FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Greek language
Greek
Ελληνικά
Εlliniká
Spoken in: Greece (official), Cyprus (official), Albania, FYROM, Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Italy, Spain, Armenia, Georgia, Egypt, Jordan, United Kingdom, United States of America, Ukraine, Russia, South Africa, Kazakhstan, France, and the rest of the Greek diaspora.
Total speakers: 15 million-25 million [1] 
Ranking: 52
Language family: Indo-European
 Proto-Greek
  Greek 
Writing system: Greek alphabet 
Official status
Official language in: Flag of Greece Greece
Flag of Cyprus Cyprus
Flag of Europe European Union
recognised as minority language in parts of:
Flag of Albania Albania
Flag of Italy Italy[2]
Flag of Turkey Turkey
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: el
ISO 639-2: gre (B)  ell (T)
ISO 639-3: either:
grc — Ancient Greek
ell — Modern Greek

Greek (ελληνική γλώσσα IPA: [eliniˈkʲi ˈɣlosa] or simply ελληνικά IPA: [eliniˈka] — "Hellenic") has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. It is also one of the earliest attested Indo-European languages, with fragmentary records in Mycenaean dating back to the 15th or 14th century BC, making it the world's oldest recorded living language. Today, it is spoken by approximately 15–25 million people in Greece (official), Cyprus (official), Albania, Bulgaria, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Italy, Turkey, Armenia, Georgia, Ukraine, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Egypt, Jordan and emigrant communities around the world, including Australia, United States, Canada, Germany and elsewhere. Motto: Anthem: Today Over Macedonia (Macedonian: Денес Над Македонија, Denes Nad Makedonija) Capital Skopje Largest city Skopje Official language(s) Macedonian1 Government President Prime Minister Parliamentary republic Branko Crvenkovski Vlado Bučkovski Independence Declared From Yugoslavia September 8, 1991 Area  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Water (%)   25,333 km² (146th) 1. ... ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Proto-Greek language is the common ancestor of the Greek dialects, including the Mycenean language, the classical Greek dialects Attic-Ionic, Aeolic, Doric and North-Western Greek, and ultimately the Koine and Modern Greek. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The Greek alphabet (Greek: ) is an alphabet consisting of 24 letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 8th or early 8th century BC. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Main article: Greek language Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The term natural language is used to distinguish languages spoken and signed (by hand signals and facial expressions) by humans for general-purpose communication from constructs such as writing, computer-programming languages or the languages used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... Mycenaean is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, spoken on the Greek mainland and on Crete in the 16th to 11th centuries BC, before the Dorian invasion. ... Motto: Anthem: Today Over Macedonia (Macedonian: Денес Над Македонија, Denes Nad Makedonija) Capital Skopje Largest city Skopje Official language(s) Macedonian1 Government President Prime Minister Parliamentary republic Branko Crvenkovski Vlado Bučkovski Independence Declared From Yugoslavia September 8, 1991 Area  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Water (%)   25,333 km² (146th) 1. ... ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece...


Greek has been written in the Greek alphabet (the first to introduce vowels) since the 9th century BC in Greece (before that in Linear B), and the 4th century BC in Cyprus (before that in Cypriot syllabary). Greek literature has a continuous history of nearly three thousand years. The Greek alphabet (Greek: ) is an alphabet consisting of 24 letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 8th or early 8th century BC. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... The Cypriot syllabary is a syllabic script used in Iron Age Cyprus, from ca. ... // Main article: Ancient Greek literature Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek from the oldest surviving written works in the Greek language until the 4th century and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. ...

Contents

History

History of the
Greek language

(see also: Greek alphabet)
Proto-Greek (c. 2000 BC)
Mycenaean (c. 1600–1100 BC)
Ancient Greek (c. 800–300 BC)
Dialects:
Aeolic, Arcadocypriot, Attic-Ionic,
Doric, Pamphylian; Homeric Greek.
Possible dialect: Macedonian.

Koine Greek (from c. 300 BC)
Medieval Greek (c. 330–1453)
Modern Greek (from 1453)
Dialects:
Cappadocian, Cretan, Cypriot,
Demotic, Griko, Katharevousa,
Pontic, Tsakonian, Yevanic

This article does not cover the reconstructed history of Greek prior to the use of writing. For more information, see main article on Proto-Greek language. This article is an overview of the history of Greek. ... The Greek alphabet (Greek: ) is an alphabet consisting of 24 letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 8th or early 8th century BC. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel... The Proto-Greek language is the common ancestor of the Greek dialects, including the Mycenean language, the classical Greek dialects Attic-Ionic, Aeolic, Doric and North-Western Greek, and ultimately the Koine and Modern Greek. ... Mycenaean is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, spoken on the Greek mainland and on Crete in the 16th to 11th centuries BC, before the Dorian invasion. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Ancient Greek, in classical antiquity before the development of the Koiné as the lingua franca of Hellenism, was divided into several dialects. ... Aeolic Greek is a linguistic term used to describe a set of rather archaic Greek sub-dialects, spoken mainly in Boeotia (a region in Central Greece), in Lesbos (an island close to Asia Minor) and in other Greek colonies. ... Arcadocypriot was an ancient Greek dialect spoken in Arcadia and Cyprus between ca. ... Attic Greek is the ancient dialect of the Greek language that was spoken in Attica, which includes Athens. ... Distribution of Greek dialects, ca. ... Distribution of Greek dialects, ca. ... Pamphylian is a little-attested dialect of Ancient Greek which was spoken in Pamphylia, on the southern coast of Asia Minor. ... Homeric Greek is the form of Ancient Greek that was used by Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey. ... Koine redirects here. ... Medieval Greek (Μεσαιωνική Ελληνική) is a linguistic term that describes the fourth period in the history of the Greek language. ... Main article: Greek language Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ... The linguistic varieties of Modern Greek can be classified along two principal dimensions. ... Cappadocian, also known as Cappadocian Greek or Asia Minor Greek, is a dialect of the Greek language, formerly spoken in Cappadocia (Central Turkey). ... Cretan Greek (Cretan dialect, Greek: Κρητική διάλεκτος or Kritika Κρητικά) is a dialect of the Greek language, spoken by more than half a million people in Crete and several thousands in the diaspora. ... Main article: Greek language Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ... Griko, sometimes spelled Grico, is a Modern Greek dialect which is spoken by people in the Magna Graecia region in southern Italy and Sicily, and it is otherwise known as the Grecanic language. ... Katharevousa (Greek Καθαρεύουσα, IPA: ) is a form of the Greek language, created during the early 19th century by Adamantios Korais (1748-1833). ... Pontic Greek is a form of the Greek language originally spoken on the shores of the Black Sea, the Pontus, today mainly in Greece. ... Tsakonian (also Tsakonic) (Standard Greek Τσακωνική Διάλεκτος — Tsakonic language — is a dialect of, or language closely related to, Standard Modern Greek, spoken in the Tsakonian region of the Peloponnese, Greece. ... Yevanic, otherwise known as Yevanika, Romaniote and Judeo-Greek, was the language of the Romaniotes, the group of Greek Jews whose existence in Greece is documented since the 4th century BCE. Its linguistic lineage stems from Attic Greek and the Hellenistic Koine (Κοινή Ελ&#955... The History of the Greek language Origins There are many theories about the origins of the Greek language. ... The Proto-Greek language is the common ancestor of the Greek dialects, including the Mycenean language, the classical Greek dialects Attic-Ionic, Aeolic, Doric and North-Western Greek, and ultimately the Koine and Modern Greek. ...


Greek has been spoken in the Balkan Peninsula since the 2nd millennium BC. The earliest evidence of this is found in the Linear B tablets in the "Room of the Chariot Tablets", a LMII-context (c. 1500 BC) region of Knossos, in Crete, making Greek one of the very few living languages (together with the Chinese and West Semitic languages) directly descended from a language recorded in the Bronze Age. Among its fellow Indo-European languages, Greek's date of earliest attestation is matched only by the extinct Anatolian languages and Vedic Sanskrit. The later Greek alphabet is unrelated to Linear B, and is derived from the Phoenician alphabet (abjad); with minor modifications, it is still used today. Greek is conventionally divided into the following periods: ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... Model of the Palace of Minos on Kephala at the Museum in Iraklio. ... A portion of Arthur Evans reconstruction of the Minoan palace at Knossos. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... The West Semitic languages are a proposed major sub-grouping of Semitic languages. ... Writing systems evolved in the Early Bronze Age (late 4th millennium BC) out of neolithic proto-writing. ... This is a list of languages that underwent language death and currently have no native speakers. ... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages, which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ... The Greek alphabet (Greek: ) is an alphabet consisting of 24 letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 8th or early 8th century BC. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel... The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ... The first five letters of the Phoenician abjad, from right to left An abjad, sometimes also called a consonantary or consonantal alphabet, is a type of writing system in which there is one symbol per consonantal phoneme. ...

  • Mycenaean Greek: the language of the Mycenaean civilization. It is recorded in the Linear B script on tablets dating from the 15th or 14th century BC onwards.
  • Classical Greek (also known as Ancient Greek): In its various dialects was the language of the Archaic and Classical periods of Greek civilization. It was widely known throughout the Roman empire. Classical Greek fell into disuse in western Europe in the Middle Ages, but remained officially in use in the Byzantine world, and was reintroduced to the rest of Europe with the Fall of Constantinople and Greek migration to Italy.
  • Hellenistic Greek (also known as Koine Greek): The fusion of various ancient Greek dialects with Attic (the dialect of Athens) resulted in the creation of the first common Greek dialect, which became a lingua franca across the Mediterranean region. Koine Greek can be initially traced within the armies and conquered territories of Alexander the Great, but after the Hellenistic colonization of the known world, it was spoken from Egypt to the fringes of India. After the Roman conquest of Greece, an unofficial diglossy of Greek and Latin was established in the city of Rome and Koine Greek became a first or second language in the Roman Empire. Through Koine Greek is also traced the origin of Christianity, as the Apostles used it to preach in Greece and the Greek-speaking world. It is also known as the Alexandrian dialect, Post-Classical Greek or even New Testament Greek (after its most famous work of literature).
  • Medieval Greek: The continuation of Hellenistic Greek during medieval Greek history as the official and vernacular language of the Byzantine Empire, and continued to be used until, and after the fall of that Empire in the 15th century. Also known as Byzantine Greek.
  • Modern Greek: Stemming independently from Koine Greek, Modern Greek usages can be traced in the late Byzantine period (as early as 11th century).

Two main forms of the language have been in use since the end of the medieval Greek period: Dhimotikí (Δημοτική), the Demotic (vernacular) language, and Katharévusa (Καθαρεύουσα, meaning "purified"), an imitation of classical Greek, which was used for literary, juridic, administrative and scientific purposes during the 19th and early 20th centuries. This diglossia problem was brought to an end in 1976 (act — νόμος — 306/1976), when Dhimotikí was declared the official language of Greece. Mycenaean is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, spoken on the Greek mainland and on Crete in the 16th to 11th centuries BC, before the Dorian invasion. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The archaic period in Greece is the period during which the ancient Greek city-states developed, and is normally taken to cover roughly the 9th century to the 6th century BCE. The Archaic period followed the dark ages, and saw significant advancements in political theory, and the rise of democracy... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... Koine Greek refers to the 2nd stage in the history of the Greek language. ... Koine redirects here. ... Attic Greek is the ancient dialect of the Greek language that was spoken in Attica, which includes Athens. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Medieval Greek (Μεσαιωνική Ελληνική) is a linguistic term that describes the fourth period in the history of the Greek language. ... The History of Greece extends back to the arrival of the Greeks in Europe some time before 1500 BC, even though there has only been an independent state called Greece since 1821. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Main article: Greek language Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ... Main article: Greek language Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ... Katharevousa (Greek Καθαρεύουσα, IPA: ) is a form of the Greek language, created during the early 19th century by Adamantios Korais (1748-1833). ... Look up Diglossia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the meantime, both forms of Greek had naturally converged and Standard Modern Greek (Κοινή Νεοελληνική — Common Modern Greek), the form of Greek used for all official purposes and in education in Greece today, emerged.


It has been claimed that an "educated" speaker of the modern language can understand an ancient text, but this is surely as much a function of education as of the similarity of the languages. Still, Koinē, the version of Greek used to write the New Testament and the Septuagint, is relatively easy to understand for modern speakers. This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ...


Greek words have been widely borrowed into the European languages: astronomy, democracy, philosophy, thespian, etc. Moreover, Greek words and word elements continue to be productive as a basis for coinages: anthropology, photography, isomer, biomechanics etc. and form, with Latin words, the foundation of international scientific and technical vocabulary. See English words of Greek origin, and List of Greek words with English derivatives. In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... // You can estimate the contribution of Greek words to English in two basic ways. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ...


Characteristics

Indo-European topics

Indo-European languages
Albanian · Armenian · Baltic
Celtic · Germanic · Greek
Indo-Iranian (Indo-Aryan, Iranian)
Italic · Slavic  

extinct: Anatolian · Paleo-Balkans (Dacian,
Phrygian, Thracian) · Tocharian For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages, which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language. ... The Paleo-Balkan languages were the Indo-European languages which were spoken in the Balkans in ancient times: Dacian language Thracian language Illyrian language Paionian language Ancient Macedonian language The only remnant of them is Albanian, but it is still disputed which language was its ancestor. ... The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. ... The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people of the central Asia Minor. ... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ...

Indo-European peoples
Albanians · Armenians
Balts · Celts · Germanic peoples
Greeks · Indo-Aryans
Iranians · Latins · Slavs

historical: Anatolians (Hittites, Luwians)
Celts (Galatians, Gauls) · Germanic tribes
Illyrians · Indo-Iranians (Iranian tribes)
Italic peoples · Thracians · Tocharians   For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ... http://www. ... This article concerns those peoples who consider themselves, or have been considered by others, to be Celts in modern times, ie post 1800. ... Charlemagne, first to unify the Germanic tribal confederations. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... The Latin peoples, also known as Romance peoples, are those European linguistic-cultural groups and their descendants all over the world that speak Romance languages. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Distribution of the Luwian language (after Melchert 2003) Luwian hieroglyphic inscription from the city of Carchemish. ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ... The Epistle to Galatians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. They remain dominant throughout Classical Antiquity in Scythia and Persia. ... Ancient Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ...

Proto-Indo-Europeans
Language · Society · Religion
 
Urheimat hypotheses
Kurgan hypothesis · Anatolia
Armenia · India · PCT
 
Indo-European studies


Like most Indo-European languages, Greek is highly inflected. Greek grammar has come down through the ages fairly intact, though with some simplifications. For example, Modern Greek features two numbers: singular and plural. The dual number of Ancient times was abandoned at a very early stage. The instrumental case of Mycenaean Greek disappeared in the Archaic period, and the dative-locative of Ancient Greek disappeared in the late Hellenistic. Four cases, nominative, genitive, accusative and vocative, remain in Modern Greek. The three ancient gender noun categories (masculine, feminine and neuter) never fell out of use, while adjectives agree in gender, number, and case with their respective nouns, as do their articles. Greek verbs have synthetic inflectional forms for: The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) were a patrilineal society of the Bronze Age (roughly 5th to 4th millennium BC), probably semi-nomadic, relying on animal husbandry. ... The question of the homeland (Urheimat) of the Proto-Indo-Europeans and the Proto-Indo-European language has been a recurring topic in Indo-European studies since the 19th century. ... Map of Indo European migrations from ca. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the 7th to 5th millennia. ... The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) suggests that the Indo-European languages originated in Europe and have existed there since the Paleolithic. ... Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... An article is a word that is put next to a noun to indicate the type of reference being made to the noun. ... A synthetic language, in linguistic typology, is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio. ...

  • mood — Ancient Greek: indicative, subjunctive, imperative, and optative; Modern Greek: indicative and imperative (other modal functions are expressed by periphrastic constructions)
  • number — singular, plural (archaic Greek also had a dual)
  • voice — Ancient Greek: active, middle, and passive; Modern Greek: active and medio-passive
  • tense — Ancient Greek: present, past, future; Modern Greek: past and non-past (future is expressed by a periphrastic construction)
  • person — first, second, third
  • aspect — Ancient Greek: imperfective, perfective (traditionally called aorist), perfect (sometimes also called perfective, see note about terminology); Modern Greek: perfective and imperfective

Ancient had several infinitives; in Modern, the infinitive of verbs has been replaced by a periphrastic subjunctive.[3] Ancient had a complex participial system; Modern has a simpler one. In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... For other uses, see Point of view (literature). ... In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ... The imperfective aspect, sometimes known as the continuous or progressive aspect, is a grammatical aspect. ... In grammar, the perfective aspect is an aspect that exists in many languages. ... The perfect aspect is a grammatical aspect that refers to a state resulting from a previous action (also described as a previous action with relevance to a particular time, or a previous action viewed from the perspective of a later time). ... In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ... In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... Periphrasis is a figure of speech where the meaning of a word or phrase is expressed by many or several words. ...


A great syntactical reformation took place during Hellenistic times, with the result that late Koine is already much like Modern Greek. However, since Greek syntactical relations are expressed by means of case endings, Greek word order has always been relatively free. In Attic Greek the availability of the definite article and the infinitive and participial clauses permits the construction of very long, complex yet clear sentences. This technique of Attic prose (known as periodic style) is unmatched in other languages. Since Hellenistic times Greek has tended to be more periphrastic, but much of the syntactical and expressive power of the language has been preserved. For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... In linguistic typology, word order, or more precisely constituent order refers to the permitted combinations of words or larger constituents. ... Attic Greek is the ancient dialect of the Greek language that was spoken in Attica, which includes Athens. ... In linguistics, a participle is a non-finite verb form that can be used in compound tenses or voices, or it can be used as a modifier. ... In grammar, a clause is a word or group of words ordinarily consisting of a subject and a predicate, although in some languages and some types of clauses, the subject may not appear explicitly. ...


Greek is a language distinguished by an extraordinarily rich vocabulary. In respect to the roots of words, ancient Greek vocabulary was essentially of Indo-European origin, but with a significant number of borrowings from the idioms of the populations that inhabited Greece before the arrival of Proto-Greeks. Words of non-Indo-European origin can be traced into Greek from as early as Mycenaean times; they include a large number of Greek toponyms. The vast majority of Modern Greek vocabulary is directly inherited from ancient Greek, although in certain cases words have changed meanings. Words of foreign origin have entered the language mainly from Latin, Italian and Ottoman Turkish. During older periods of the Greek language, loan words into Greek acquired Greek inflections, leaving thus only a foreign root word. Modern borrowings (from the 20th century on), especially from French and English, are typically not inflected. A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Yet the most distinctive characteristic of the Greek language is its powerful compound-constructing ability. The speaker is able to combine basic or derived terms in order to construct new, yet perfectly understandable compounds that express in one word what other languages would express in an entire clause, or even an entire sentence. This linguistic mobility is largely absent from Latin and its offspring languages. In the Homeric language, Thetis — the mother of Achilles, is described as "δυσαριστοτόκεια", dysaristotokeia, meaning "she, who to her own bad fortune, gave birth to the best", in pure Modern Greek — "πικρολεβεντομάνα", pikroleventomana. Some languages are able to express such a complex meaning naturally in one word, others have different mechanisms (but see polysynthetic languages for extreme examples). Compound constructional capability, as is found in Greek, is frequently imitated by modern languages such as French and English in order to produce monolectic compounds; this is often done by actually using Greek roots (e.g. biology < biologie < bios + logos, Micromégas < mikros + megas ) or by applying imported Greek rules to foreign words (e.g. Anglo-Saxons < Angles + Saxons). For that reason Greek-derived words predominate in the language of sciences, particularly of the natural sciences, e.g. physics, chemistry, biology, geography, medicine etc. It has been speculated by scholars that due to this specific flexibility, Greek and German have been the languages of philosophy, and that Plato's ideas had pre-existed in Greek, in the same way that Meister Eckhart's thoughts had in German.[4] In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (a word) that consists of more than one other lexeme. ... Homeric Greek is the form of Ancient Greek that was used by Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey. ... This article is about the Greek sea nymph. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... Main article: Greek language Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ... Polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Micromégas is a short story written in the Eighteenth Century by the French philosopher and satirist Voltaire. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... The Meister Eckhart portal of the Erfurt Church. ...


Evolution from Ancient to Modern Greek

Due to the long history of the Greek language, it is hard to point out specific linguistic differences between distant periods, such as "ancient", and "modern", Greek. For example the pronunciation of Beta, Gamma and Delta is commonly regarded as an important phonetic difference between Ancient and Modern periods; however evidence[citation needed] suggests a fricative pronunciation of Gamma as early as the 4th century BC in Boeotian, Elean, Pamphylian, and possibly even vulgar Attic, and modern pronunciation may be derived from this[citation needed] (this point is debated among scholars). The only way to analyse the evolution of Greek until modern times, is to view the language as a whole.[citation needed] This is done by examining all its four periods, whose chronological boundaries are symbolic. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The History of the Greek language Origins There are many theories about the origins of the Greek language. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Pamphylian is a little-attested dialect of Ancient Greek which was spoken in Pamphylia, on the southern coast of Asia Minor. ...


The development from Ancient Greek to Modern Greek has affected phonology, morphology, and vocabulary. Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ...


The main phonological changes occurred during the Hellenistic and Roman period (see Koine Greek Phonology for details), and included: Koine redirects here. ...

The morphological changes affected both nouns and verbs. Some of the changes to the verbs are parallel to those that affected the Romance languages as they developed from Vulgar Latin — for instance the loss of certain historic tense forms and their replacement by new constructions — but the changes to the nouns have been less far-reaching. Greek has never experienced the wholesale loss of word-endings and noun cases that has for instance made Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian separate languages from Latin. Pitch accent is a kind of accent system employed in many languages around the world. ... In linguistics, stress is the emphasis given to some syllables (often no more than one in each word, but in many languages, long words have a secondary stress a few syllables away from the primary stress, as in the words cóunterfòil or còunterintélligence. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... Iotacism is the process by which a number of vowels and diphthongs in Ancient Greek converged their pronunciation to sound like iota in Modern Greek. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Look up Φ, φ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Theta (upper case &#920;, lower case &#952;) is the 8th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Look up Χ, χ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Look up Δ, δ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Beta (upper case Î’, lower case β) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Gamma (upper case &#915;, lower case &#947;) is the 3rd letter of the Greek alphabet. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ...


Classification

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European language family. The ancient languages which were probably most closely related to it, ancient Macedonian (a dialect of Greek) and Phrygian, are not well enough documented to permit detailed comparison. Among living languages Greek seems to be most closely related to Armenian (see also Graeco-Armenian) and the Indo-Iranian languages.[5] For other uses, see Indo-European. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... This article is about the language used in antiquity. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people of the central Asia Minor. ... Graeco-Armenian (also Helleno-Armenian) refers to the hypothesis that the Greek language and the Armenian language share a common ancestor post-dating the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE). ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ...


Writing system

Greek alphabet
Αα Alpha Νν Nu
Ββ Beta Ξξ Xi
Γγ Gamma Οο Omicron
Δδ Delta Ππ Pi
Εε Epsilon Ρρ Rho
Ζζ Zeta Σσ Sigma
Ηη Eta Ττ Tau
Θθ Theta Υυ Upsilon
Ιι Iota Φφ Phi
Κκ Kappa Χχ Chi
Λλ Lambda Ψψ Psi
Μμ Mu Ωω Omega
Obsolete letters
Ϝϝ Digamma Ϙϙ Qoppa
Ϛϛ Stigma Ϡϡ Sampi
Ϻϻ San Ϸϸ Sho

Greek diacritics
Main article: Greek alphabet

Greek has been written in the Greek alphabet since approximately the 9th century BC. In classical Greek, as in classical Latin, only upper-case letters existed. The lower-case Greek letters were developed much later by medieval scribes to permit a faster, more convenient cursive writing style with the use of ink and quill. The variant of the alphabet in use today is essentially the late Ionic variant, introduced for writing classical Attic in 403 BC. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Greek alphabet (Greek: ) is an alphabet consisting of 24 letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 8th or early 8th century BC. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel... Alpha (uppercase Α, lowercase α) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. ... For other uses, see Nu. ... Beta (upper case Β, lower case β) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up Ξ, ξ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gamma (uppercase Γ, lowercase γ) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up Ο, ο in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Δ, δ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Pi (disambiguation) Pi (upper case Π, lower case π or ϖ) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up Ε, ε in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Ρ, ρ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Zeta or ZETA can refer to: // Zeta (letter), of the Greek alphabet Zeta functions, in mathematics Riemann zeta function Tropical Storm Zeta (2005), formed in December 2005 and lasted through January 2006 Z-pinch, in fusion power Zeta (Mexico), a magazine from Tijuana, Mexico Zeta River, in Montenegro Zeta plain... For other uses, see Sigma (disambiguation). ... Look up Η, η in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Τ, τ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Θ, θ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Upsilon (upper case , lower case ) is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up Ι, ι in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Φ, φ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Kappa (disambiguation). ... Look up Χ, χ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Λ, λ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Ψ, ψ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Μ, μ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Ω, ω in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Digamma (upper case , lower case ) is an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet, used primarily as a Greek numeral. ... Qoppa Qoppa is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 90. ... Stigma is a ligature of the Greek letters sigma and tau, sometimes used nowadays to represent the Greek numeral 6. ... Sampi (Upper case &#992;, lower case &#993;) is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 900. ... San (uppercase , lowercase ) was a letter of the Greek alphabet, appearing between Pi and Qoppa in alphabetical order, corresponding in position although not in name to the Phoenician tsade. ... Sho (uppercase , lowercase ) was a letter added to the Greek alphabet in order to write the Bactrian language. ... In the Greek alphabet, vowels can carry diacritics, namely accents and breathings. ... The Greek alphabet (Greek: ) is an alphabet consisting of 24 letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 8th or early 8th century BC. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel... For other uses, see Ink (disambiguation). ... A quill pen is made from a flight feather (preferably a primary) of a large bird, most often a goose. ... Ionic Greek was a sub-dialect of the so called Attic-Ionic dialectal group of the ancient Greek language, which was itself a member of the Greek branch of Indoeuropean language family. ... Attic Greek is the ancient dialect of the Greek language that was spoken in Attica, which includes Athens. ...


The modern Greek alphabet consists of 24 letters, each with a capital (majuscule) and lowercase (minuscule) form. The letter sigma has an additional lowercase form (ς) used in final position. Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Letter case. ... For other uses, see Sigma (disambiguation). ...

Majuscule form
Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω
Minuscule form
α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω

In addition to the letters, the Greek alphabet also features a number of diacritical signs: three different accent marks (acute, grave and circumflex), originally denoting different shapes of pitch accent on the stressed vowel; the so-called breathing marks (spiritus asper and spiritus lenis), originally used to signal presence or absence of word-initial /h/; and the diaeresis, used to mark full syllabic value of a vowel that would otherwise be read as part of a diphthong. These marks were introduced during the course of the Hellenistic period. Actual usage of the grave in handwriting had seen a rapid decline in favor of uniform usage of the acute during the late 20th century, and it had only been retained in typography. Capital letters or majuscules (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... Alpha (uppercase Α, lowercase α) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up Î’, β in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gamma (uppercase Γ, lowercase γ) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up Δ, δ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Ε, ε in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Zeta (upper case Ζ, lower case ζ) is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up Η, η in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Θ, θ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Ι, ι in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Kappa. ... Look up Λ, λ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Îœ, μ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Nu. ... Look up Ξ, ξ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Ο, ο in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Pi (disambiguation) Pi (upper case Π, lower case Ï€ or Ï–) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up Ρ, ρ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sigma (upper case &#931;, lower case &#963;, alternative &#962;) is the 18th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up Τ, Ï„ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Upsilon (upper case , lower case ) is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up Φ, φ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Χ, χ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Ψ, ψ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Ω, ω in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Letter case. ... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... Pitch accent is a kind of accent system employed in many languages around the world. ... The spiritus asper (rough breathing) or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, &#948;&#945;&#963;&#973;) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ... The spiritus lenis (soft breathing) or psilon pneuma (Greek: psilón, ψιλόν) is a diacritical mark used in Ancient Greek. ... Ä ä Ö ö Ãœ ü The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ... Penmanship is the art of writing clearly and quickly. ... A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ...


In the writing reform of 1982, the use of most of them was abolished from official use in Greece. Since then, Modern Greek has been written mostly in the simplified monotonic orthography, which employs only the acute accent and the diaeresis. The traditional system, now called the polytonic orthography, is still in use for Modern Greek in book printing and in the usage of some writers in general, and it is used internationally for the writing of Ancient Greek. Monotonic orthography is the simplified way for spelling modern Greek introduced in 1982. ... It has been suggested that Diacritics (Greek alphabet) be merged into this article or section. ...


All variant forms of Greek letters are listed below:


Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Geographic distribution

Main articles: Greeks and Greek diaspora

Modern Greek is spoken by about 15–25 million people, mainly in Greece, the USA and Cyprus. There are also Greek-speaking populations in Australia, Armenia, Germany, the United Kingdom, Canada, the Russian Federation, the Ukraine, Albania and other countries. ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece...


Official status

Greek is the official language of Greece where it is spoken by about 99.5% of the population. It is also, alongside Turkish, the official language of Cyprus. Because of the membership of Greece and Cyprus in the European Union, Greek is one of the 23 official languages of the European Union. Greek is officially recognised as a minority language in parts of Turkey, Italy and Albania. An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Chameleon, a symbol of the multilingualism of the European Union. ...


References

  1. ^ Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2006. Retrieved on 2007-02-18.
  2. ^ Recognised in Italy as Griko
  3. ^ Britannica, "Greek language".
  4. ^ E. Friedell, Kulturgeschichte Griechenlands.
  5. ^ BBC: Languages across Europe: Greek
  • Herbert Weir Smyth, Greek Grammar, Harvard University Press, 1956 (revised edition), ISBN 0-674-36250-0. The standard grammar of classical Greek. Focuses primarily on the Attic dialect, with comparatively weak treatment of the other dialects and the Homeric Kunstsprache.
  • W. Sidney Allen, Vox Graeca - a guide to the pronunciation of classical Greek. Cambridge University Press, 1968-74. ISBN 0-521-20626-X
  • Geoffrey Horrocks, Greek: A History of the Language and Its Speakers (Longman Linguistics Library). Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1997. ISBN 0-582-30709-0. From Mycenean to modern.
  • Andrew Sihler, "A New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin", Oxford University Press, 1996. An historical grammar of ancient Greek from its Indo-European origins. Some eccentricities and no bibliography but a useful handbook to the earliest stages of Greek's development.
  • Robert Browning, Medieval and Modern Greek, Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition 1983, ISBN 0-521-29978-0. An excellent and concise historical account of the development of modern Greek from the ancient language.
  • Brian Newton, The Generative Interpretation of Dialect: A Study of Modern Greek Phonology, Cambridge University Press, 1972, ISBN 0-521-08497-0.
  • Crosby and Schaeffer, An Introduction to Greek, Allyn and Bacon, Inc. 1928. A school grammar of ancient Greek
  • David Holton et al., Greek: A Comprehensive Grammar of the Modern Language, Routledge, 1997, ISBN 0-415-10002-X. A reference grammar of modern Greek.
  • Dionysius of Thrace, "Art of Grammar", "Τέχνη γραμματική", c.100 BC

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location map of the Griko-speaking areas in Salento and Calabria Griko, sometimes spelled Grico, is a language combining ancient Greek, Byzantine Greek and Italian elements. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Attic Greek is the ancient dialect of the Greek language that was spoken in Attica, which includes Athens. ... Andrew L. Sihler, American linguist and comparative Indo-Europeanist. ...

See also

Note: This article contains special characters. ... Ancient Greek, in classical antiquity before the development of the Koiné as the lingua franca of Hellenism, was divided into several dialects. ... This table gives the common English pronunciation of the Greek letters. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Greeklish, a portmanteau of the words Greek and English, also known as Grenglish or Latinoellinika/Λατινοελληνικά or Frankolevantinika/Φραγκολεβαντίνικα or ASCII Greek, is Greek language written with the Latin alphabet. ... Look up its all Greek to me in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The linguistic varieties of Modern Greek can be classified along two principal dimensions. ...

External links

General background

Wikipedia
Greek language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more on the topic of

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

Language learning

General

Ancient Greek

  • A supplement to the Thrasymachus (Ancient Greek), part of the VRoma Project.
  • Learn Ancient Greek at Textkit. Free downloadable Ancient Greek grammars and readers.
  • Free lessons in ancient Greek, including an introduction the special features of Greek.
  • The Greek Language and Linguistics Gateway, provided as a free service to facilitate the study of Ancient Greek and to promote the application of methodologies from the field of Linguistics to the study of Classical and Hellenistic Greek.
  • New Testament Greek, three graduated courses in New Testament Greek.
  • Ancient Greek Manuscripts, images of Ancient Greek manuscripts and information about those manuscripts.
  • The Greek Language Portal
  • Greek, Too --supporting the study of Ancient Greek, especially in schools.
  • Joint Association of Classical Teachers, Reading Greek, Cambridge University Press, 1978. ISBN 0-521-21977-9 (Grammar, Vocabulary, Exercises), ISBN 0-521-21976-0 (Text), ISBN 0-521-47863-4 (Independent Study Guide (1995)),ISBN 0-521-23913-3 (Speaking Greek (1981))

JACT is the abbreviation of Joint Association of Classical Teachers, a UK organisation. ...

Modern Greek

Dictionaries

Wiktionary
Greek language edition of Wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

Literature

  • Page about modern Greek Literature
  • The Treasure of the Greek Language, a large collection of e-books from all stages of Greek language.
  • Research lab of modern Greek philosophy, a large e-library of modern Greek texts/books.
  • (Greek) Center for Neo-Hellenic Studies, a non-profit organization set in order to promote Modern Greek Literature and Culture.

Typography

The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge&#8212;writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others&#8212;in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... It has been suggested that Diacritics (Greek alphabet) be merged into this article or section. ... “Font” redirects here. ...

Books

  • Books in Greek, an extended list of searchable bibliographic information.

Spell checkers

  • Greek spell checker

  Results from FactBites:
 
Greek Language - LoveToKnow 1911 (8339 words)
Greek is one of the eight main branches into which the Indo-European languages are divided.
The Greek language, at any rate as it has come down to us, is remarkably perfect, in vowel sounds being the most primitive of any of the Indo-European languages, while its verb system has no rival in completeness except in the earliest Sanskrit of the Vedic literature.
Greek compared with Latin and English: P.Giles, A Short Manual of Comparative Philology for Classical Students (2nd ed., 1901, with an appendix containing a brief account and specimens of the dialects); Riemann and Goelzer, Grammaire comparative du Grec et du Latin (1901), a parallel grammar in 2 vols., specially valuable for syntax.
Greek Language - MSN Encarta (1718 words)
Aeolic was spoken principally in the districts of Aeolis, Thessaly (Thessalia), and Boeotia.
It was the language of the poets Alcaeus and Sappho and of three of the idylls of Theocritus.
Koine was the language of the court and of literature and commerce throughout the Hellenistic empires.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m