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Encyclopedia > Greek art

This article is part of the series on: Image File history File links COA_of_Greece. ...


History of Greek art

Prehistoric Greece
Cycladic art - Minoan art -

Mycenean art - Protogeometric Art - Cycladic art is the art and sculpture of the ancient Cycladic civilization, existing in the islands of the Aegean Sea from 3300 - 2000 BCE. Art mainly manifested itself in the form of marble idols, often used as offerings to the dead. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ... The Mycenean Period covers the latter part of the Bronze Age on the Greek mainland. ... The Protogeometric style is a pottery type associated with the Greek Dark Ages. ...


Geometric art Dipylon Vase Geometric Art is a phase of Greek art, characterised largely by geometric motives in vase painting, that flourished towards the end of the Greek Dark Ages, circa 900 BCE to 800 BCE. Its centre was in Athens, and it was diffused amongst the trading cities of the Aegean...

Art in Ancient Greece
Archaic Greek art - Classical Greek Art -

Hellenistic Art - Greco-Buddhist art - The art of ancient Greece has exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries from ancient times until the present, particularly in the areas of sculpture and architecture. ... The archaic period in Greece is the period during which the ancient Greek city-states developed, and is normally taken to cover roughly the 9th century to the 6th century BCE. The Archaic period followed the dark ages, and saw significant advancements in political theory, and the rise of democracy... Parthenon This article is on the term Classical Greece itself. ... The art of the Hellenistic period has long been the victim of the relative disdain attached to the period. ... Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century...


Greek Art in Roman times Roman Greece is the period of Greek history following the Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC until the reestablishment of the city of Byzantium and the naming of the city by Emperor Constantine I as the capital of the Roman Empire (as Nova...

Medieval Greece
Byzantine art - Macedonian art
Post-Byzantine Greece
Art in Ottoman Greece - Cretan School -

Heptanese School The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople - the image of Christ Pantocrator on the walls of the upper southern gallery. ... An example of Macedonian ivorywork: the Harbaville Triptych, now in the Louvre, Paris. ... Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 14th century until its declaration of independence in 1821. ... The term Cretan School describes an important school of icon painting, also known as Post-Byzantine art, which flourished while Crete was under Venetian rule during the late Middle Ages, reaching its climax after the Fall of Constantinople, becoming the central force in Greek painting during the fifteenth, sixteenth and... The Heptanese School of painting (Greek: ) or Ionian Island School is the first artistic movement in Greece that was shaped by Western European artistic influences which appeared in the Ionian islands in the middle of the 17th century until the middle of the 19th century[1]. // The Ionian islands or...

Modern Greece
Art in modern Greece - Munich School

Contemporary Greek Art Modern Greek Art is the term used to describe Greek art during the period between the emergence of the new independent Greek state and the 20th century. ... The Munich School (Greek: ) or academic realism is the most important artistic movement of Greek Art in the 19th century with strong influences from the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of Munich (German: )[1]. // The creation of romantic art in Greece can be explained mainly due to the particular relationships... Contemporary Greek Art is defined as the art produced by Greek artists after World War II. // Theodoros Stamos (1922-1997) was a great abstract expressionism art from Lefkas that lived and worked in New York in the 40s and 50s. ...

Greece has a rich and varied artistic history, spanning some 5000 years and beginning in the Cycladic and Minoan prehistorical civilization, giving birth to Western classical art in the ancient period (further developing this during the Hellenistic Period), to taking in the influences of Eastern civilizations and the new religion of Orthodox Christianity in the Byzantine era and absorbing Italian and European ideas during Romanticism period (with the invigoration of the Greek Revolution), right up until the Modernist and Postmodernist periods. The Cyclades, from the Greek Κυκλάδες, (circular, modern Greek Kykládes; see also List of traditional Greek place names) form an island group south-east of the mainland of Greece. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ... Classicism door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic Teatr Wielki in Warsaw Church La Madeleine in Paris Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... The term Orthodox Christianity may refer to: The Eastern Orthodox Church: the Eastern Christian churches of Byzantine tradition that adhere to the seven Ecumenical Councils. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Romantics redirects here. ... Combatants Greek guerilla forces Ottoman Empire forces Commanders Kolokotronis Vrionis, Ibrahim Pasha Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution, was a successful war waged by the Greeks between 1821 and 1827 to win independence from the Ottoman Empire. ... This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ...

Contents

Ancient Period

Main article: Art in ancient Greece

The art of ancient Greece has exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries from ancient times until the present, particularly in the areas of sculpture and architecture. In the West, the art of the Roman Empire was largely derived from Greek models. In the East, Alexander the Great's conquests initiated several centuries of exchange between Greek, Central Asian and Indian cultures, resulting in Greco-Buddhist art, with ramifications as far as Japan. Following the Renaissance in Europe, the humanist aesthetic and the high technical standards of Greek art inspired generations of European artists. Well into the 19th century, the classical tradition derived from Greece dominated the art of the western world. The art of ancient Greece has exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries from ancient times until the present, particularly in the areas of sculpture and architecture. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... This article is about building architecture. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities...


There are three scholarly distinctions of Greek art that correspond roughly with historical periods of the same names. These are the Archaic, the Classical and the Hellenistic. The Archaic period is usually dated from c.1000 BC. The Persian Wars of 480 BC to 448 BC are usually taken as the dividing line between the Archaic and the Classical periods, and before the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC is regarded as separating the Classical from the Hellenistic period. Of course, different forms of art developed at different speeds in different parts of the Greek world, and varied to a degree from artist to artist [1].

The Charioteer of Delphi, Delphi Archaeological Museum.
The Charioteer of Delphi, Delphi Archaeological Museum.

The main physical categories of Greek artfrdsfhsjkhhhhhhhhHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH are painting (nearly all of which is now lost, except for copies in Pompeii), sculpture, architecture, coin design and pottery, all of which are discussed in depth in their relevant articles. User:Adam_Carr mentioned he took this photo himself and that he licenses it to be freely used in Wikipedia. ... User:Adam_Carr mentioned he took this photo himself and that he licenses it to be freely used in Wikipedia. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... Sculptor redirects here. ... The restored Stoa of Attalus, Athens Architecture, defined as building executed to an aesthetically considered design, was extinct in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC) to the 7th century BC, when urban life and prosperity recovered to a point where public building could be undertaken. ... The ancient coins of Greece represent the highest form of the coiners art. ... Bilingual amphora by the Andokides Painter, ca. ...


Byzantine Period

Main article: Byzantine Art
The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics.
Part of the series on
Greeks

Greek culture
Art · Cinema · Cuisine
Dance · Dress · Literature
Music · Philosophy · Religion
Sport · Television The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople - the image of Christ Pantocrator on the walls of the upper southern gallery. ... I took this myself. ... I took this myself. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... The Culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, with its beginnings in the Mycenaean and Minoan Civilizations, continuing most notably into Classical Greece, through the influence of the Roman Empire and its Greek Eastern successor the Byzantine Empire. ... Greek cuisine is the cuisine of Greece and of the Greeks . ... Greek dance is a very old and common tradition from the ancient land of Greece. ... The Culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, with its beginnings in the Mycenaean and Minoan Civilizations, continuing most notably into Classical Greece, through the influence of the Roman Empire and its Greek Eastern successor the Byzantine Empire. ... // Main article: Ancient Greek literature Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek from the oldest surviving written works in the Greek language until the 4th century and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. ... History (Timeline and Samples) Genres: Classical music -Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Rock Regional styles Aegean Islands - Arcadia - Argos - Athens - Crete - Cyclades - Dodecanese Islands - Epirus - Ionian Islands - Lesbos - Macedonia - Peloponnesos - Thessaloniki - Thessaly - Thrace - Cyprus The musical legacy of Greece is as diverse as its history. ... Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ...

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Subgroups
Antiochian Greeks · Aromanians
Arvanites · Cappadocian Greeks
Greek Cypriots · Greek Muslims
Hayhurums · Karamanlides
Macedonians · Maniots · Meglenites
Pontic Greeks · Romaniotes
Sarakatsani · Slavophone Greeks
Tsakonians · Urums Antiochian Greeks are the members of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch who have resided in the territory of contemporary Turkish province of Hatay. ... Aromanians (also called: Macedo-Romanians or Aroumans; in Aromanian they call themselves Armãnji, Rrãmãnji) are a people living throughout the southern Balkans, especially in northern Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, and as an emigrant community in Romania (Dobruja). ... Arvanites (Greek: Αρβανίτες, see also below about names) are a population group in Greece who traditionally speak Arvanitika, a form of Albanian. ... Cappadocian, also known as Cappadocian Greek or Asia Minor Greek, is a dialect of the Greek language, formerly spoken in Cappadocia (Central Turkey). ... Greek Cypriot refers to the ethnic Greek population of Cyprus. ... Greek Muslims, also known as Greek-speaking Muslims, are Muslims of Greek ethnic origin, and are found primarily in Turkey, Cyprus, and Greece, although migrations to Lebanon and Syria have been reported[1]. The vast majority of the autochthonous Muslim minority in Greece (including the Greek-speaking Muslims), most of... Hayhurum is the name given to Armenian-speaking Christians who are members of Greek Orthodox Church. ... Karamanlides are a Turkish-speaking ethnic group that are of Orthodox Christian faith. ... A map showing Mani. ... Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Megleno-Romanians in dark yellow Megleno-Romanians (In Megleno-Romanian: Vlashi, in Greek: Βλαχομογλενίτες Vlachomoglenítes) is an exonym for a people inhabiting six villages in the Moglená (Μογλενά) region of Macedonia spanning the Pella and Kilkis prefectures of Macedonia, Greece, as well as the... The term Pontic Greeks, Pontian Greeks, Pontians or Greeks of Pontus (Greek: or , Turkish: ) can refer to Greeks specifically from the area of Pontus in the region of the former Empire of Trebizond on the Black Sea coast of Eastern Turkey, or in other cases more generally all Greeks from... The Romaniotes are a Jewish population who have lived in the territory of todays Greece for more than 2000 years. ... For the dog breed, see Bulgarian Shepherd Dog. ... Map of Greece. ... A Tsakonian (Greek: Τσάκωνας Tsákonas) is a speaker of Tsakonian, or more broadly, one who lives in a traditionally Tsakonian-speaking area and follows certain Tsakonian cultural traditions, such as the Tsakonian dance, even if that person is no longer able to speak Tsakonian fluently. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

Religion
Greek Orthodox Church
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Islam · Neopaganism Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: HellÄ“northódoxÄ“ EkklÄ“sía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Greece is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... The Greek Byzantine Catholic Church is a particular Church within the Roman Catholic Church and uses the Byzantine liturgical rite in the Greek language. ... The Greek Evangelical Church (Greek: Ελληνική Ευαγγελική Εκκλησία Elliniki Evangeliki Ekklisia) is a Protestant denomination in Greece. ... There have been organized Jewish communities in Greece for more than two thousand years. ... A disused mosque or dzami outside of Ioannina, which became part of Greece in 1913. ... Hellenic Polytheism is an umbrella term for a wide variety of polytheistic religious movements which are ideologically related by their reverence for the ancient Greek pantheon and/or their adoption of ancient Greek religious practices. ...

Languages and dialects
Greek
Calabrian Greek · Cappadocian Greek
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Griko · Pontic Greek
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Arvanitika · Slavika
Karamanlidika · Urum
The Greek-Calabrian dialect or Greek-Bovesian is the version of Italian Greek used in Calabria, as opposed to the other Italian-Greek dialect spoken in the Grecìa Salentina, remnant of the ancient and Byzantine Greek colonisation of the region. ... Cappadocian, also known as Cappadocian Greek or Asia Minor Greek, is a dialect of the Greek language, formerly spoken in Cappadocia (Central Turkey). ... Cretan Greek (Cretan dialect, Greek: Κρητική διάλεκτος or Kritika Κρητικά) is a dialect of the Greek language, spoken by more than half a million people in Crete and several thousands in the diaspora. ... This article is about the modern Greek dialect of Cyprus. ... Griko, sometimes spelled Grico, is a Modern Greek dialect which is spoken by people in the Magna Graecia region in southern Italy and Sicily, and it is otherwise known as the Grecanic language. ... Pontic Greek is a form of the Greek language originally spoken on the shores of the Black Sea, the Pontus, today mainly in Greece. ... Tsakonian (also Tsakonic) (Standard Greek Τσακωνική Διάλεκτος — Tsakonic language — is a dialect of, or language closely related to, Standard Modern Greek, spoken in the Tsakonian region of the Peloponnese, Greece. ... Yevanic, otherwise known as Yevanika, Romaniote and Judeo-Greek, was the language of the Romaniotes, the group of Greek Jews whose existence in Greece is documented since the 4th century BCE. Its linguistic lineage stems from Attic Greek and the Hellenistic Koine (Κοινή Ελ&#955... Megleno-Romanian (known as VlăheÅŸte by speakers and Moglenitic, Meglenitic or Megleno-Romanian by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian, and Romanian spoken in the Moglená region of Greece, in a few villages in the Republic of Macedonia and also in a few villages in Romania. ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Arvanitika or Arvanitic (native name: arbërisht, Greek: αρβανίτικα arvanitika) is the variety of Albanian traditionally spoken by the Arvanites, a population group in Greece. ... Slavic (Greek: σλάβικα slávika, also referred to as εντόπια entópia (meaning local), reported self-identifying names: makedonski, slavomakedonski (Macedonian), pomashki, bugarski, balgarski (Bulgarian) [1]) are terms sometimes used to designate the dialects spoken by the Slavophone (i. ... Turkish ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ... Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in Georgia. ...

History This article covers the Greek civilization. ...

v  d  e

Byzantine art is the term created by the Eastern Roman Empire from about the 5th century until the fall of Constantinople in 1453. (The Roman Empire during this period is conventionally known as the Byzantine Empire.) The term can also be used for the art of states which were contemporary with the Byzantine Empire and shared a common culture with it, without fucking actually being part of it, such as Bulgaria, Serbia or Russia, and also Venice, which had close ties to the Byzantine Empire despite being in other respects part of western European culture. It can also be used for the art of peoples of the former Byzantine Empire under the rule of the Ottoman Empire after 1453. In some respects the Byzantine artistic tradition has continued in Greece, Russia and other Eastern Orthodox countries to the present day[2]. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Ottoman redirects here. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


Byzantine art grew from the art of Ancient Greece, and at least before 1453 never lost sight of its classical heritage, but was distinguished from it in a number of ways. The most profound of these was that the humanist ethic of Ancient Greek art was replaced by the Christian ethic. If the purpose of classical art was the glorification of man, the purpose of Byzantine art was the glorification of God, and particularly of his son, Jesus.


In place of the nude, the figures of God the Father, and became the dominant - indeed almost exclusive - focus of Byzantine art. One of the most important forms of Byzantine art was, and still is, the icon: an image of Christ, the Virgin (particularly the Virgin and Child), or a saint, used as an object of veneration in Orthodox churches and private homes.


Post-Byzantine Period

Main article: Ottoman Greece
Main article: Cretan School

Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 14th century until its declaration of independence in 1821. ... The term Cretan School describes an important school of icon painting, also known as Post-Byzantine art, which flourished while Crete was under Venetian rule during the late Middle Ages, reaching its climax after the Fall of Constantinople, becoming the central force in Greek painting during the fifteenth, sixteenth and...

Modern Period

Main article: Art in modern Greece
 Theodore Vryzakis, The sortie of Messologhi
Theodore Vryzakis, The sortie of Messologhi

Due to the Ottoman occupation of Greece there was very little artistic output during this time, so the birth of modern Greek Art began in defacto terms at the start of the 19th century (the end of the Greek War of Independence was in 1829) and took on board a number of Romanticism influences, most notably from Italy. The culmination of this was the distinctive style of Greek Romanticist art, inspired by revolutionary ideals as well as the particular geography and long history of the country. One of the major figure of the Modernist period is Fotis Kontoglou. His diverse contribution to Modern Greek Painting could be summarised into three manifestations. His creative painting work, which was based on the Byzantine technique; his hagiographic work, which brought orthodox painting back to our churches; and, finally, his teaching, either direct or - mainly - indirect, which was one of the strongest factors which altered the course of Modern Greek Painting towards the discovery of the pictorial but, also, of the more substantial spiritual values of the Greek traditions that they used when they were worshipping. Modern Greek Art is the term used to describe Greek art during the period between the emergence of the new independent Greek state and the 20th century. ... Image File history File links The_sortie_of_Messologhi_by_Theodore_Vryzakis. ... Image File history File links The_sortie_of_Messologhi_by_Theodore_Vryzakis. ... Germanos blessing the flag at Agia Lavra. ... Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 14th century until its declaration of independence in 1821. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Photis Kontoglou (Greek: Φώτης Κόντογλου, occasionally signed also as Kontoglous-b. ...


Contemporary Greek Art

Main article: Contemporary Greek Art

Contemporary Greek Art is defined as the art produced by Greek artists after World War II. // Theodoros Stamos (1922-1997) was a great abstract expressionism art from Lefkas that lived and worked in New York in the 40s and 50s. ...

See also

This article covers the Greek civilization. ... The Culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, with its beginnings in the Mycenaean and Minoan Civilizations, continuing most notably into Classical Greece, through the influence of the Roman Empire and its Greek Eastern successor the Byzantine Empire. ... Façade of the National Archaeological museum of Athens. ... The National Art Gallery and Alexander Soutzos Museum (Ethniki Pinakothiki (Greek: Εθνική Πινακοθήκη)) is an art museum in Athens devoted to modern Greek and European art from the 14th century to the 20th century. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Greece: From Mycenae to the Parthenon, Henri Stierlin, TASCHEN, 2004
  2. ^ C. Mango, ed., The art of the Byzantine Empire, 312-1453: sources and documents (Englewood Cliffs, 1972)

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