. Left to right: Pattakos, Papadopoulos and Makarezos

During the Cold War, Greece was a vital link in the NATO defense arc which extended from the eastern border of Iran to the northmost point in Norway. In 1947, the United States formulated the Truman Doctrine, and began to actively support a series of authoritarian governments in Greece, Turkey and Iran in order to ensure that these states did not fall under Soviet influence. Greece in particular was seen as being in risk, having experienced a Communist insurgency. Image File history File links 21april1967principals. ... Image File history File links 21april1967principals. ... Georgios Papadopoulos in the standard poster issued by the dictatorship government. ... The Cold War (Russian: Холодная Война Kholodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between a worldwide military alliance of capitalist states led by the United States and a rival alliance of communist states led by the Soviet Union. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[1] (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Truman delivering the Truman Doctrine on March 12, 1947. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans, British troops Communist guerillas (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos Markos Vafiadis Strength 100,000 men 20,000 men and women Casualties 12,777 killed 37,732 wounded 4,527 missing 38,000 killed 40,000 captured or surrendered An ELAS soldier The Greek Civil...


The Apostasia and Political Instability

Main article: Apostasia of 1965

By the early 1960s, the government was still at the hands of conservatives, but there were signs of liberalization. In 1963, the assassination of EDA MP Gregoris Lambrakis, the resignation of Constantine Karamanlis, and the election of centrist George Papandreou, Sr. as Prime Minister were signs of rapid change. In a bid to gain more control over the country's government than what his limited constitutional powers allowed, the young and inexperienced King Constantine II clashed with liberal reformers, dismissing Papandreou in 1965, causing a constitutional crisis. Apostasia (In Greek: Αποστασία) or Iouliana (Greek: Ιουλιανά) is a term used to describe a political move in Greece, in 1 October 1965, involving King Constantine II and a group of politicians, a prominent member of which was the later Prime Minister of Greece Kostantinos Mitsotakis, to replace the government of Georgios... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... United Democratic Left, UDL ( Greek: Ενιαία Δημοκρατική Αριστερά, abbreviation: UDL or in Greek: ΕΔΑ) was a political party in Greece before the Greek military junta of 1967-1974. ... Gregoris Lambrakis (Γρηγόρης Λαμπράκης) (April 3, 1912–May 27, 1963) was a Greek politician, physician, and member of the faculty of the School of Medicine at the University of Athens. ... Konstantinos Karamanlis Konstantinos Karamanlis (Κωνσταντίνος Καραμανλής in Greek; March 8, 1907 – April 23, 1998) was a towering figure of Greek politics. ... Georgios Papandreou, the Geros of Democracy George Papandreou (in Greek Georgios Papandreou or Γεώργιος Παπανδρέου) (18 February 1888 - 1 November 1968) was a Greek politician. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Constantine of Greece, formerly Constantine II, King of the Hellenes (born June 2, 1940) was King of Greece from 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1974. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ...


The term Apostasia of 1965 (Αποστασία του 1965) or Iouliana (Ιουλιανά) refers to the group of George Papandreou's dissidents, led by the politician Konstantinos Mitsotakis, then also member of the Center Union, who crossed the floor to bring about the fall of his legally elected government in favour of the formerly King. Constantine II made several attempts to form governments - ghosts, but none of them lasted for long. He appointed President of the Parliament Georgios Athanasiadis-Novas as Prime Minister. Athanasiadis-Novas was followed by many Center Union's dissidents and conservative ERE MPs) but not enough to gain a vote of confidence in parliament. He was replaced on August 20 of the same year by Ilias Tsirimokos with similar effects. Failing to gain a vote of confidence, Tririmokos was dismissed on September 17. Apostasia (In Greek: Αποστασία) or Iouliana (Greek: Ιουλιανά) is a term used to describe a political move in Greece, in 1 October 1965, involving King Constantine II and a group of politicians, a prominent member of which was the later Prime Minister of Greece Kostantinos Mitsotakis, to replace the government of Georgios... George Papandreou could be George Papandreou, senior, Giorgos Papandreou (1888-1968) Three time Prime Minister of Geece (1944-1945; 1963; 1964-1965) George Andreas Papandreou, (1952- ), grandson of George Papandreou, senior, former Foreign Minister of Greece from 1999 till 2004. ... Constantine Mitsotakis Constantine Mitsotakis (in Greek Konstantinos Mitsotakis) (born October 18, 1918), Greek politician, was born in Chania, Crete. ... The Center Union (Greek: Ένωση Κέντρου, Enosi Kentrou; abbreviation: EK) was the political party created in 1961 by Greek politician George Papandreou. ... Georgios Athanasiadis-Novas(Greek: Γεώργιος Αθανασιάδης-Νόβας) (1893-1986) Prime Minister of Greece in 1965. ... The Center Union (Greek: Ένωση Κέντρου, Enosi Kentrou; abbreviation: EK) was the political party created in 1961 by Greek politician George Papandreou. ... The National Radical Union (or Ethnike Rizospastike Enosis, ERE) was a Greek political party formed in 1955 by Konstantinos Karamanlis out of the Greek Rally party. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament to give members of parliament a chance to register their confidence for a government by means of a parliamentary vote. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ...


Constantine II next induced some of Papandreou's dissidents, led by Stephanos Stephanopoulos, to form a government of "King's men," which lasted until December 22, 1966, amid mounting strikes and protests by Papandreou's supporters, the Greek democrats and the left-wing. When Stephanopoulos resigned in frustration, Constantine appointed an interim government under Ioannis Paraskevopoulos, which called elections for May 1967. This government did not even last until the scheduled elections. Replaced on April 3, 1967, by another interim government under Panagiotis Kanellopoulos, Kanellopoulos being the active leader of the National Radical Union and still supposed to organize a fair election in May. Stephanos Stephanopoulos (1898 - 1982) was a Greek political figure. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Panagiotis Kanellopoulos Panagiotis Kanellopoulos (1902-1986) was a distinguished Greek politician and Prime Minister. ...


New elections were scheduled (for 28 May 1967), and there were many indications that Papandreou's Center Union Party (EK) would not be able to form a working government by itself. There was a strong possibility that the EK party (or even the conservative ERE party) would be forced into an alliance with socialist EDA (EΔΑ) party, which was suspected by conservatives to be a proxy for the banned Communist Party of Greece (and not totally without cause; while EDA was by no means Communist, the Communist Party had decided to support EDA in the election in hopes for further reforms). May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... The Center Union (Greek: Ένωση Κέντρου, Enosi Kentrou; abbreviation: EK) was the political party created in 1961 by Greek politician George Papandreou. ... The National Radical Union (or Ethnike Rizospastike Enosis, ERE) was a Greek political party formed in 1955 by Konstantinos Karamanlis out of the Greek Rally party. ... United Democratic Left, UDL ( Greek: Ενιαία Δημοκρατική Αριστερά, abbreviation: UDL or in Greek: ΕΔΑ) was a political party in Greece before the Greek military junta of 1967-1974. ... Party logo The Communist Party of Greece (Greek: Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας, Kommunistiko Komma Elladas), better known by its acronym ΚΚΕ (usually pronounced koo-koo-eh) , is the communist party in Greece. ...


Some politicians adhering to the ERE party feared the prospect of a constitutional deviation to be instigated by leftist members of the Center Union such as Andreas Papandreou and Spyros Katsotas. One such politician, George Rallis, has recounted he had proposed that, in case of such an "anomaly", the King waged martial law, as the monarchist constitution afforded him. According to Rallis, Constantine was receptive to the idea.[1]. The Center Union (Greek: Ένωση Κέντρου, Enosi Kentrou; abbreviation: EK) was the political party created in 1961 by Greek politician George Papandreou. ... Andreas Georgiou Papandreou, Ανδρέας Γ. Παπανδρέου (5 February 1919 - 23 June 1996) was a Greek economist and politician. ... George Rallis (Greek form Giorgos or Georgios Rallis) (26 December 1918-15 March 2006), was a Greek politician, and Prime Minister of Greece from 10 May 1980 to 21 October 1981. ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ...


Greek historiography and the press[1] also hypothesize about a "Generals' Coup", i.e. a coup that would have been deployed at the behest of the palace[2] under the pretext of communist subversion.[2] As it turned out, the constitutional deviation originated neither amongst the political parties, nor from the Palace, but from middle-rank army putschists. When tanks rolled into Athens, in April 21st, the legitimate ERE government, of which Rallis was a member, asked king Constantine to immediately mobilise the state against the coup; he declined to do so, and swore in the Dictators as legitimate government of Greece, while asserting that he was "certain they had acted in order to save the country". Eight months later, Constantine took part in a failed counter-coup, and fled the country to Italy. He never attempted to set-up a political government-in-exile of any sort while residing in Rome, thus leaving the Dictatorship as the sole rulers of Greece.


In 1966 Constantine II of Greece sent his envoy Demetrios Bitsios to Paris on mission to convince Constantine Karamanlis to return to Greece and resume a role in Greek politics. According to uncorroborated claims made by the former monarch only in 2006, after both men had died, Karamanlis replied to Bitsios that he would return under the condition that the King were to wage martial law, as was his constitutional prerogative. [3] Constantine of Greece, formerly Constantine II, King of the Hellenes (born June 2, 1940) was King of Greece from 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1974. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Département Paris (75) Région ÃŽle-de-France Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (PS) City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 86. ... Konstantinos Karamanlis Konstantinos Karamanlis (Κωνσταντίνος Καραμανλής in Greek; March 8, 1907 – April 23, 1998) was a towering figure of Greek politics. ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ...


U.S. journalist Cyrus L. Sulzberger has separately claimed that Karamanlis flew to New York to lobby U.S. support from Lauris Norstad for a coup d'état in Greece that would establish a strong conservative regime under himself; Sulzberger alleges that Norstad declined to involve himself in such affairs. [2] Sulzberger's account, which unlike that of the former King was delivered during the lifetime of those implicated (Karamanlis and Norstad), rested solely on the authority of his and Norstad's word. When in 1997 the former King reiterated Sulzberger's allegations, Karamanlis stated that he "will not deal with the former king's statements because both their content and attitude are unworthy of commentation." [3] The deposed King's adoption of Sulzberger's claims against Karamanlis was castigated by left-leaning media, typically critical of Karamanlis, as "shameless" and "brazen" [4]. It bears noting that, at the time, the former King referred exclusively to Sulzberger's account, to support the theory of a planned coup by Karamanlis, and made no mention of the alleged 1966 meeting with Bitsios, which he would refer to only after both participants had died and could not respond. Lauris Norstad (1907 - 1988) GENERAL LAURIS NORSTAD Retired Dec. ... A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment, that mostly replaces just the top power figures. ...


The coup d'état of April 21

The junta members.
The junta members.

On April 21, 1967, (just weeks before the scheduled elections), a group of right-wing army officers led by Brigadier Stylianos Pattakos (Στυλιανός Παττακός) and Colonels George Papadopoulos (Γεώργιος Παπαδόπουλος) and Nikolaos Makarezos (Νικόλαος Μακαρέζος) seized power in a coup d'etat (πραξικόπημα). The colonels were able to quickly seize power by using surprise and confusion. Pattakos was commander of the Armour Training Centre (Κέντρο Εκπαίδευσης Τεθωρακισμένων - ΚΕΤΘ/ Kentro Ekpaideusis Tethorakismenon -KETTH), based in Athens. The confederates placed tanks in strategic positions of Athens, effectively gaining complete control of the city. At the same time, a large number of small mobile units were dispatched to arrest leading politicians and authority figures, as well as many ordinary citizens suspected of left-wing sympathies. One of the first to be arrested was Lieutenant General George Spantidakis, Commander in Chief of the Greek Army. Image File history File linksMetadata Junta2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Junta2. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Georgios Papadopoulos in the standard poster issued by the dictatorship government. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Greece, and the birthplace of democracy. ...


The conspirators were known to Spantidakis. Indeed, he was instrumental in bringing some of them to Athens, to use in a coup he and other leading Army generals had been planning, in an attempt to prevent George Papandreou's victory in the upcoming election and the Communist takeover that would, supposedly, follow it. The colonels succeeded in persuading Spantidakis to join them and he issued orders activating an action plan (the "Prometheus" plan) that had been previously drafted as a response for a hypothetical Communist uprising (see Operation Gladio). Under the command of paratrooper Lieutenant Colonel Costas Aslanides, the LOK (see above) took control of the Greek Defence Ministry while Brigadier General Stylianos Pattakos gained control over communication centers, the parliament, the royal palace, and according to detailed lists, arrested over 10,000 people. Since orders came from a legal source, commanders and units not involved in the conspiracy automatically obeyed them. Many of the arrested were held during the first days in "Ippodromos" (a stadium for horse racing by the sea) and some of them (Panayotis Elis one of them) were executed in cold blood by young army officers. Georgios Papandreou, the Geros of Democracy George Papandreou (in Greek Georgios Papandreou or Γεώργιος Παπανδρέου) (18 February 1888 - 1 November 1968) was a Greek politician. ... This article is becoming very long. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ...


By the early morning hours the whole of Greece was in the hands of the colonels. All leading politicians, including acting Prime Minister Panagiotis Kanellopoulos, had been arrested and were held incommunicado by the conspirators. Phillips Talbot, the US ambassador in Athens, disapproved of the military coup, complaining that it represented "A rape of democracy" - to which Jack Maury, the CIA chief of station in Athens, answered, "How can you rape a whore?" [5] The Papadopoulos junta attempted to re-engineer the Greek political landscape by coup. Ironically, in biographical notes of Papadopoulos published as a booklet by supporters in 1980 it is mentioned that he attended Polytechneion, the prime Engineering School in the country, but did not graduate. Panagiotis Kanellopoulos Panagiotis Kanellopoulos (1902-1986) was a distinguished Greek politician and Prime Minister. ... Political engineering is a concept in political science that deals with the designing of political institutions in a society. ...


The role of the King

The three plot leaders visited King Constantine II in his residence in Tatoi, also surrounded by tanks effectively preventing any form of resistance. The King wrangled with the colonels and initially dismissed them, ordering them to return with Spantidakis. Later in the day he took it upon himself to go the Ministry of National Defence, North of Athens city centre, where all plotters were gathered. The King had a discussion with Kanellopoulos, held there, and with leading generals. None could be of much help, since Kanellopoulos was a prisoner whilst the generals had no real power, as was evident from the shouting of lower and middle-ranking officers, refusing to obey orders and clamouring for a new government under Spantidakis. [citation needed] The King finally relented and decided to co-operate, claiming to this day that he was isolated and did not know what else to do. Constantine of Greece, formerly Constantine II, King of the Hellenes (born June 2, 1940) was King of Greece from 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1974. ... Tatoi, located 15 kilometers north of the center of Athens, was the summer palace and private property of the former Greek Royal Family, and the site of George II of the Helleness birth. ...

King Konstantinos II surrounded by the junta Government at the swearing-in Ceremony of the Dictators.
King Konstantinos II surrounded by the junta Government at the swearing-in Ceremony of the Dictators.

His excuse has been that he was trying to gain time to organise a counter-coup and oust the junta. He did organise such a counter-coup; however, the fact that the new government had a legal origin, in that it had been appointed by the legitimate head of state, played an important role in the coup's success. The King was later to regret bitterly his decision. For many Greeks, it served to identify him indelibly with the coup and certainly played an important role in the final decision to abolish the monarchy, sanctioned by the 1974 referendum. Image File history File linksMetadata Junta. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Junta. ... Constantine of Greece, formerly Constantine II, King of the Hellenes (born June 2, 1940) was King of Greece from 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1974. ...


The only concession the King could achieve was to appoint a civilian as Premier rather than Spantidakis. Constantine Kollias a former Attorney General of the Areios Pagos, the highest court in Greece, was chosen. He was a well-known royalist and had even been disciplined under the Papandreou government for meddling in the investigation on the murder of Gregoris Lambrakis. Kollias was little more than a figurehead and real power rested with the army, and especially Papadopoulos, who was emerging as the coup's strong man and became Minister of Defence and Minister of the Government's Presidency. Other coup members occupied key posts. Up until then constitutional legitimacy had been prevented, since under the then-Greek Constitution the King could appoint whomever he wanted as Premier, as long as Parliament granted a vote of confidence or a general election was called. The Areopagus or Areios Pagos is the Hill of Ares, north-west of the Acropolis, which in classical times functioned as the chief homicide court of Athens. ... Gregoris Lambrakis (Γρηγόρης Λαμπράκης) (April 3, 1912–May 27, 1963) was a Greek politician, physician, and member of the faculty of the School of Medicine at the University of Athens. ...


It was this government, sworn-in in the early evening hours of April 21st, that formalised the coup, by adopting a "Constituent Act", an amendment tantamount to a revolution, cancelling the elections and effectively abolishing the constitution, to be replaced by one to be drawn up later. In the meantime, the government was to rule by decree. Since traditionally such Constituent Acts did not need to be signed by the Crown, the King never signed it, permitting him to claim, years later, that he had never signed any document instituting the junta. Critics claim that Constantine II did nothing to prevent the government (and especially his chosen Premier Kollias) from legally instituting the authoritarian government to come.


This same government formally published and enforced a decree instituting military law already proclaimed by radio during the coup's development. Constantine claimed he never signed that decree either.


The King's Counter-Coup

From the outset, the relationship between King Constantine II and the Colonels was an uneasy one. The colonels were not willing to share power with anyone, whereas the young King, like his father before him, was used to playing an active role in politics and would never consent to being a mere figurehead, especially in a military administration. Although the colonels' strong anti-communist, pro-NATO and pro-Western views appealed to the United States, fearful of domestic and international public opinion, President of the United States Lyndon B. Johnson told Constantine, in a visit to Washington, D.C. in early autumn of 1967, that it would be best to replace that government with another one. [citation needed] Constantine took that as an encouragement to organise a counter-coup and it was probably meant as one, although no direct help or involvement of the US was forthcoming. The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ...

 The former King Constantine of Greece shaking the hand of George Papadopoulos. On the left a smiling Pattakos.
The former King Constantine of Greece shaking the hand of George Papadopoulos. On the left a smiling Pattakos.

The King finally decided to launch his counter-coup on December 13, 1967. Since Athens was effectively in the hands of the junta militarily, Constantine decided to fly to the small northern city of Kavala, East of Thessaloniki. There he hoped to be among troops loyal only to him. The vague plan he and his advisors had conceived was to form a unit that would advance to Thessaloniki (Greece's second biggest city and unofficial capital of northern Greece) and take it. Constantine planned to install an alternative administration there. International recognition, which he believed to be forthcoming, as well as internal pressure from the fact that Greece would have been split in two governments would, the King hoped, force the junta to resign, leaving the field clear for him to return triumphant to Athens. Image File history File links Constantinospapadopouloshandshake. ... Image File history File links Constantinospapadopouloshandshake. ... Kavala (also seen as Kavála, Kavalla, (Greek: Καβάλα), (2001 pop. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In the early morning hours of 13 December the King boarded the royal plane together with Queen Anne-Marie of Greece, their two baby children Princess Alexia of Greece and Denmark and Pavlos, Crown Prince of Greece, his mother Frederika of Hanover and his sister, Princess Irene of Greece and Denmark. Constantine also took with him Premier Kollias. At first things seemed to be going according to plan. Constantine was well received in Kavala which, militarily, was under the command of a general loyal to him. The air force and navy, both strongly royalist and not involved in the 1967 coup, immediately declared for him and mobilised. Another of Constantine's generals effectively cut all communication between Athens and the North. Queen Anne-Marie (born Princess Anne-Marie of Denmark Amalienborg Palace, Copenhagen, Denmark, 30 August 1946) is the wife of King Constantine II of Greece, who was deposed by a military coup in 1967. ... Princess Alexia of Greece and Denmark, born 10 July 1965, is the elder daughter and eldest child of King Konstantinos II and his wife Queen Anna-Maria (née Princess Anne-Marie Dagmar Ingrid of Denmark who is the youngest daughter of King Frederick IX of Denmark and his wife... Prince Pavlos, Crown Prince of Greece, Prince of Denmark is the eldest son of Constantine II, King of the Hellenes from 1964 to 1973. ... Frederika of Hanover, Frederika Luise Thyra Victoria Margarita Sophia Olga Cecilia Isabella Christa, Princess of Hanover, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg 1917-1981 was Queen consort of the Hellenes (Greece) during the reign of her husband King Paul of Greece(1947-1964). ... Princess Irene of Greece and Denmark is the youngest child of King Paul of Greece and his wife Frederika of Hanover. ...


However, the King's plans were overly bureaucratic, naïvely supposing that orders from a commanding General would automatically be followed. Further, the King was obsessive about avoiding "bloodshed" even where the junta would be the attacker. Instead of attempting to drum up the widest popular support, hoping for spontaneous pro-democracy risings in most towns, the King preferred to let his Generals put together the necessary force for advancing on Thessaloniki in strict compliance with military bureaucracy [citation needed]. The King made no attempt to contact politicians, even local ones, and even took care to include in his proclamation a paragraph condemning communism, lest anyone should get the wrong idea.


In the circumstances, rather than the King managing to put together a force and advancing on Thessaloniki, middle-ranking pro-junta officers neutralised and arrested his royalist generals and took command of their units, which subsequently put together a force advancing on Kavala to arrest the King. The junta, not at all shaken by the loss of their figurehead premier, ridiculed the King by announcing the he was hiding "from village to village". Realising that the counter coup had failed, Constantine fled Greece on board the royal plane, taking his family and hapless Premier with him. They landed in Rome early in the morning of 14th December. Constantine remained in exile all through the rest of military rule (although nominally he continued as King until 1st June 1973) and was never to return to Greece as King. Nickname: The Eternal City Location within Province of Rome in the Region of Latium Coordinates: Region Latium Porvince Province of Rome Mayor of Rome Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (496. ...


The Regency

George Papadopoulos with Phaedon Gizikis on his right and Dimitrios Ioannides on his left.
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George Papadopoulos with Phaedon Gizikis on his right and Dimitrios Ioannides on his left.

When the King flew out of Athens to begin his counter-coup, on December 13 1967, he took Prime Minister Kollias with him. Thus, legally, there was no government and no Head of State in Athens. This did not concern the military junta. Instead the Revolutionary Council of Pattakos, Papadopoulos and Makarezos made a brief appearance to cause a Resolution to be published in the Government Gazette, appointing another member to the military administration, Major General Georgios Zoitakis, as Regent. Zoitakis then appointed Papadopoulos Prime Minister. This became the only government of Greece after the failure of the King's attempted coup, as the King was unwilling to set up an alternative administration in exile. The Regent's position was later confirmed under the 1968 Constitution, although the exiled King never officially recognised, nor acknowledge, the Regency. Image File history File links source: Uknown Description: Greek Dictator George Papadopoulos among two greek wing commanders File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links source: Uknown Description: Greek Dictator George Papadopoulos among two greek wing commanders File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Georgios Papadopoulos in the standard poster issued by the dictatorship government. ... Phaedon Gizikis (Greek: Φαίδων Γκιζίκης). Army officer and president of Greece (1973-1974) Born in 1917, Phaedon Gizikis was a career Greek army officer. ... Dimitrios Ioannides (also Dimitris Ioannidis) (March 13, 1923) was a Greek military officer who was involved in the Greek military junta of 1967-1974. ... Georgios Papadopoulos in the standard poster issued by the dictatorship government. ... Georgios Zoitakis (1910 - 1996) was a Greek General. ... Georgios Zoitakis (1910 - 1996) was a Greek General. ... George Papadopoulos (Greek: Georgios Papadopoulos, written Γεώργιος Παπαδόπουλος, May 5, 1919 - June 27, 1999), was the head of the military coup détat that took place in Greece on April 21, 1967...


In a legally controversial move, even under the junta's own Constitution, the Cabinet voted on March 21, 1972 to oust Zoitakis and replace him with Papadopoulos who thus combined the offices of Regent and Prime Minister. It was thought Zoitakis was problematic and interfered too much with the military. The King's portrait remained on coins, in public buildings etc. but slowly, the military was chipping away at the institution of the monarchy: The royal family's tax immunity was abolished, the complex network of royally managed charities was brought under direct state control, the royal arms were removed from coins, the Navy and Air Force were no longer "Royal" and the newspapers were usually banned from publishing the King's photo or any interviews. March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Georgios Zoitakis (1910 - 1996) was a Greek General. ... Georgios Papadopoulos in the standard poster issued by the dictatorship government. ... Georgios Zoitakis (1910 - 1996) was a Greek General. ...


During this period, resistance against the colonels' rule became better organized among exiles in Europe and the United States. In addition to the expected opposition from the left, the colonels found themselves under attack by constituencies that had traditionally supported past right-wing regimes: pro-monarchists supporting Constantine; businessmen concerned over international isolation; the middle class facing an economic downturn after 1971 [citation needed]. There was also considerable political infighting within the junta. Still, up until 1973 the junta appeared in firm control of Greece, and not likely to be ousted by violent means.


The Republic

By 1973 the military dictators had grown deeply unpopular, and in May officers of the largely royalist Navy staged an abortive coup, although King Constantine II of Greece himself was not involved. On June 1, Papadopoulos retaliated by declaring Greece a republic and declared himself President of Greece, a decision which was confirmed by a plebiscite on July 29 by an "almost unanimous" vote, thanks to widespread election fraud [citation needed]. The political parties did not recognize the result. Constantine of Greece, formerly Constantine II, King of the Hellenes (born June 2, 1940) was King of Greece from 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1974. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... In a broad definition, a republic is a state or country that is led by people whose political power is based on principles that are not beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... This is a list of presidents of Greece. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ...


The Ioannidis Regime

Military tank standing in front of the Athens Polytechnic. Eventually, this vehicle would crush the gates of the Polytechnic in November 17 1973, putting a violent end to the student uprising.
Military tank standing in front of the Athens Polytechnic. Eventually, this vehicle would crush the gates of the Polytechnic in November 17 1973, putting a violent end to the student uprising.

On November 25, 1973, following the bloody suppression of the Athens Polytechnic uprising on the 17th of November, General Dimitrios Ioannides ousted Papadopoulos and tried to continue to rule despite the popular unrest the uprising had triggered. Ioannides' attempt in July 1974 to overthrow Archbishop Makarios III, the President of Cyprus, brought Greece to the brink of war with Turkey, which invaded Cyprus and occupied part of the island. Tank during the crackdown on 17 November 1973 in Athens File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tank during the crackdown on 17 November 1973 in Athens File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Military tank standing in front of the Athens Polytechnic. ... Dimitrios Ioannides (also Dimitris Ioannidis) (March 13, 1923) was a Greek military officer who was involved in the Greek military junta of 1967-1974. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Makarios (born Mihalis Christodoulou Mouskos, August 13, 1913—August 3, 1977) was archbishop and primate of the autocephalous Cypriot Orthodox Church (1950-1977) and first President of the Republic of Cyprus (1960-1977). ... The President of Cyprus is the countrys head of state. ... In 1974, a coup detat by Greek Army officers stationed on the Mediterranian island of Cyprus, tried to overthrow the then-President Makarios. ...


Restoration of Democracy

The EOKA-B organisation, took power on the island by a military coup on July 15, 1974. Turkey replied to this coup after 5 days and invaded Cyprus. There was well founded fear that an all out war with Turkey was imminent. Senior Greek military officers withdrew their support of Junta strongman Brigadier Dimitrios Ioannides. Junta-appointed President Phaedon Gizikis called a meeting of old politicians, including Panagiotis Kanellopoulos, Spiros Markezinis, Stephanos Stephanopoulos, Evangelos Averoff and others. The agenda was to appoint a national unity government that would lead to country to elections. Although former Prime Minister Panagiotis Kanellopoulos was originally backed, Gizikis finally invited former Prime Minister Constantine Karamanlis, who resided in Paris since 1963, to assume that role. Karamanlis returned to Athens on a French Presidency Lear Jet made available to him by President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, a close personal friend, and was sworn-in as Prime Minister under President Phaedon Gizikis. Karamanlis' newly organized party, New Democracy (ND), won elections held in November 1974, and he became prime minister. The collapse of the junta was triggered by the Cyprus debacle; some argue that the 1973 Athens Polytechnic uprising in 1973 (Greek: Η εξέγερση του Πολυτεχνείου) was the event that most discredited the military government and acted as a key catalyst for its eventual collapse. EOKA (Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston, in English National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters) was a Greek Cypriot nationalist organisation that fought for the expulsion of United Kingdom troops from the island, for self-determination and for union with Greece in the mid to late 1950s. ... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... In modern usage, junta (pronounced as in Spanish HUN-ta or HOON-ta) typically refers to a military dictatorship, especially in Latin America, which is officially run by a committee of high-ranking military officers. ... Dimitrios Ioannides (also Dimitris Ioannidis) (March 13, 1923) was a Greek military officer who was involved in the Greek military junta of 1967-1974. ... In modern usage, junta (pronounced as in Spanish HUN-ta or HOON-ta) typically refers to a military dictatorship, especially in Latin America, which is officially run by a committee of high-ranking military officers. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Phaedon Gizikis (Greek: Φαίδων Γκιζίκης). Army officer and president of Greece (1973-1974) Born in 1917, Phaedon Gizikis was a career Greek army officer. ... Panagiotis Kanellopoulos Panagiotis Kanellopoulos (1902-1986) was a distinguished Greek politician and Prime Minister. ... Spiros Markezinis (1909 - January 4, 2000) was a Greek politician, longtime member of the Vouli (Greeces parliament), and briefly Prime Minister. ... Stephanos Stephanopoulos (1898 - 1982) was a Greek political figure. ... Evangelos Averoff-Tositsas Evangelos Averoff-Tositsas was a famous Greek politician. ... Panagiotis Kanellopoulos Panagiotis Kanellopoulos (1902-1986) was a distinguished Greek politician and Prime Minister. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Konstantinos Karamanlis Konstantinos Karamanlis (Κωνσταντίνος Καραμανλής in Greek; March 8, 1907 – April 23, 1998) was a towering figure of Greek politics. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Greece, and the birthplace of democracy. ... C-GBFP - Adlair Aviation - Learjet 25 (LJ25) refueling at Cambridge Bay Airport, Nunavut, Canada. ... This article needs to be updated. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Phaedon Gizikis (Greek: Φαίδων Γκιζίκης). Army officer and president of Greece (1973-1974) Born in 1917, Phaedon Gizikis was a career Greek army officer. ... For other uses of the term, including political parties with the name New Democracy, see New Democracy (disambiguation). ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... In modern usage, junta (pronounced as in Spanish HUN-ta or HOON-ta) typically refers to a military dictatorship, especially in Latin America, which is officially run by a committee of high-ranking military officers. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Military tank standing in front of the Athens Polytechnic. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ...


Characteristics of the Junta

Ideology

The colonels preferred to call the coup d'état of April 21 a "revolution to Save the Nation" ("Ethnosotirios Epanastasis"). Their official justification for the coup was that a "communist conspiracy" had infiltrated the bureaucracy, the academia, the press, and even the military, to such an extent that drastic action was needed to protect the country from a takeover. Thus, the defining characteristic of the Junta was its staunch anti-Communism. April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... It has been suggested that Revolutionary be merged into this article or section. ... Bureaucracy is a concept in sociology and political science referring to the way that the administrative execution and enforcement of legal rules is socially organized. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... Mass media is a term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience (typically at least as large as the whole population of a nation state). ...

A tank in the streets of Athens on 17 November 1973.
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A tank in the streets of Athens on 17 November 1973.

The term "αναρχοκομμουνιστές" transliterated as "anarchokommounistes" (anarcho-communists) was frequently used to describe all leftists. In a similar vein the junta attempted to steer Greek public opinion not only by propaganda but also by inventing new words and slogans such as: palaiokommatismos (translated as old-partyism), Ellas Ellinon Christianon translated as: Greece for Christian Greeks, etc. Image File history File linksMetadata November17-tank2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata November17-tank2. ... Anarcho-Communism, or Libertarian Communism, is a political ideology related to Libertarian socialism. ...


Fabrication of evidence and fictional enemies of the state was a common practice [citation needed]. Atheism and pop culture (such as rock music and the hippies) were also seen as parts of this conspiracy. Nationalism and Christianity were widely promoted. Atheism, in its broadest sense, is the absence of belief in the existence of deities. ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... Rock is a form of popular music from the late 20th century which typically features a vocal melody (often with vocal harmony) that is supported by accompaniment of electric guitars, a bass guitar, and drums, often with a strong back beat. ... Dancing Hippies Berkeley, California 1969 By Robert Altman Hippie, occasionally spelled hippy, is a term commonly used to refer to some of the disaffected youth of the 1960s and early 1970s. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is an ideology [1] that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centred on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ...


Sources of Support

To gain support for his rule, Papadopoulos was able to project an image that appealed to some segments of Greek society. The son of a poor family from a rural area, he had no education other than that of the military academy. He publicly stated contempt for the urban, western-educated "elite" in Athens. Modern western music was banned from the airwaves, and folk music and arts were promoted. The poor, conservative, religious farmers widely supported him, seeing in his rough mannerisms, simplistic speeches, even in his name ("Georgios Papadopoulos" is one of the most common names in Greece) a "friend of the common man". Further, the regime promoted a policy of economic development in rural areas, which were mostly neglected by the previous governments, that had focused largely in urban industrial development.


Papadopoulos mannerisms were less likely to appeal to the middle class, but the political crisis of 1965-1967 let many ordinary citizens to believe that any stable government, even a military one, was better than the preceding chaos. Overall, the regime had little trouble establishing its control over the land. 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ...


The military government was given at least tacit support by the United States as a Cold War ally, due to its proximity to the Eastern European Soviet bloc, and the fact that the previous Truman administration had given the country millions of dollars in economic aid to discourage Communism. U.S. support for the junta is claimed to be the cause of rising anti-Americanism in Greece during and following the junta's harsh rule.[citation needed] The Cold War (Russian: Холодная Война Kholodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between a worldwide military alliance of capitalist states led by the United States and a rival alliance of communist states led by the Soviet Union. ... Eastern Europe is, by convention, a region defined geographically as that part of Europe covering the eastern part of the continent. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... For the victim of Mt. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Flag burning is widely used internationally as a symbolic form of protest against the U.S. Anti-Americanism, often Anti-American sentiment, refers to a prejudice against the government, culture, or people of the United States. ...


Economic Policies

The 1967 - 1973 period was marked by high rates of economic growth coupled with low inflation and low unemployment. GDP growth was driven by investment in the tourism industry, public spending, and pro-business incentives that fostered both domestic and foreign capital spending. Several international companies invested in Greece at the time, including the Coca-Cola Corporation. Economic growth started losing steam by 1972.[4] Some attibute Papadopoulos' ill-fated attempt at liberalization in 1973 to the looming threat of stagnation.[4] The 1973 oil crisis finally dealt a real financial shock to the Greek economy, as it did to all non-oil producing countries, and marked the end of inflation-free growth in Greece for more than two decades. A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ...


Financial scandals

Cases of non-transparent public deals and corruption allegedly occurred at the time, given the lack of democratic checks and balances and the absence of a free press. One such event is associated with the regime's tourism minister, Ioannis Ladas (Ιωάννης Λαδάς). During his administration, several low-interest loans, amortized over a twenty year period, were issued for tourist development. This fostered the erection of a multitude of hotels, sometimes in non-tourist areas, and with no underlying business rationale. Several such hotels were abandoned unfinished as soon as the loans were secured, and their remains still dot the Greek countryside. These questionable loans are referred to as Thalassodaneia (θαλασσοδάνεια), i.e., "Loans of the sea," to indicate the loose terms under which they were granted. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sunset at sea Look up Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Look up maritime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Another contested policy of the regime was the writing-off of agricultural loans to farmers up to 100,000 drachmas, a large sum for that era. This has been attributed to an attempt by Papadopoulos to gain public support for his regime.


Civil Rights

A tank in the streets of Athens on 21 April 1967.
A tank in the streets of Athens on 21 April 1967.

Civil liberties were suppressed, special military courts were established, and political parties were dissolved. Several thousand suspected communists and political opponents were imprisoned or exiled to remote Greek islands. [citation needed] Amnesty International sent observers to Greece at the time and reported that under Papadopoulos' regime torture was a deliberate practice carried out by both Security Police and the Military Police. [citation needed]James Becket, an American attorney sent to Greece by Amnesty International, wrote In December 1969 that "a conservative estimate would place at not less than two thousand" the number of people tortured. [citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Tankinathens. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tankinathens. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization with the stated purpose of campaigning for internationally recognized human rights. ...


Anti-Junta Movement

The democratic elements of the Greek society organized their activity early on. As early as 1968 many militant groups promoting democratic rule were formed, both in exile and in Greece. These included, among others, PAK, Democratic Defense, the Socialist Democratic Union, as well as groups from the entire left wing of the Greek political spectrum, large parts of which (such as the KKE) had been outlawed even before the junta. The first hands-on action against the junta was the failed assassination attempt against Papadopoulos by Alexandros Panagoulis, on 13 August 1968. 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Panhellenic Liberation Movement (Greek: Πανελλήνιο Απελευθερωτικό Κίνημα, ΠΑΚ), also known by its acronym PAK, was one of the many anti-dictatorial... Democratic Defense members trial, 1970 Democratic Defense ( Greek: Δημοκρατική Άμυνα) was one of the many anti-dictatorial struggle groups that fought against the 1967- 1974 military dictatorship of Greece. ... Socialist Democratic Union (Greek: Σοσιαλιστική Δημοκρατική Ένωση) was one of the many anti-dictatorial struggle groups that fought against the Greek military junta of 1967-1974. ... KKE sticker The Communist Party of Greece, better known by its acronym KKE (Greek: Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας, Kommunistiko Komma Elladas), is the major communist party in Greece. ... Georgios Papadopoulos in the standard poster issued by the dictatorship government. ... Alexandros Panagoulis (Greek Αλέξανδρος Παναγούλης) (2 July 1939 – 1 May 1976) was a Greek politician and poet. ... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ...


Assassination Attempt By Panagoulis

Alexandros Panagoulis on trial by the junta Justice System.
Alexandros Panagoulis on trial by the junta Justice System.

The events took place in the morning of August 13, when Papadopoulos went from his summer residence in Lagonisi to Athens, escorted by his personal security motorcycles and cars. Alexandros Panagoulis (Αλέξανδρος Παναγούλης) ignited a bomb at a point of the coastal road where the limousine carrying Papadopoulos would have to slow down but the bomb failed to harm Papadopoulos. Panagoulis was captured a few hours later in a nearby sea cave as the boat that would let him escape the scene of the attack had not shown up. Image File history File links Panagoulisontrial. ... Image File history File links Panagoulisontrial. ... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... Lagonisi (Greek: Λαγονήσι meaning rabbit island) is a settlement in the southern part of Kalyvia Thorikou by the Saronic Gulf in the Greek prefecture of Attica. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Greece, and the birthplace of democracy. ... Alexandros Panagoulis (Greek Αλέξανδρος Παναγούλης) (2 July 1939 – 1 May 1976) was a Greek politician and poet. ...


Panagoulis was arrested, and transferred to the Greek Military Police (EAT-ESA) offices were he was questioned, beaten and tortured (see the proceedings of Theofiloyiannakos's trial). On November 17 1968 he was sentenced to death, and remained for five years in prison. After the restoration of Democracy, Panagoulis was elected a member of Parliament. Panagoulis was regarded as an emblematic figure for the struggle to restore Democracy. He has often been paralleled to Harmodius and Aristogeiton (Αρμόδιος και Αριστογείτων), two ancient Athenians, known for the tyrannicide of the Athenian tyrant Hipparchus (Ιππαρχος). [citation needed] 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Statue of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, Naples. ... Tyrannicide, literally means the killing of a tyrant. ... Hipparchus was one of the sons of Pisistratus who became tyrant of Athens when Pisistratus died in 527 BC. Hipparchus ruled jointly with his brother Hippias. ...


Broadening Of The Movement

Poster of the legendary movie Z by Kostas Gavras, about the political assassination of Gregoris Lambrakis. "He is alive!" can be seen in the poster caption under the large Z, written in French, referring to the popular Greek protest slogan "Ζει" meaning "he (Lambrakis) is alive".
Poster of the legendary movie Z by Kostas Gavras, about the political assassination of Gregoris Lambrakis. "He is alive!" can be seen in the poster caption under the large Z, written in French, referring to the popular Greek protest slogan "Ζει" meaning "he (Lambrakis) is alive".

The funeral of George Papandreou, Sr. on 1 November 1968 was spontaneously turned into a massive demonstration against the junta. Thousands of Athenians disobeyed the military's orders and followed the casket to the cemetery. The government reacted by arresting 41 people. Image File history File linksMetadata CostaGavrasZ.jpg Summary Found at: http://wiki. ... Image File history File linksMetadata CostaGavrasZ.jpg Summary Found at: http://wiki. ... The film Z is a 1969 political thriller directed by Costa-Gavras, with screenplay in French by the director, based on the novel of the same name by Vassilis Vassilikos. ... Constantinos Gavras (born February 12, 1933, Loutra-Iraias, Greece), better known as Costa-Gavras, is a Greek-French filmmaker best known for films with overt political themes. ... Gregoris Lambrakis (Γρηγόρης Λαμπράκης) (April 3, 1912–May 27, 1963) was a Greek politician, physician, and member of the faculty of the School of Medicine at the University of Athens. ... George Papandreou George Papandreou (in Greek Georgios Papandreou or Γεώργιος Παπανδρέου) (18 February 1888 - 1 November 1968) was a Greek politician. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ...


On 28 March 1969, after two years marked by widespread censorship, political detentions and torture, Giorgos Seferis (who had been awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1963) took a stand against the junta. He made a statement on the BBC World Service [6], with copies simultaneously distributed to every newspaper in Athens. In a speech againt the colonels he passionatly stated that "This anomaly must end". Seferis did not live to see the end of the junta. His funeral, though, in 20 September 1972, was turned into a massive demonstration against the military government. March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in leap years). ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Giorgos Seferis (Γιώργος Σεφέρης) (February 19, 1900 – September 20, 1971) was one of the most important Greek poets of the 20th century. ... Nobel prize medal. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Also in 1969, Costa-Gavras released the film Z, based on a book by celebrated left-wing writer Vassilis Vassilikos. The banned film presented a (barely) fictionalized account of the events surrounding the assassination of EDA politician Gregoris Lambrakis in 1963. The film was made to capture a sense of outrage about the junta. The soundtrack of the film was made by the junta-imprisoned Mikis Theodorakis and was smuggled into the country to be added to the other inspirational, underground Theodorakis tracks. 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Constantinos Gavras (born February 12, 1933, Loutra-Iraias, Greece), better known as Costa-Gavras, is a Greek-French filmmaker best known for films with overt political themes. ... The film Z is a 1969 political thriller directed by Costa-Gavras, with screenplay in French by the director, based on the novel of the same name by Vassilis Vassilikos. ... Vassilis Vassilikos (Βασίλης Βασιλικός) (born November 18, 1934) is a prolific Greek writer and diplomat. ... United Democratic Left, UDL ( Greek: Ενιαία Δημοκρατική Αριστερά, abbreviation: UDL or in Greek: ΕΔΑ) was a political party in Greece before the Greek military junta of 1967-1974. ... Gregoris Lambrakis (Γρηγόρης Λαμπράκης) (April 3, 1912–May 27, 1963) was a Greek politician, physician, and member of the faculty of the School of Medicine at the University of Athens. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Mikis Theodorakis Mikis Theodorakis (Greek: Μίκης Θεοδωράκης) (b. ...


International protest

The junta exiled thousands, on the grounds that they were communists and/or "enemies of the country". Most of them were subjected to internal exile on Greek deserted islands like Makronisos, Gyaros, Gioura or inhabited islands like Leros, Agios Eustratios or Trikeri. Makronisos (Μακρόνησος, in Greek, lit. ... Gyaros (Greek: Γυάρος) is a arid and unpopulated Greek island of the northern Cyclades near in the islands Andros and Tinos, with an area of 23 square kilometres. ... Gioura is a Greek island in the Sporades. ... Leros (Greek: Λέρος)is a Greek island in the Dodecanese, in the southern Aegean Sea. ... Trikeri (Τρικέρι) is a community in the Magnesia prefecture, Greece. ...

Kostas Georgakis is the only known resistance hero to have sacrificed his life as a protest against the junta
Kostas Georgakis is the only known resistance hero to have sacrificed his life as a protest against the junta

The most famous were in external exile, most of whom had substantial involvement in resistance, organising protests in European capital cities, or helping and hiding refugees from Greece. Melina Merkouri, actor, singer, and, after 1981 minister of culture; Mikis Theodorakis, composer of resistance songs; Costas Simitis, prime minister from 1996 to 2004; and Andreas Papandreou, prime minister from 1981 to 1989 and again from 1993 to 1996, were among these Greeks in external exile. Some chose exile, unable to stand life under the junta. For example Melina Merkouri was allowed to enter Greece, but stayed away on her own accord. Also in the early hours of the 19th of September 1970 in Matteoti square in Genoa, Italy Geology student Kostas Georgakis set himself ablaze in protest against the dictatorship Government of George Papadopoulos. The junta delayed the arrival of his remains to Corfu for four months fearing public reaction and protests. At the time his death caused a sensation in Greece and abroad as it was the first tangible manifestation of the depth of resistance against the junta. He is the only known resistance hero to the junta to have protested by ending his life and he is considered the precursor of later student protest such as the Polytechnic uprising. The Municipality of Corfu has dedicated a memorial in his honour near his home in Corfu city. Image File history File links KostasGeorgakis. ... Image File history File links KostasGeorgakis. ... Kostas Georgakis is the only known resistance hero to have sacrificed his life as a protest against the junta Kostas Georgakis (Κώστας Γεωργάκης) born in Corfu in 1948 died 19 September 1970. ... Melina Mercouri on Never on Sunday Melina Mercouri (Μελίνα Μερκούρη; Athens, Greece, October 18, 1920 – New York, New York, March 6, 1994) was a Greek actress and political activist. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mikis Theodorakis Mikis Theodorakis (Greek: Μίκης Θεοδωράκης) (b. ... Constantinos Simitis (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Σημίτης) (born June 23, 1936), usually referred to as Costas Simitis, was Prime Minister of Greece and leader of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK) from 1996 to 2004. ... Note on Greek names: There is no firm convention for the rendering of Greek personal names into English. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Andreas Georgiou Papandreou, Ανδρέας Γ. Παπανδρέου (5 February 1919 - 23 June 1996) was a Greek economist and politician. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Melina Mercouri on Never on Sunday Melina Mercouri (Μελίνα Μερκούρη; Athens, Greece, October 18, 1920 – New York, New York, March 6, 1994) was a Greek actress and political activist. ... Country Italy Region Liguria Province Genoa (GE) Mayor Giuseppe Pericu (since May 30, 2002) Elevation 20 m Area 243 km² Population  - Total (as of April 30, 2005) 611,476  - Density 2,571/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Genovesi Dialing code 010 Postal code 16100 Patron St. ... The Blue Marble: The famous photo of the Earth taken en route to the Moon by Apollo 17s Harrison Schmitt on December 7, 1972. ... Kostas Georgakis is the only known resistance hero to have sacrificed his life as a protest against the junta Kostas Georgakis (Κώστας Γεωργάκης) born in Corfu in 1948 died 19 September 1970. ... Pontikonisi Island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ... Pontikonisi Island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ...


The Velos Mutiny

On 23 May 1973, HNS Velos, under the command of Commander Nicholaos Pappas, while participating in a NATO exercise and in order to protest against the junta, anchored at Fiumicino, Italy, refusing to return to Greece.When in patrol with other NATO vessels between Italy and Sardinia the captain and the officers heard from a radio station that naval officers had been arrested in Greece. Cdr Pappas was involved in a group of democratic officers, loyal to their oath to obey the Constitution, and planning to act against the junta. May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... USS Charrette (DD-581) was a Fletcher-class destroyer of the United States Navy, named for Lieutenant George Charrette (1867–1938), who was awarded the Medal of Honor for heroism during the Spanish-American War. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[1] (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... Fiumicino is an Italian town, in which Leornardo Da Vinci airport is located. ... Sardinia (Sardegna in Italian, Sardigna or Sardinna in the Sardinian language, is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (Sicily is the largest), between Italy, Spain and Tunisia, south of Corsica. ... In modern usage, junta (pronounced as in Spanish HUN-ta or HOON-ta) typically refers to a military dictatorship, especially in Latin America, which is officially run by a committee of high-ranking military officers. ...

VELOS D16 (Greek ΒΕΛΟΣ, "ARROW") as museum in the Gulf of Faliron in Athens, 21 January 2006.
VELOS D16 (Greek ΒΕΛΟΣ, "ARROW") as museum in the Gulf of Faliron in Athens, 21 January 2006.

Pappas believed that since his fellow anti-junta officers had been arrested, there was no more hope for a movement inside Greece. He decided to act alone in order to motivate global public opinion. He mustered all the crew to the stern and announced his decision, which was received with enthusiasm by the crew. Pappas signaled the commander of the squadron and NATO Headquarters of his intentions, quoting the preamble of the North Atlantic Treaty (founding treaty for NATO) which declares that "all governments ...are determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilisation of their peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law", and, leaving formation, sailed for Rome. There when anchored about 3.5 nautical miles away from the coast of Fiumicino three ensigns went ashore with a whaleboat and went to the Fiumicino Airport and telephoned to international press agencies notifying them of the situation in Greece, the presence of the destroyer, and that the captain would hold a press conference the next day. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x864, 174 KB) Summary Destroyer Velos D16 formerly USS Charrette as floating museum photo taken by me in 21 January 2006 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x864, 174 KB) Summary Destroyer Velos D16 formerly USS Charrette as floating museum photo taken by me in 21 January 2006 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... The North Atlantic Treaty is the treaty that brought NATO into existence, signed in Washington, DC on April 4, 1949. ... Leonardo da Vinci International Airport (IATA: FCO, ICAO: LIRF), also known as Fiumicino International Airport, is Italys largest airport, with over 29 million passengers in the year 2005. ...


This action caused international interest in the situation in Greece. The captain, six officers, and twenty five petty officers requested and remained abroad as political refugees. Indeed, the whole crew wished to follow their captain but was advised by its officers to remain onboard and return to Greece to inform families and friends about what happened. Velos returned to Greece after a month with a replacement crew. After the fall of junta all officers and petty officers returned to the Navy. A Petty Officer is a noncommissioned officer or equivalent in many navies. ...


Evangelos Averoff also participated in the Velos mutiny, for which he was arrested as an "instigator". Evangelos Averoff-Tositsas Evangelos Averoff-Tositsas was a famous Greek politician. ...


The uprising at the Polytechnic

Students demonstrating during the uprising.
Students demonstrating during the uprising.

On November 14, 1973 students at the National Technical University of Athens (also known as "Athens Polytechnic" or Polytechnion) went on strike and started protesting against the junta. There was no response by the military government, so the students barricaded themselves in and built a radio station (using materials from the laboratories) that broadcast across Athens. Soon thousands of workers and youngsters joined them protesting inside and outside of the "Athens Polytechnic". Military tank standing in front of the Athens Polytechnic. ... Image File history File linksMetadata November17. ... Image File history File linksMetadata November17. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining until the end of the year. ... Front entrance The National Technical University of Athens (Greek: Εθνικό Μετσόβιο Πολυτεχνείο, National Metsovion Polytechnic), sometimes simply known as Athens Polytechnic, is among the oldest higher education institutions...


On first hours of November 17 1973 Papadopoulos sent the army to crush the demonstration. An AMX 30 Tank crashed through the rail gate of the Athens Polytechnic after 03:00 am and under almost complete darkness caused by the forced shutdown of the city lights (by that time only the lights in the National Technical University yard were turned on, powered by the electricity generators of the laboratories of the electrical engineers). Evidence of the events taken place have been captured by a hidden Dutch journalist in a film footage. The film is quite dark but clear enough to show that the tank crashed down the main steel entrance of the "Athens Polytechnic" along with students still climbed on it. 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... George Papadopoulos (Greek: Georgios Papadopoulos, written Γεώργιος Παπαδόπουλος, May 5, 1919 - June 27, 1999), was the head of the military coup détat that took place in Greece on April 21, 1967... Overview Perhaps the most successful post-war French armored vehicle design, the AMX-30 main battle tank was designed by GIAT Industries with a focus on good firepower and superior mobility. ...


According to a contested official investigation undertaken after the fall of the junta, no students of the Athens Polytechnic were killed during the incident. Front entrance The National Technical University of Athens (Greek: Εθνικό Μετσόβιο Πολυτεχνείο, National Metsovion Polytechnic), sometimes simply known as Athens Polytechnic, is among the oldest higher education institutions...

Junta members on trial. Front row (from left): Papadopoulos, Makarezos, Pattakos. Ioannides can be seen on the second row, just behind Pattakos
Junta members on trial. Front row (from left): Papadopoulos, Makarezos, Pattakos. Ioannides can be seen on the second row, just behind Pattakos

However a few of them have been left severely injured by the tank for the rest of their lives. Total recorded casualties amount to 24 civilians killed outside Athens Polytechnic campus. These include 19-year old Michael Mirogiannis, reportedly shot in cold blood by officer G. Dertilis, high-school student Diomedes Komnenos, and a five-year old boy caught in the crossfire in the suburb of Zografou. The records of the trials held following followed the collapse of the junta document the circumstances of the deaths of many civilians during the uprising, and it is possible that the official numbers are too modest. The matter however is highly politicized, so there is no real agreement on it to this date. Image File history File links Juntatrial. ... Image File history File links Juntatrial. ... Diomedes Komnenos was one of the first victims of the Athens Polytechnic uprising,in November 1973. ...


Notes

  1.  ETH Zurich chronology
  2.   full text by newspaper TA NEA (in Greek)

References

  • Woodhouse, C.M. (1998). Modern Greece a Short History. London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-571-19794-9.

Cited References

  1. ^ Alexis Papachelas, 'Everything George Rallis recounted to me", TO BHMA, March 19, 2006
  2. ^ a b C.L. Sulzberger, "An Age of Mediocrity", 1973, p. 575.
  3. ^ Alexis Papachelas, "Constantine Speaks", TO BHMA, January 29 2006.
  4. ^ a b http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/hellenicObservatory/pdf/TheMetapolitefsiThatNeverWas.pdf The Metapolitefsi that never was: Ioannis Tzortzis, University of Birmingham]

See also

This is a timeline of Greek history. ... An ELAS soldier The Greek Resistance is the blanket term for a number of armed and unarmed groups from across the political spectrum that resisted the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II. // Origins The rise of resistance movements in Greece was precipitated by the invasion and occupation of... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Apostasia (In Greek: Αποστασία) or Iouliana (Greek: Ιουλιανά) is a term used to describe a political move in Greece, in 1 October 1965, involving King Constantine II and a group of politicians, a prominent member of which was the later Prime Minister of Greece Kostantinos Mitsotakis, to replace the government of Georgios... Metapolitefsi (Μεταπολίτευση) translated as Regime change refers to the period in Greek history after the fall of the Greek military junta of 1967-1974 and it includes the transition period between the fall of the dictatorship and the Greek legislative election, 1974 as well as the democratic period immediately after these...

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