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Encyclopedia > Greek alphabet

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Greek alphabet
Type Alphabet
Spoken languages Greek, with many modifications covering many languages
Time period ~800 BC to the present[1]
Parent systems Proto-Canaanite alphabet
 → Phoenician alphabet
  → Greek alphabet
Child systems Gothic
Glagolitic
Cyrillic
Coptic
Old Italic alphabet
Latin alphabet
ISO 15924 Grek
Greek alphabet
Αα Alpha Νν Nu
Ββ Beta Ξξ Xi
Γγ Gamma Οο Omicron
Δδ Delta Ππ Pi
Εε Epsilon Ρρ Rho
Ζζ Zeta Σσς Sigma
Ηη Eta Ττ Tau
Θθ Theta Υυ Upsilon
Ιι Iota Φφ Phi
Κκ Kappa Χχ Chi
Λλ Lambda Ψψ Psi
Μμ Mu Ωω Omega
Obsolete letters
Digamma Qoppa
San Sampi

Greek diacritics

The Greek alphabet (Greek: Ελληνικό αλφάβητο) is a set of twenty-four letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is a writing system that uses a separate symbol for each vowel and consonant.[2] It is the oldest alphabetic script in continuous use today. The letters were also used to represent Greek numerals, beginning in the 2nd century BC. ABCs redirects here. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC - 800s BC - 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC Events and Trends 804 BC - Hadad-nirari IV of Assyria conquers Damascus. ... The Proto-Canaanite alphabet is an abjad of twenty-plus acrophonic glyphs, which is found in Levantine texts of the Late Bronze Age (from ca. ... The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ...   The Gothic alphabet is an alphabetic writing system attributed by Philostorgius to Wulfila, used exclusively for writing the ancient Gothic language. ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... The Coptic alphabet is an alphabet used for writing the Coptic language. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... ISO 15924, Codes for the representation of names of scripts, defines two sets of codes for a number of writing systems (scripts). ... Image File history File links Greekalphabet. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Alpha (uppercase Α, lowercase α) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. ... For other uses, see Nu. ... Beta (upper case Î’, lower case β) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up Ξ, ξ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gamma (uppercase Γ, lowercase γ) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up Ο, ο in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Δ, δ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Pi (disambiguation) Pi (upper case Π, lower case Ï€ or Ï–) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up Ε, ε in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Ρ, ρ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Zeta or ZETA can refer to: // Zeta (letter), of the Greek alphabet Zeta functions, in mathematics Riemann zeta function Tropical Storm Zeta (2005), formed in December 2005 and lasted through January 2006 Z-pinch, in fusion power Zeta (Mexico), a magazine from Tijuana, Mexico Zeta River, in Montenegro Zeta plain... For other uses, see Sigma (disambiguation). ... Look up Η, η in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Τ, Ï„ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Θ, θ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Upsilon (upper case , lower case ) is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... This article is about Greek iota. ... Look up Φ, φ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Kappa (disambiguation). ... Look up Χ, χ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Λ, λ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Ψ, ψ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Îœ, μ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Ω, ω in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Digamma (upper case , lower case ) is an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet, used primarily as a Greek numeral. ... Qoppa Qoppa is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 90. ... San (uppercase , lowercase ) was a letter of the Greek alphabet, appearing between Pi and Qoppa in alphabetical order, corresponding in position although not in name to the Phoenician tsade. ... Sampi (Upper case Ϡ, lower case ϡ) is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 900. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. ... (10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC - other centuries) (900s BC - 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Kingdom of Kush (900 BC... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... ABCs redirects here. ... Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...


The Greek alphabet is descended from the Phoenician alphabet, and unrelated to Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, earlier writing systems for Greek. It has given rise to many other alphabets used in Europe and the Middle East, including the Latin alphabet.[2] In addition to being used for writing Modern Greek, its letters are today used as symbols in mathematics and science, particle names in physics, as names of stars, in the names of fraternities and sororities, in the naming of supernumerary tropical cyclones, and for other purposes. The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... The Cypriot syllabary is a syllabic script used in Iron Age Cyprus, from ca. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Main article: Greek language Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ... Greek letters are used in mathematics, science, engineering, and other areas where mathematical notation is used as symbols for constants, special functions, and also conventionally for variables representing certain quantities. ... Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... In ancient times, only the Sun and Moon, a few hundred stars and the most easily visible planets had names. ... The terms fraternity and sorority (from the Latin words and , meaning brother and sister respectively) may be used to describe many social and charitable organizations, for example the Lions Club, Epsilon Sigma Alpha, Rotary International, Optimist International, or the Shriners. ... Due to their long-term persistence, and the need for a unique identifier in issuing forecasts and warnings, tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are given names. ...

Contents

History

The Greek alphabet emerged several centuries after the fall of the Mycenaean civilization and consequent abandonment of its Linear B script, an early Greek writing system. Linear B is descended from Linear A, which was developed by the Minoans, whose language was probably unrelated to Greek; consequently the Minoan syllabary did not provide an ideal medium for the transliteration of the sounds of the Greek language. The History of the Greek alphabet starts with the adoption of Phoenician letterforms and continues to the present day. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... Linear A incised on tablets found in Akrotiri, Santorini. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on the island of Crete. ...


The Greek alphabet we recognize today arose after the Greek Dark Ages — the period between the downfall of Mycenae (ca. 1200 BC) and the rise of Ancient Greece, which begins with the appearance of the epics of Homer, around 800 BC, and the institution of the Ancient Olympic Games in 776 BC. Its most notable change, as an adaptation of the Phoenician alphabet, is the introduction of vowel letters, without which Greek would be illegible.[2] The Greek Dark Ages (ca. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... (Redirected from 1200 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC - 800s BC - 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC Events and Trends 804 BC - Hadad-nirari IV of Assyria conquers Damascus. ... Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia The Ancient Olympic Games, originally referred to as simply the Olympic Games (Greek: ; Olympiakoi Agones) were a series of athletic competitions held between various city-states of Ancient Greece. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 820s BC 810s BC 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC - 770s BC - 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC Events and Trends 778 BC - Agamestor, King of Athens dies after a reign of 17 years and... The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ...


Vowel signs were originally not used in Semitic alphabets. Whereas in the earlier West Semitic family of scripts (Phoenician, Hebrew, Moabite etc.) a letter always stood for a consonant in association with an unspecified vowel or no vowel, the Greek alphabet divided the letters into two categories, consonants ("things that sound along") and vowels, where the consonant letters always had to be accompanied by vowels to create a pronounceable unit. Although the old Ugaritic alphabet did develop matres lectionis, i.e., use of consonant letters to denote vowels, they were never employed systematically. Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region of what is now Lebanon. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... The Moabite language is an extinct Hebrew Canaanite dialect, spoken in Moab (modern-day northwestern Jordan) in the early first millennium BC. Most of our knowledge about Moabite comes from the Mesha Stele, as well as the El-Kerak Stela; this is sufficient to show that it was extremely similar... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Ugaritic alphabet is a cuneiform version of the Levantine consonant alphabet (abjad), used from around 1300 BC for the Ugaritic language, an extinct Canaanite language discovered in Ugarit, Syria. ... Matres lectionis (singular form: mater lectionis) are an early manner of indicating vowels in the Hebrew alphabet. ...

History of the alphabet

Middle Bronze Age 19 c. BCE
The history of the alphabet begins in Ancient Egypt, more than a millennium into the history of writing. ... The Middle Bronze Age alphabets are two similar but undeciphered scripts, dated to be from the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1500 BC), and believed to be ancestral to nearly all modern alphabets: the Proto-Sinaitic script discovered in the winter of 1904-1905 by William Flinders Petrie, and dated to...

Meroitic 3 c. BCE
Ogham 4 c. CE
Hangul 1443 CE
Canadian syllabics 1840 CE
Zhuyin 1913 CE
complete genealogy

The first vowel letters were Α (alpha), Ε (epsilon), Ι (iota), Ο (omicron), and Υ (upsilon), modifications of Semitic glottal, pharyngeal, or glide consonants that were mostly superfluous in Greek: /ʔ/ ('aleph), /h/ (he), /j/ (yodh), /ʕ/ (ʿayin), and /w/ (waw), respectively. In eastern Greek, which lacked aspiration entirely, the letter Η (eta), from the Semitic glottal consonant /ħ/ (heth) was also used for the long vowel /εː/, and eventually the letter Ω (omega) was introduced for a long /ɔː/. The Ugaritic alphabet is a cuneiform abjad, used from around 1300 BC for the Ugaritic language, an extinct Canaanite language discovered in Ugarit, Syria. ... The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ... The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet is an offshoot of the Phoenician alphabet used to write the Hebrew language from about the 10th century BCE until it began to fall out of use in the 5th century BCE with the adoption of the Aramaic alphabet as a writing system for Hebrew and... The Samaritan alphabet is a direct descendant of the paleo-Hebrew variety of the Phoenician alphabet, the more commonly known Hebrew alphabet having been adapted from the Aramaic alphabet under the Persian Empire. ... Bilingual inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by the Indian emperor Ashoka the Great, 3rd century BC. The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ... Variation of BrāhmÄ« with dates. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, descended from the BrāhmÄ« script of Mauryan India. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section uses Khmer characters which may be rendered as boxes or other nonsensical symbols. ... Javanese script is the script that Javanese is originally written in (not to be confused with Javascript, which is a programming language). ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... 11th century book in Syriac Serto. ... The Nabatean alphabet is a consonantal alphabet (abjad) that was used by the Nabateans in the 2nd century BC. Important inscriptions are found in Petra. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... The Avestan alphabet was created in the 3rd century AD for writing the hymns of Zarathustra (a. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Rune redirects here. ...   The Gothic alphabet is an alphabetic writing system attributed by Philostorgius to Wulfila, used exclusively for writing the ancient Gothic language. ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... Paleohispanic scripts Light green (along the Mediterranean coast) is the Iberian language, dark grey (mainly southern Portugal) is the Tartessian language, dark blue (central Spain) is the Celtiberian language, light blue (mainly northern Portugal) is the Lusitanian language, and dark green (Eastern Pyrenees) is the Aquitanian language. ... The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Meroitic script is an alphabet of Egyptian (Hieroglyphic) origin used in Kingdom of Meroë. Some scholars, e. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Nearly all the segmental scripts (alphabets, but see below for more precise terminology) used around the globe were apparently derived from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Alpha (uppercase Α, lowercase α) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up Ε, ε in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about Greek iota. ... Look up Ο, ο in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Upsilon (upper case , lower case ) is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... is the reconstructed name of the first letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician , Syriac , Hebrew Aleph , and Arabic . Aleph originally represented the glottal stop (IPA ), usually transliterated as , a symbol based on the Greek spiritus lenis , for example in the transliteration of the... He is the fifth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician , Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic . Its sound value is a voiceless glottal fricative (). The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Epsilon, Etruscan , Latin E and Cyrillic Ye. ... Yodh (also spelled Yud or Yod) is the tenth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order). ... or Ayin is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order). ...   Vav or waw is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic in abjadi order; it is the twenty-seventh in modern Arabic order. ... Look up Η, η in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the letter Heth in the Hebrew and Phoenician alphabets, see Heth (letter). ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... Look up Ω, ω in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Greek also introduced three new consonant letters, Φ (phi), Χ (chi) and Ψ (psi), appended to the end of the alphabet as they were developed. These consonants made up for the lack of comparable aspirates in Phoenician. In western Greek, Χ was used for /ks/ and Ψ for /kʰ/ — hence the value of the Latin letter X, derived from the western Greek alphabet. The origin of these letters is disputed. Look up Φ, φ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Χ, χ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Ψ, ψ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. ... It has been suggested that Cumae alphabet be merged into this article or section. ...


The letter Ϻ (san) was used at variance with Σ (sigma), and by classical times the latter won out, san disappearing from the alphabet. The letters Ϝ (wau, later called digamma) and Ϙ (qoppa) also fell into disuse. The former was only needed for the western dialects and the latter was never truly needed at all. These lived on in the Ionic numeral system, however, which consisted of writing a series of letters with precise numerical values. Ϡ (sampi), apparently is a rare local glyph form from Ionia, was introduced at latter times to stand for 900. Thousands were written using a mark at the upper left ('A for 1000, etc). San (uppercase , lowercase ) was a letter of the Greek alphabet, appearing between Pi and Qoppa in alphabetical order, corresponding in position although not in name to the Phoenician tsade. ... For other uses, see Sigma (disambiguation). ... Digamma (upper case , lower case ) is an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet, used primarily as a Greek numeral. ... Qoppa Qoppa is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 90. ... Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. ... Sampi (Upper case Ϡ, lower case ϡ) is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 900. ... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ...


Because Greek minuscules arose at a much later date, no historic minuscule actually exists for san. Minuscule forms for the other letters were only used as numbers. For the number 6, modern Greeks use an old ligature called stigma (Ϛ, ϛ) instead of digamma, or ΣΤ/στ if this is not available. For 90 the modern Z-shaped qoppa forms were used: Ϟ, ϟ. (Note that some web browser/font combinations will show the other qoppa here.) Minuscule, or lower case, is the smaller form (case) of letters (in the Roman alphabet: a, b, c, ...). Originally alphabets were written entirely in majuscule (capital) letters which were spaced between well-defined upper and lower bounds. ... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... Stigma is a ligature of the Greek letters sigma and tau, sometimes used nowadays to represent the Greek numeral 6. ...


Originally there were several variants of the Greek alphabet, most importantly western (Chalcidian) and eastern (Ionic) Greek. The former gave rise to the Old Italic alphabet and thence to the Latin alphabet, while the latter is the basis of the present Greek alphabet. Athens originally used the Attic script for official documents such as laws and the works of Homer: this contained only the letters from alpha to upsilon, and used the letter eta for the sound "h" instead of the long "e". In 403 BC Athens adopted the Ionic script as its standard, and shortly thereafter the other versions disappeared. It has been suggested that Cumae alphabet be merged into this article or section. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC 404 BC - 403 BC - 402 BC 401 BC...


By then Greek was written left to right, but originally it had been written right to left (with asymmetrical characters flipped), and in-between written either way — or, most likely, in the so-called boustrophedon style, where successive lines alternate direction. Boustrophedon is an ancient way of writing manuscripts and other inscriptions in which, rather than going from left to right as in modern English, or right to left as in Arabic, alternate lines must be read in opposite directions. ...

Early Greek alphabet on pottery in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens

In the Hellenistic period, Aristophanes of Byzantium introduced the process of accenting Greek letters for easier pronunciation. During the Middle Ages, the Greek scripts underwent changes paralleling those of the Latin alphabet: while the old forms were retained as a monumental script, uncial and eventually minuscule hands came to dominate. The letter σ is even written ς at the ends of words, paralleling the use of the Latin long and short s. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1398, 225 KB) Summary Alphabet grec peint sur la panse dune coupe attique à figures noires. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1398, 225 KB) Summary Alphabet grec peint sur la panse dune coupe attique à figures noires. ... Façade of the National Archaeological museum of Athens. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Aristophanes of Byzantium, Gr. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritic or diacritical mark, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... An italicized long s used in the word Congress in the United States Bill of Rights. ...


Letter names

Each of the Phoenician letter names was a word that began with the sound represented by that letter; thus 'aleph, the word for “ox”, was adopted for the glottal stop /ʔ/, bet, or “house”, for the /b/ sound, and so on. When the letters were adopted by the Greeks, most of the Phoenician names were maintained or modified slightly to fit Greek phonology; thus, 'aleph, bet, gimel became alpha, beta, gamma. These borrowed names had no meaning in Greek except as labels for the letters. However, a few signs that were added or modified later by the Greeks do in fact have names with a meaning. For example, o mikron and o mega mean “small o” and “big o”. Similarly, e psilon and u psilon mean “plain e” and “plain u”, respectively. is the reconstructed name of the first letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician , Syriac , Hebrew , , and Arabic . Aleph originally expressed the glottal stop (IPA ), usually transliterated as , a symbol based on the Greek spiritus lenis , for example in the transliteration of the letter... Bet or Beth is the second letter of the Phoenician alphabet, the Hebrew alphabet, and the Aramaic alphabet. ...


Main letters

Below is a table listing the modern Greek letters, as well as their forms when romanized. The table also provides the equivalent Phoenician letter from which each Greek letter is derived. Pronunciations transcribed using the International Phonetic Alphabet. Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


Also note that the classical pronunciation given below is the reconstructed pronunciation of Attic in the late 5th and early 4th century (BC). Some of the letters had different pronunciations in pre-classical times or in non-Attic dialects. For details, see History of the Greek alphabet and Ancient Greek phonology. For details on post-classical Ancient Greek pronunciation, see Koine Greek phonology. The History of the Greek alphabet starts with the adoption of Phoenician letterforms and continues to the present day. ... Ancient Greek phonology is the study of the phonology, or pronunciation, of Ancient Greek. ... Koine Greek is phonologically a transition period: at the start of the period, the language was virtually identical to Classical Ancient Greek, whereas in the end the language had phonologically a lot more in common with Modern Greek than Ancient Greek. ...

Letter Corresponding
Phoenician
letter
Name Transliteration1 Pronunciation Numeric value
English Ancient
Greek
Medieval
Greek
(polytonic)
Modern
Greek
Ancient
Greek
Modern
Greek
Classical
Ancient
Greek
Modern
Greek
Α α Aleph Alpha ἄλφα άλφα a [a] [aː] [a] 1
Β β Beth Beta βῆτα βήτα b v [b] [v] 2
Γ γ Gimel Gamma γάμμα γάμμα
γάμα
g gh, g, y [g] [ɣ], [ʝ] 3
Δ δ Daleth Delta δέλτα δέλτα d d, dh [d] [ð] 4
Ε ε He Epsilon ε ψιλόν έψιλον e [e] 5
Ζ ζ Zayin Zeta ζήτα ζήτα z [zd]
(or [dz])
later [zː]
[z] 7
Η η Heth Eta ἦτα ήτα e, ē i [ɛː] [i] 8
Θ θ Teth Theta θῆτα θήτα th [tʰ] [θ] 9
Ι ι Yodh Iota ἰῶτα ιώτα
γιώτα
i [i] [iː] [i], [ʝ] 10
Κ κ Kaph Kappa κάππα κάππα
κάπα
k [k] [k], [c] 20
Λ λ Lamedh Lambda λάβδα λάμβδα λάμδα
λάμβδα
l [l] 30
Μ μ Mem Mu μῦ μι
μυ
m [m] 40
Ν ν Nun Nu νῦ νι
νυ
n [n] 50
Ξ ξ Samekh Xi ξεῖ ξῖ ξι x x, ks [ks] 60
Ο ο 'Ayin Omicron οὖ ὂ μικρόν όμικρον o [o] 70
Π π Pe Pi πεῖ πῖ πι p [p] 80
Ρ ρ Resh Rho ῥῶ ρω r (: rh) r [r], [r̥] [r] 100
Σ σ ς Sin Sigma σῖγμα σίγμα s [s] 200
Τ τ Taw Tau ταῦ ταυ t [t] 300
Υ υ Waw Upsilon ὓ ψιλόν ύψιλον u, y y, v, f [y] [yː]
(earlier [ʉ] [ʉː])
[i] 400
Φ φ origin disputed
(see text)
Phi φεῖ φῖ φι ph f [pʰ] [f] 500
Χ χ Chi χεῖ χῖ χι ch ch, kh [kʰ] [x], [ç] 600
Ψ ψ Psi ψεῖ ψῖ ψι ps [ps] 700
Ω ω 'Ayin Omega ὦ μέγα ωμέγα o, ō o [ɔː] [o] 800
  1. For details and different transliteration systems see Romanization of Greek.

The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ... This table lists several transcription schemes from the Greek alphabet to the Latin alphabet. ... Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. ... Phoenician Aleph. ... is the reconstructed name of the first letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician , Syriac , Hebrew , , and Arabic . Aleph originally expressed the glottal stop (IPA ), usually transliterated as , a symbol based on the Greek spiritus lenis , for example in the transliteration of the letter... Alpha (uppercase Α, lowercase α) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Phoenician Beth. ...   Beth or Bet is the second letter of many Semetic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Beta (upper case Î’, lower case β) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Phoenician Gimel. ... Gimel is the third letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order; 5th in higai order). ... Gamma (upper case Γ, lower case γ) is the 3rd letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Phoenician Daleth. ...   Dalet or Daleth is the fourth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Look up Δ, δ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Phoenician He. ... He is the fifth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician , Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic . Its sound value is a voiceless glottal fricative (). The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Epsilon, Etruscan , Latin E and Cyrillic Ye. ... Look up Ε, ε in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Phoenician Zayin. ... Zayin or Zain is the seventh letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Zeta (upper case Ζ, lower case ζ) is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Zeta (upper case Ζ, lower case ζ) is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Phoenician Heth. ... or (also spelled Khet, Kheth, Chet, Cheth, Het, or Heth) is the reconstructed name of the eighth letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician , Syriac , Hebrew (also ) , Arabic (in abjadi order), and Berber . Heth originally represented a voiceless fricative, either pharyngeal , or velar (the... Look up Η, η in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Phoenician Teth. ... (also Teth, Tet) is the ninth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 16th in modern order). ... Theta (upper case Θ, lower case θ) is the 8th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Phoenician Yodh. ... Yodh (also spelled Yud or Yod) is the tenth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order). ... Iota (upper case Ι, lower case ι) is the 9th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Phoenician Kaph. ... Kaph (also spelled Kap or Kaf) is the eleventh letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Arabic alphabet , Persian alphabet . ... For other uses, see Kappa. ... Phoenician Lamedh. ... Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its sound value is IPA: . The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Lambda (Λ), Latin L, and Cyrillic El (Л). // Lamedh is believed to have come from a pictogram of an ox goad... The lambda is a unit of measure of volume (symbol λ) equal to one microlitre (1 μL) or one cubic millimetre (1 mm³). ... Phoenician Mem. ... Mem is the thirteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Look up Îœ, μ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Phoenician Nun. ... → [Nun] is the 14th letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet (in abjadi order). ... For other uses, see Nu. ... Phoenician Samekh. ... Samekh or Simketh is the fifteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic, representing . ... Xi (upper case Ξ, lower case ξ) is the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Phoenician Ayin. ... or Ayin is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order). ... Look up Ο, ο in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Phoenician Pe. ... Pe is the seventeenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet (in abjadi order). ... For other uses, see Pi (disambiguation) Pi (upper case Π, lower case Ï€ or Ï–) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Phoenician Res. ... Resh is the twentieth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Look up Ρ, ρ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Phoenician Sin. ... Shin (also spelled Å in or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Sigma (upper case Σ, lower case σ, alternative ς) is the 18th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Phoenician Taw. ... Taw or Tav is the twenty-second and last letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its original value is an voiceless alveolar plosive, IPA , The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Tau (Τ), Latin T, and the equivalent in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Tau (upper case Τ, lower case τ) is the 19th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Phoenician Waw. ...   Vav or waw is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic in abjadi order; it is the twenty-seventh in modern Arabic order. ... Upsilon (upper case Υ, lower case υ) is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up Φ, φ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Χ, χ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Ψ, ψ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Phoenician Ayin. ... or Ayin is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order). ... Look up Ω, ω in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... There are several methods for the romanization of Greek, especially depending whether the language written with Greek letters is Ancient Greek or Modern Greek and whether a phonetic transcription or a graphemic transliteration is intended. ...

Variant forms

Some letters can occur in variant shapes, mostly inherited from medieval minuscule handwriting. While their use in normal typography of Greek is purely a matter of font styles, some such variants have been given separate encodings in Unicode. The History of the Greek alphabet starts with the adoption of Phoenician letterforms and continues to the present day. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...

  • The symbol ϐ ("curled beta") is a cursive variant form of beta (β).
  • The letter epsilon can occur in two equally frequent stylistic variants, either shaped ('lunate epsilon', like a semicircle with a stroke) or (similar to a reversed number 3). The symbol ϵ (U+03F5) is designated specifically for the lunate form, used as a technical symbol.
  • The symbol ϑ ("script theta") is a cursive form of theta (θ), frequent in handwriting, and used with a specialised meaning as a technical symbol.
  • The symbol ϰ ("kappa symbol") is a cursive form of kappa (κ), used as a technical symbol.
  • The symbol ϖ ("omega-shaped pi") is an archaic script form of pi (π), also used as a technical symbol.
  • The letter rho (ρ) can occur in different stylistic variants, with the descending tail either going straight down or curled to the right. The symbol ϱ (U+03F1) is designated specifically for the curled form, used as a technical symbol.
  • The letter sigma, in standard orthography, has two variants: ς, used only at the ends of words, and σ, used elsewhere. The form ϲ ("lunate sigma", resembling a Latin c) is a medieval stylistic variant that can be used in both environments without the final/non-final distinction.
  • The capital letter upsilon (Υ) can occur in different stylistic variants, with the upper strokes either straight like a Latin Y, or slightly curled. The symbol ϒ (U+03D2) is designated specifically for the curled form, used as a technical symbol.
  • The letter Phi can occur in two equally frequent stylistic variants, either shaped as (a circle with a vertical stroke through it) or as (a curled shape open at the top). The symbol ϕ (U+03D5) is designated specifically for the closed form, used as a technical symbol.[3]

Look up beta, Beta in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Ε, ε in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Θ, θ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Kappa (disambiguation). ... When a circles diameter is 1, its circumference is π. Pi or π is the ratio of a circles circumference to its diameter in Euclidean geometry, approximately 3. ... Rho (upper case Ρ, lower case ρ) is a letter of the Greek alphabet. ... For other uses, see Sigma (disambiguation). ... Look up C, c in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Upsilon (upper case , lower case ) is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up Φ, φ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Obsolete letters

The following letters are not part of the standard Greek alphabet, but were in use in pre-classical times in certain dialects. The letters digamma, san, qoppa, and sampi were also used in Greek numerals. Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. ...

Letter Corresponding
Phoenician
letter
Name Transliteration Pronunciation Numeric value
English Early
Greek
Later
Greek
(polytonic)
Ϝ ϝ
Ͷ ͷ (alternate)
Waw Digamma ϝαῦ δίγαμμα w [w] 6
Ϻ ϻ Tsade (position)
Sin (name)
San ϻάν σάν s [s] 90
Ϟ ϟ
Ϙ ϙ (alternate)
Qoph Qoppa ϙόππα κόππα q [q] 90
Ͳ ͳ
Ϡ ϡ (alternate)
Origin disputed,
possibly Tsade
Sampi δίσιγμα σαμπῖ ss probably affricate,
but exact value debated;
[sː], [ks], [ts] are proposed
900
  • Digamma disappeared from the alphabet because the sound it notated, the voiced labial-velar approximant [w], had disappeared from the Ionic dialect and most of the others. It remained in use as a numeric sign denoting the number six. In this function, it was later conflated in medieval Greek handwriting with the ligature sign stigma (ϛ), which had a similar shape in its lower case form.
  • Sampi (also called disigma) notated a geminated affricate that later evolved to -σσ- (probably [sː]) in most dialects, and -ττ- (probably [tː]) in Attic. Its exact value is heavily discussed, but [ts] is often proposed. Its modern name is derived from its shape: (ω)σαν πι = like (the letter) pi.[4]

The order of the letters up to Τ follows that in the Phoenician or Hebrew alphabet. The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ... This table lists several transcription schemes from the Greek alphabet to the Latin alphabet. ... Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. ... Phoenician Waw. ...   Vav or waw is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic in abjadi order; it is the twenty-seventh in modern Arabic order. ... Digamma (upper case , lower case ) is an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet, used primarily as a Greek numeral. ... Image File history File links Phoenician_sade. ... Tsade (also spelled or Tzadi or Sadhe) is the eighteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎. Its oldest sound value is probably IPA: , although there is a variety of pronunciation in different modern Semitic languages and their dialects. ... Phoenician Sin. ... Shin (also spelled Å in or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... San (uppercase , lowercase ) was a letter of the Greek alphabet, appearing between Pi and Qoppa in alphabetical order, corresponding in position although not in name to the Phoenician tsade. ... Phoenician Qoph. ... Qoph or Qop is the nineteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet (in abjadi order). ... Qoppa Qoppa is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 90. ... Image File history File links Phoenician_sade. ... Tsade (also spelled or Tzadi or Sadhe) is the eighteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎. Its oldest sound value is probably IPA: , although there is a variety of pronunciation in different modern Semitic languages and their dialects. ... Sampi (Upper case Ϡ, lower case ϡ) is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 900. ... The voiced labiovelar (actually labialized velar) approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages, including English. ... Distribution of Greek dialects, ca. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Attic Greek is the ancient dialect of the Greek language that was spoken in Attica, which includes Athens. ... Phoenician can mean: The Phoenician ancient civilization The Phoenician alphabet The Phoenician languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ...


Diacritics

Main article: Greek diacritics

In the polytonic orthography traditionally used for ancient Greek, vowels can carry diacritics, namely accents and breathings. The accents are the acute accent (´), the grave accent (`), and the circumflex accent (). In Ancient Greek, these accents marked different forms of the pitch accent on a vowel. By the end of the Roman period, pitch accent had evolved into a stress accent, and in later Greek all of these accents marked the stressed vowel. The breathings are the rough breathing (), marking an /h/ sound at the beginning of a word, and the smooth breathing (), marking the absence of an /h/ sound at the beginning of a word. The letter rho (ρ), although not a vowel, always carries a rough breathing when it begins a word. Another diacritic used in Greek is the diaeresis, indicating a hiatus. Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritic or diacritical mark, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Pitch accent is a kind of accent system employed in many languages around the world. ... In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ... The spiritus asper (rough breathing) or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, δασύ) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ... The spiritus lenis (soft breathing) or psilon pneuma (Greek: psilón, ψιλόν) is a diacritical mark used in Ancient Greek. ... The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ... Hiatus in linguistics is the separate pronunciation of two adjacent vowels, sometimes with an intervening glottal stop. ...


In 1982, the old spelling system, known as polytonic, was simplified to become the monotonic system, which is now official in Greece. The accents have been reduced to one, the tonos, and the breathings were abolished.


Ligatures

Main article: Greek ligatures

Scribes made use of a number of ligatures to save space and time, in Greek as in other languages. Early Greek typefaces such as Claude Garamond's Les Grecs du Roi included a large number of ligatures, but modern typography uses none of them, except occasionally the Ȣ ligature for ου — resembling a V above an O; some modern alphabets based on the Latin alphabet use this as a letter, Ou. In printed 17th-century English works, there sometimes occurs a ligature of Ο with ς (a small sigma inside a capital omicron) for a terminal ος. Other ligatures include ϗ for καί, (equivalent to an ampersand) and stigma Ϛ for στ, also used as noted above to replace digamma as a numeral. A handwritten ligature of the sequence from the Byzantine period Before the days of printing, scribes made use of a number of ligatures to save space, in Greek as in other languages. ... This is about scribe, the profession. ... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... 1480-1561, Parisian designer and maker of printing types. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The letter Ou () is a letter in the extended Latin alphabet. ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... kαí (and) is a conjunction in Greek (sometimes abbreviated k), Coptic and, under the form kaj, Esperanto. ... An ampersand (&), also commonly called an and sign is a logogram representing the conjunction and. ... Stigma is a ligature of the Medieval Greek letters sigma and tau. ...


Digraphs and diphthongs

Further information: Greek orthography

A digraph is a pair of letters used to write one sound or a combination of sounds that does not correspond to the written letters in sequence. The orthography of Greek includes several digraphs, including various pairs of vowel letters that used to be pronounced as diphthongs but have been shortened to monophthongs in pronunciation. Many of these are characteristic developments of modern Greek, but some were already present in Classical Greek. None of them is regarded as a letter of the alphabet. The orthography of the Greek language ultimately has its roots in the adoption of the Greek alphabet in the 9th century BC. Early Greek writing was phonetic, and different in each dialect. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... A monophthong (in Greek μονόφθογγος = single note) is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation; compare diphthong. ...


During the Byzantine period, it became customary to write the silent iota in digraphs as an iota subscript (ᾳ, ῃ, ῳ). Medieval Greek (Μεσαιωνική Ελληνική) is a linguistic term that describes the fourth period in the history of the Greek language. ... In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the words pronunciation. ... Iota subscript (Greek ) in Greek polytonic orthography is a way of writing the letter iota as a small vertical stroke beneath a vowel. ...


Use of the Greek alphabet for other languages

The primary use of the Greek alphabet has always been to write the Greek language. However, at various times and in various places, it has also been used to write other languages.[5]


Early examples

  • Most of the alphabets of Asia Minor, in use c. 800-300 BC to write languages like Lydian and Phrygian, were the early Greek alphabet with only slight modifications — as were the original Old Italic alphabets.
  • Some Paleo-Balkan languages, including Thracian. For other neighboring languages or dialects, such as Ancient Macedonian, isolated words are preserved in Greek texts, but no continuous texts are preserved.
  • Some Narbonese Gaulish inscriptions in southern France use the Greek alphabet (c. 300 BC).
  • The Hebrew text of the Bible was written in Greek letters in Origen's Hexapla.
  • An 8th century Arabic fragment preserves a text in the Greek alphabet.
  • An Old Ossetic inscription of the 10-12c CE found in Arxyz, the oldest known attestation of an Ossetic language.

Various alphabetic writing systems were in use in Iron Age Anatolia to record Anatolian dialects and the Phrygian language. ... more Lydian was on Indo-European language spoken in the region of Lydia in western Anatolia (present-day Turkey). ... The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people of the central Asia Minor. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Paleo-Balkan languages were the Indo-European languages which were spoken in the Balkans in ancient times: Dacian language Thracian language Illyrian language Paionian language Ancient Macedonian language The only remnant of them is Albanian, but it is still disputed which language was its ancestor. ... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... This article is about the language used in antiquity. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ... Hexapla (Gr. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Ethnolinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Ossetic or Ossetian (Ossetic: or , Persian: اوسِتی) is an Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ...

With additional letters

Several alphabets consist of the Greek alphabet supplemented with a few additional letters:

Sho (uppercase , lowercase ) was a letter added to the Greek alphabet in order to write the Bactrian language. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Bactrian language is an extinct language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria, also called Tocharistan, in northern Afghanistan. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Coptic alphabet is an alphabet used for writing the Coptic language. ... Demotic (from δημοτικά dimotika popular) refers to both the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Delta, as well as the stage of the Egyptian language following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... The word Corcaigh in the Gaelic-script font of same name. ... A page from an Old Nubian translation of Liber Institutionis Michaelis Archangelis from the 9th-10th century AD, found at Qasr Ibrim, now at the British Museum. ... Christian Nubia in the three states period. ... The Meroitic script is an alphabet of Egyptian (Hieroglyphic) origin used in Kingdom of Meroë. Some scholars, e. ...

In more modern times

Coptic is an adjective referring to the original inhabitants of Egypt, the Copts. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Karamanlides are a Turkish-speaking ethnic group that are of Orthodox Christian faith. ... Karamanlides are a Turkish-speaking ethnic group that are of Orthodox Christian faith. ... Tosk is the southern dialect of Albanian language, spoken by about 3 million people. ... Voskopojë, Voskopoja; Aromanian: Moscopole, Moscopolea; Greek: Μοσχόπολις, Moscopolis or Moschopolis; Serbian: Moskopolje) is a small village in south-eastern Albania. ... Nickname: Motto: Bitolia, babam Bitolia Location of the city of Bitola (red) within the Republic of Macedonia Coordinates: , Government  - Mayor Vladimir Taleski Area  - City 422. ... This article is about the Albanian variant of the Latin alphabet. ... Geg (or Gheg) is a northern Albanian dialect. ... The Arvanitic alphabet is an adapted version of the Greek alphabet and is used to write Arvanitic. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The word Bulgarian can mean: From or related to Bulgaria The Bulgarian language Ethnic Bulgarians Bulgarian cuisine Bulgarian customs a British slang term a derogatory term used to describe homosexuals This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Macedonian may refer to: Macedonia (region) and its inhabitants Republic of Macedonia, a country in southeastern Europe Macedonia (Greece), Greek occupied Macedonia, also known as Aegean Macedonia. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili) is a Turkic language, used by Gagauz people, official language of Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova. ... The Turkic languages are a group of closely related languages that are spoken by a variety of people distributed across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China. ... The Turkic languages are a group of closely related languages that are spoken by a variety of people distributed across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in Georgia. ...

Derived alphabets

The Greek alphabet gave rise to various others:[2]

It is also considered a possible ancestor of the Armenian alphabet, and had an influence on the development of the Georgian alphabet. Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The inscription of Nestors Cup, found in Ischia; Cumae alphabet, 8th century BC A Western (also Chalcidean) variant of the early Greek alphabet was in use in ca. ...   The Gothic alphabet is an alphabetic writing system attributed by Philostorgius to Wulfila, used exclusively for writing the ancient Gothic language. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... The Armenian alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Armenian language since the 5th century. ... The Georgian alphabet (Georgian: ) is the script currently used to write the Georgian language and other Kartvelian languages (Mingrelian, Svan and sometimes Laz), and occasionally other languages of the Caucasus (such as Ossetic and Abkhaz in the 1940s). ...


Greek encodings

A variety of encodings have been used for Greek online, many of them documented in RFC 1947.


The two principal ones still used today are ISO/IEC 8859-7 and Unicode. ISO 8859-7 supports only the monotonic orthography; Unicode supports the polytonic orthography. ISO 8859-7, also known as Greek, is an 8-bit character encoding, part of the ISO 8859 standard. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...


Greek in Unicode

Unicode supports polytonic orthography well enough for ordinary continuous text in modern and ancient Greek, and even many archaic forms for epigraphy. With the use of combining characters, Unicode also supports Greek philology and dialectology and various other specialized requirements. However, most current text rendering engines do not support combining characters well, so, though alpha with macron and acute can be represented as U+03B1 U+0304 U+0301, this rarely renders well: ᾱ́.[8] The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. ... Combining diacritical marks are Unicode characters that are intended to modify other characters (see Diacritic). ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... Dialectology is the study of dialects of a language, their evolution, differentiation, inter-intelligibity, grammar, phonetics etc. ... A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ...


There are 2 main blocks of Greek characters in Unicode. The first is "Greek and Coptic" (U+0370 to U+03FF). This block is based on ISO 8859-7 and is sufficient to write Modern Greek. There are also some archaic letters and Greek-based technical symbols. The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... ISO 8859-7, also known as Greek, is an 8-bit character encoding, part of the ISO 8859 standard. ...


This block also supports the Coptic alphabet. Formerly most Coptic letters shared codepoints with similar-looking Greek letters; but in many scholarly works, both scripts occur, with quite different letter shapes, so as of Unicode 4.1, Coptic and Greek were disunified. Those Coptic letters with no Greek equivalents still remain in this block. The Coptic alphabet is an alphabet used for writing the Coptic language. ...


To write polytonic Greek, one may use combining diacritical marks or the precomposed characters in the "Greek Extended" block (U+1F00 to U+1FFF). Combining diacritical marks are Unicode characters that are intended to modify other characters (see Diacritic). ...


Greek and Coptic

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
0370 Ͱ ͱ Ͳ ͳ ʹ ͵ Ͷ ͷ     ͺ ͻ ͼ ͽ ;  
0380         ΄ ΅ Ά · Έ Ή Ί   Ό   Ύ Ώ
0390 ΐ Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο
03A0 Π Ρ   Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω Ϊ Ϋ ά έ ή ί
03B0 ΰ α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο
03C0 π ρ ς σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω ϊ ϋ ό ύ ώ Ϗ
03D0 ϐ ϑ ϒ ϓ ϔ ϕ ϖ ϗ Ϙ ϙ Ϛ ϛ Ϝ ϝ Ϟ ϟ
03E0 Ϡ ϡ (Coptic letters here)
03F0 ϰ ϱ ϲ ϳ ϴ ϵ ϶ Ϸ ϸ Ϲ Ϻ ϻ ϼ Ͻ Ͼ Ͽ

The Greek language is written in the Greek alphabet, developed in classical times (ca 9th century B.C.) and passed down to the present. ... The Greek language is written in the Greek alphabet, developed in classical times (ca 9th century B.C.) and passed down to the present. ... The Greek language is written in the Greek alphabet, developed in classical times (ca 9th century B.C.) and passed down to the present. ... The Greek language is written in the Greek alphabet, developed in classical times (ca 9th century B.C.) and passed down to the present. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Alpha (uppercase Α, lowercase α) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Beta (upper case Î’, lower case β) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Gamma (upper case Γ, lower case γ) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Delta (upper case Δ, lower case δ) is the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Epsilon (upper case Ε, lower case ε) is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Zeta (upper case Ζ, lower case ζ) is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... For other uses, see Eta. ... Note: A theta probe is a device for measuring soil moisture. ... For programming language, see Iota and Jot Iota (upper case Ι, lower case ι) is the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... For other uses, see Kappa. ... Lambda (upper case Λ, lower case λ) is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Mu (upper case Îœ, lower case μ) is the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... For other uses, see Nu. ... Xi (upper case Ξ, lower case ξ) is the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Omicron (upper case Ο, lower case ο, literally small o) is the 15th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Lower-case pi The mathematical constant Ï€ is a real number which may be defined as the ratio of a circles circumference (Greek περιφέρεια, periphery) to its diameter in Euclidean geometry, and which is in common use in mathematics, physics, and engineering. ... 1. ... For other uses, see Sigma (disambiguation). ... Tau (upper case Τ, lower case Ï„) is the 19th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Upsilon (upper case , lower case ) is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Phi (upper case Φ, lower case φ or ), pronounced fee or fie (depending on context and, often, personal inclination), is the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet. ... For other uses, see Chi. ... For other uses, see Psi. ... Omega (Ω ω) is the 24th and last letter of the Greek alphabet. ... The Greek language is written in the Greek alphabet, developed in classical times (ca 9th century B.C.) and passed down to the present. ... The Greek language is written in the Greek alphabet, developed in classical times (ca 9th century B.C.) and passed down to the present. ... The Greek language is written in the Greek alphabet, developed in classical times (ca 9th century B.C.) and passed down to the present. ... The Greek language is written in the Greek alphabet, developed in classical times (ca 9th century B.C.) and passed down to the present. ... Alpha (uppercase Α, lowercase α) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Beta (upper case Î’, lower case β) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Gamma (upper case Γ, lower case γ) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Delta (upper case Δ, lower case δ) is the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Epsilon (upper case Ε, lower case ε) is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Zeta (upper case Ζ, lower case ζ) is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... For other uses, see Eta. ... Note: A theta probe is a device for measuring soil moisture. ... For programming language, see Iota and Jot Iota (upper case Ι, lower case ι) is the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... For other uses, see Kappa. ... Lambda (upper case Λ, lower case λ) is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Mu (upper case Îœ, lower case μ) is the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... For other uses, see Nu. ... Xi (upper case Ξ, lower case ξ) is the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Omicron (upper case Ο, lower case ο, literally small o) is the 15th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Lower-case pi The mathematical constant Ï€ is a real number which may be defined as the ratio of a circles circumference (Greek περιφέρεια, periphery) to its diameter in Euclidean geometry, and which is in common use in mathematics, physics, and engineering. ... 1. ... For other uses, see Sigma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sigma (disambiguation). ... Tau (upper case Τ, lower case Ï„) is the 19th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Upsilon (upper case , lower case ) is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Phi (upper case Φ, lower case φ or ), pronounced fee or fie (depending on context and, often, personal inclination), is the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet. ... For other uses, see Chi. ... For other uses, see Psi. ... Omega (Ω ω) is the 24th and last letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Qoppa is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 90. ... Qoppa is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 90. ... Stigma is a ligature of the Medieval Greek letters sigma and tau. ... Stigma is a ligature of the Medieval Greek letters sigma and tau. ...      This article is about the Greek letter; for the mathematical function, see digamma function. ...      This article is about the Greek letter; for the mathematical function, see digamma function. ... Qoppa is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 90. ... Qoppa is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 90. ... Sampi (Upper case , lower case ) is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 900. ... Sampi (Upper case , lower case ) is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 900. ... The Coptic alphabet is an alphabet used for writing the Coptic language. ... Sho (majuscule , minuscule ) was a letter added to the Greek alphabet in order to write the Bactrian language. ... Sho (majuscule , minuscule ) was a letter added to the Greek alphabet in order to write the Bactrian language. ... San (uppercase Ϻ, lowercase Ï») was a letter of the Greek alphabet, appearing between Pi and Qoppa in alphabetical order, corresponding in position although not in name to the Phoenician tsade. ... San (uppercase , lowercase ) was a letter of the Greek alphabet, appearing between Pi and Qoppa in alphabetical order, corresponding in position to the Phoenician Tsade , but its name comes from Shin. ...

Greek Extended (precomposed polytonic Greek)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
1F00
1F10        
1F20
1F30 Ἷ
1F40        
1F50        
1F60
1F70 ά έ ή ί ό ύ ώ    
1F80
1F90
1FA0
1FB0   Ά ι ᾿
1FC0   Έ Ή
1FD0 ΐ     Ί  
1FE0 ΰ Ύ ΅ `
1FF0       Ό Ώ ´  

Combining and letter-free diacritics

Combining and spacing (letter-free) diacritical marks pertaining to Greek language: Combining diacritical marks are Unicode characters that are intended to modify other characters (see Diacritic). ... A diacritic mark or accent mark is an additional mark added to a basic letter. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. ...

combining spacing sample description
U+0300 U+0060 (  ̀ ) "varia / grave accent"
U+0301 U+00B4, U+0384 (  ́ ) "oxia / tonos / acute accent"
U+0304 U+00AF (  ̄ ) "macron"
U+0306 U+02D8 (  ̆ ) "vrachy / breve"
U+0308 U+00A8 (  ̈ ) "dialytika / diaeresis"
U+0313 (  ̓ ) "psili / comma above" (spiritus lenis)
U+0314 (  ̔ ) "dasia / reversed comma above" (spiritus asper)
U+0342 (  ͂ ) "perispomeni" (circumflex)
U+0343 (  ̓ ) "koronis" (= U+0313)
U+0344 U+0385 (  ̈́ ) "dialytika tonos" (deprecated, = U+0308 U+0301)
U+0345 U+037A (  ͅ ) "ypogegrammeni / iota subscript".

The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ... A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... In linguistics, a, diaeresis, or dieresis (AE) (from Greek (diaerein), to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. ... The spiritus lenis (soft breathing) or psilon pneuma (Greek: psilón, ψιλόν) is a diacritical mark used in Ancient Greek. ... The spiritus asper (rough breathing) or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, δασύ) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... The spiritus asper (rough breathing), dasy pneuma (Greek: dasy, δασύ) or dasia (Greek: ), is a diacritical mark used in Polytonic orthography. ... Iota subscript (Greek ) in Greek polytonic orthography is a way of writing the letter iota as a small vertical stroke beneath a vowel. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Ancient Greek phonology is the study of the phonology, or pronunciation, of Ancient Greek. ... The Arvanitic alphabet is an adapted version of the Greek alphabet and is used to write Arvanitic. ... Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodian. ... The inscription of Nestors Cup, found in Ischia; Cumae alphabet, 8th century BC A Western (also Chalcidean) variant of the early Greek alphabet was in use in ca. ... This table gives the common English pronunciation of the Greek letters. ... The Greek Font Society (Εταιρεία Ελληνικών Τυπογραφικών Στοιχείων) is a non-profit organization in Greece, founded in 1992, devoted to improving the standard of Greek digital typography. ... Greek letters are used in mathematics, science, engineering, and other areas where mathematical notation is used as symbols for constants, special functions, and also conventionally for variables representing certain quantities. ... Greeklish, a portmanteau of the words Greek and English, also known as Grenglish or Latinoellinika/Λατινοελληνικά or Frankolevantinika/Φραγκολεβαντίνικα or ASCII Greek, is Greek language written with the Latin alphabet. ... Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... In SGML, HTML and XML documents, the logical constructs known as character data and attribute values consist of sequences of characters, in which each character can manifest directly (representing itself), or can be represented by a series of characters called a character reference, of which there are two types: a... The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ... There are several methods for the romanization of Greek, especially depending whether the language written with Greek letters is Ancient Greek or Modern Greek and whether a phonetic transcription or a graphemic transliteration is intended. ...

Bibliography

  • Graves, Robert (1955—Cmb/Rep edition 1993). The Greek Myths. Penguin (Non-Classics). ISBN 0-14-017199-1. 
  • Elsie, Robert (1991). "Albanian Literature in Greek Script: the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth-Century Orthodox Tradition in Albanian Writing" (PDF 0.0 bytes). Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 15 (20). 
  • Humez, Alexander; Nicholas Humez (1981). Alpha to omega: the life & times of the Greek alphabet. Godine. ISBN 0-87923-377-X.  — A popular history, more about Greek roots in English than about the alphabet itself.
  • Jeffery, Lilian Hamilton (1961). The local scripts of archaic Greece: a study of the origin of the Greek alphabet and its development from the eighth to the fifth centuries B.C.. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-814061-4. 
  • Macrakis, Michael S. (ed.) (1996). Greek letters: from tablets to pixels: proceedings of a conference sponsored by the Greek Font Society. Oak Knoll. ISBN 1-884718-27-2.  — Includes papers on history, typography, and character coding by Hermann Zapf, Matthew Carter, Nicolas Barker, John A. Lane, Kyle McCarter, Jerôme Peignot, Pierre MacKay, Silvio Levy, et al.
  • Hansen and Quinn (1992 - especially noted for an excellent discussion on traditional accents and breathings, as well as verbal formation). Greek - An Intensive Course, Second Revised Edition. Fordham University Press. 
  • Powell, Barry B. (1991). Homer and the Origin of the Greek Alphabet.  — discusses dating, early inscriptions, and ties to origin of texts of Homer. ISBN:052158907X
  • Macrakis, Stavros M. (1996). Character codes for Greek: Problems and modern solutions.  — Includes discussion of the Greek alphabet used for languages other than Greek.
  • C. J. Ruijgh (1998) Sur la date de la création de l’alphabet grec. Mnemosyne, 51, 658–687

Hermann Zapf (born in Nuremberg, Germany on November 8, 1918) is a prolific German typeface designer. ... Matthew Carter (born 1937) is a designer of digital fonts. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Pierre Swiggers, Transmission of the Phoenician Script to the West, in Daniels and Bright, The World's Writing Systems, 1996
  2. ^ a b c d Coulmas, Florian (1996). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.. ISBN 0-631-21481-X. 
  3. ^ The latter may display incorrectly in some browsers.
  4. ^ Greek Letter Sampi. Retrieved on 2008-01-04.
  5. ^ see S. Macrakis, 1996 for bibliography
  6. ^ New Findings in Ancient Afghanistan — the Bactrian documents discovered from the Northern Hindu-Kush, lecture by Prof. Nicholas Sims-Williams (University of London)
  7. ^ "Dva balgarski rakopisa s gracko pismo", Balgarski starini 6, 1920; André Mazon and André Vaillant, L'Evangelaire de Kulakia, un parler slave de Bas-Vardar, Bibliothèque d'études balkaniques 6, 1938; Jürgen Kristophson, "Das Lexicon Tetraglosson des Daniil Moschopolitis", Zeitschrift für Balkanologie 9:11; Max Demeter Peyfuss, Die Druckerei von Moschopolis, 1731-1769: Buchdruck und Heiligenverehrung in Erzbistum Achrida, Wiener Archiv für Geschichte des Slawentums und Osteuropas 13, 1989.
  8. ^ For extended discussion of problematic Greek letter forms in Unicode see Greek Unicode Issues.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Aztec or Nahuatl writing is a pictographic pre-Columbian writing system used in central Mexico by the Nahua peoples. ... A northeastern Iberian semi-syllabary. ... The Celtiberian script was used to write the Celtiberian language, an extinct Continental Celtic language. ... Northeastern Iberian script in the context of paleohispanic scripts A northeastern dual Iberian signary A northeastern non-dual Iberian signary. ... Southeastern Iberian script in the context of paleohispanic scripts A possible southeastern Iberian signary (Correa 2004). ... Southwestern script in the context of paleohispanic scripts A possible southwestern signary (Rodríguez Ramos 2000) Fonte Velha (Bensafrim, Lagos) Herdade da Abobada (Almodôvar) The southwest script or southwestern script, also known as Tartessian or South Lusitanian is a paleohispanic script that was the mean of written expression of... A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. ... The Afaka script (afaka sikifi) is a syllabary of 56 letters devised in 1908 for the Ndyuka language, an English creole of Surinam. ... Sequoyah The Cherokee language is written in a syllabary invented by Sequoyah (also known as George Gist or George Guess). ... Hiragana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana and kanji; the Latin alphabet is also used in some cases. ... Katakana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin alphabet. ... Kikakui is a syllabary used for writing the Mende language. ... Chief Gbili - Liberian, invented Kpelle syllabary ca. ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... It has been suggested that Shakukun be merged into this article or section. ... Nü Shu written in Nü Shu (right to left). ... Old Persian cuneiform is the primary script used in Old Persian writings. ...   The Vai script was devised by of Jondu, in what is now Grand Cape Mount County, Liberia. ... The Yi scripts, also known as Cuan or Wei, are used to write the Yi languages. ...

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