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Encyclopedia > Greek Revolution
Greek War of Independence
Part of

The Naval Battle of Navarino (1827). Oil painting by Carneray.
Date: 1821-1828
Location: Southeastern Europe and Eastern Meditteranean Sea
Result: Greek Victory
Casus belli:
Territory changes: Peloponessos, Mainland Greece
Combatants
Greek guerilla forces Ottoman Empire forces
Commanders
Kolokotronis Vrionis, Ibrahim Pasha
Strength
Casualties
{{{notes}}}

The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution, was a successful war waged by the Greeks between 1821 and 1827 to win independence from the Ottoman Empire. Battle of Navarino: The Naval Battle of Navarino (1827). ... Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Kingdom of Italy, Belgium, United States, (volunteers only) The Netherlands, Restored Kingdom of France, Imperial Russia Ottoman Empire, Egypt Commanders Edward Codrington, Henri de Rigny, Login Petrovich Geiden Ibrahim Pasha Strength 7 battleships, 10 frigates, 4 brigs, 2 schooners, 1 cutter 3... Casus belli is a Latin expression from the international law theory of Jus ad bellum. ... Though Peloponnese is used to refer to the entire peninsula, the periphery with that name includes only part of that landmass. ... Theodoros Kolokotronis (Grk. ... Ibrahim Pasha (Arabic: ابراهيم باشا) ‎ (1789 – 10 November 1848), a 19th century general of Egypt. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40...


The Greek War of Independence was a fiercely fought and destructive war against the Ottoman Empire for independence, which started in 1821. The Greeks were the first of the subject peoples of the Ottoman Empire to secure recognition as a sovereign power, a status which they achieved in 1832. Independence was finally granted by the Treaty of Constantinople in July 1832 when Greece (Hellas) was recognised as a free country. Greeks celebrate their Independence day annually on March 25. Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... The Τreaty of Constantinople was the product of the Constantinople Conference which opened in February 1832 with the participation of the Great Powers (Great Britain, France and Russia on the one hand and the Ottoman Empire on the other. ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ...

Contents


Background

Main articles: Ottoman Greece, and [[]], and [[]], and [[]], and [[]]

The Ottoman Empire had ruled all of Greece, with the exception of the Ionian islands since its conquest of the Byzantine Empire over the course of the 14th and 15th centuries (see: History of Ottoman Greece). But in the 18th and 19th century, as revolutionary nationalism grew across Europe (due, in part, to the influence of the French Revolution), and the power of the Ottoman Empire declined, Greek nationalism began to assert itself and drew support from Western European "philhellenes". Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 14th century until its declaration of independence in 1821. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ionia Nisia, Ιόνια Νησιά; Ancient Greek: Ionioi Nesoi, Ιόνιοι Νήσοι) are a group of islands in Greece. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The Battle of Navarino, in October 1827, marked the effective end of Ottoman Rule in Greece Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 14th century until its declaration of independence in 1821. ... The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a period in the history of France. ... // Nationalism is an ideology which holds that the nation, ethnicity or national identity is a fundamental unit of human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the only legitimate basis for the state, and that each... Philhellenism (the love of Greek culture) was the intellectual fashion at the turn of the 19th century that led Europeans like Lord Byron to lend their support for the Greek movement towards independence from the Ottoman Empire. ...


One of the early writers who helped shape opinion among the Greek population in and out of the Ottoman Empire was Rigas Feraios (Ρήγας Φεραίος). Born in Thessaly and educated in Constantinople, Pheraios published a Greek-language newspaper Ephimeris in Vienna in the 1790s. He was deeply influenced by the French Revolution and he published revolutionary tracts and proposed republican constitutions for Greek and pan-Balkan nations. He was arrested by Austrian officials in Trieste in 1797 when he was betrayed by a Greek merchant in that city. He was handed over to Ottoman officials and was transported to Belgrade with his co-conspirators. They were all strangled to death and their bodies dumped in the Danube River in June, 1798. Instead of diminishing support for Feraios' ideas, his martyrdom fanned the flames of Greek independence. The vision of Rigas Rigas Velestinlis called Rigas Feraios (Greek: Ρήγας Βελεστινλής-Φεραίος) (1757-1798) (Antonios Kyriazis). ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Slovenian: Dunaj, Hungarian: Bécs, Czech: Vídeň, Slovak: Viedeň, Romany Vidnya; Croatian and Serbian: Beč) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a period in the history of France. ... Location within Italy Trieste (Latin Tergeste, Italian Trieste, German and Friulian Triest, Slovenian and Croatian Trst) is a city and port in northeastern Italy, capital of the autonome region Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trieste province, with a population of 211,184 (2001). ... 1797 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... [[Image:|Location of Belgrade]] Mayor Nenad Bogdanović Area 359. ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg, Germany... June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with a length of 30 days The month is named after the Roman goddess Juno, wife of Jupiter and equivalent to the Greek goddess Hera. ... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The vision of Rigas Rigas Velestinlis called Rigas Feraios (Greek: Ρήγας Βελεστινλής-Φεραίος) (1757-1798) (Antonios Kyriazis). ...


Beginning of the Revolution

The Declaration of the War by Bishop Germanos at St Lavra on March 25, 1821
The Declaration of the War by Bishop Germanos at St Lavra on March 25, 1821

In 1814, Greek nationalists formed a secret organization called the Friendly Society (Filiki Eteria) in Odessa. With the support of wealthy Greek exile communities in Britain and the United States, the aid of sympathizers in Western Europe and covert assistance from Russia, they planned a rebellion. John Capodistria, an official from the Ionian Islands who had become the Russian Foreign Minister, was secured as the leader of the planned revolt. The start of the uprising can be set on March 6 when Alexander Ypsilanti accompanied by several other Greek officers crossed the river Prut in Romania, or on March 23 when rebels took control of Kalamata in Peloponnese. Simultaneous risings were planned across Greece, including in Macedonia, Crete and Cyprus. Image File history File links {PD} File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links {PD} File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Filiki Eteria (spelt also Philikí Etaireía), meaning Friendly Society in Greek, was a secret organisation working in the early 19th century, whose purpose was to overthrow the Ottoman rule over Greece and to establish an independent Greek state. ... ODESSA (German Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen; The Organization of Former SS-Members) was an alleged Nazi-German fugitive network set up towards the end of World War II by a group of SS officers, among whom Martin Bormann and Heinrich Himmler. ... John Capodistria John Capodistria (in Greek Ioannis Kapodistrias or Ιωάννης Καποδίστριας, and in Italian Giovanni Capo dIstria, Count Capo dIstria) (February 11, 1776 – October 9, 1831) was a Greek-born diplomat of the Russian Empire and later first head of state of independent Greece. ... The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ionia Nisia, Ιόνια Νησιά; Ancient Greek: Ionioi Nesoi, Ιόνιοι Νήσοι) are a group of islands in Greece. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... Alexander Ypsilanti (1792 – January 31, 1828) was a Greek military commander and national hero. ... The Prut river (also known as Pruth) is 950 km long, originating in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and flowing southeast to join the Danube river near Reni, east of Galaţi. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... There is also a Kalamata in the Democratic Republic of Congo, see Kalamata, Democratic Republic of Congo Kalamata (Greek, Modern: Καλαμάτα, Ancient/Katharevousa: -ai), older forms: Kalamai is a city in southern Greece, on the Peloponnesos, by the Mediterranean. ... Though Peloponnese is used to refer to the entire peninsula, the periphery with that name includes only part of that landmass. ... Greece and Crete Crete (Greek Κρήτη / Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean Sea. ...


The Revolution initially broke in the Peloponnese and Central Greece and quickly spread across the whole Aegean to Crete and Cyprus. In January 1822 the Ist National Assembly at Epidauros declared the independence of the Greek Nation and consolidated their position with remarkable victories on land and sea until 1823 when attempts by the revolutionaries to assert control beyond the Peloponnese ended in a stalemate. Greece and the Aegean Sea The Aegean sea in Greece as seen from the island of Greek: Αιγαίον Πέλαγος, Aigaion Pelagos; Turkish: Ege denizi) is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea, located between the Greek peninsula and Anatolia (Asia Minor, now part of Turkey). ... Greece and Crete Crete (Greek Κρήτη / Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean Sea. ... Panoramic view of the theater at Epidaurus Epidaurus (Epidauros) was a small city (polis) in ancient Greece at the Saronic Gulf. ...


Several massacres of the Turkish populations of the Peloponnese made the Ottomans retaliate violently in other parts of Greece, massacring the Greek population of Chios and other towns. The retribution, however, drew sympathy for the Greek cause in western Europe—although the British and French governments suspected that the uprising was a Russian plot to seize Greece and possibly Constantinople from the Ottomans. The Greeks were unable to establish a coherent government in the areas they controlled, and soon fell to fighting among themselves. Inconclusive fighting between Greeks and Ottomans continued until 1825, when the Sultan asked for help from his most powerful vassal, Egypt. Chios (Italian: Scio, Turkish: Sakız, Χίος; alternative transliterations Khios and Hios, see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea. ... 1825 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...

Delacroix's Massacre on Chios
Delacroix's Massacre on Chios

Egypt was then ruled by Mehemet Ali Pasha who was eager to test his newly modernized armed forces. The Ottoman Sultan also promised Ali concessions in Syria if Egypt participated. The Egyptian force, under the command of Ali's son Ibrahim, was successful and quickly gained dominance of the seas and Aegean islands through the navy. Ibrahim was also successful in the Peloponnese, where he managed to recapture Tripolis, the administrative center of the area. Image File history File links {PD-old} File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links {PD-old} File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Eugène Delacroix (portrait by Nadar) Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 - August 13, 1863) was an important painter from the French romantic period. ... See Mehemet Ali (Turkey) for the Turkish foreign minister and regent. ... See Grand Vizier Ibrahim Pasha for details of the Grand Visier to Suleiman the Magnificent. ...


In Europe, the Greek revolt aroused widespread sympathy. Greece was viewed as the cradle of western civilization, and it was especially lauded by the spirit of romanticism that was current at the time. The sight of a Christian nation attempting to cast off the rule of a Muslim Empire also appealed to the western European public. This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ...


One of those who heard the call was the poet Lord Byron who spent time in Greece, organising funds and supplies, but died from fever at Messolonghi in 1824. Byron's death did even more to augment European sympathy for the Greek cause. This eventually led the western powers to intervene directly. Lord Byron, English poet George Gordon (Noel) Byron, 6th Baron Byron (January 22, 1788–April 19, 1824) was an Anglo-Scottish poet and leading figure in Romanticism. ... Messolonghi is a town of about 12,000 people (as of 1991 census) in central Greece. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Foreign intervention

On 20 October 1827 the British, Russian and French fleets, on the initiative of local commanders but with the tacit approval of their governments, attacked and destroyed the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Navarino (Πύλος). This was the decisive moment in the war of independence, although the British Admiral Edward Codrington ruined his career (see Great Naval Blunders) since he wasn't ordered to achieve such a victory or destroy completely the Turko/Egyptian fleet. In October 1828, the Greeks regrouped and formed a new government under Ioannis Kapodistrias (Καποδíστριας). They then advanced to seize as much territory as possible, including Athens and Thebes, before the western powers impose a ceasefire. The Great Powers, in the London Conference of 1832 determined that the new Greek state would be a monarchy and invited Otto, the second son of the Bavarian King Ludwig I to be King of Greece, thus, Greece was finally recognised as a sovereign state. This state of affairs and an agreed border was formally recognized by the Turks and the European powers with the signing of the Treaty of Constantinople in July 1832. October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Kingdom of Italy, Belgium, United States, (volunteers only) The Netherlands, Restored Kingdom of France, Imperial Russia Ottoman Empire, Egypt Commanders Edward Codrington, Henri de Rigny, Login Petrovich Geiden Ibrahim Pasha Strength 7 battleships, 10 frigates, 4 brigs, 2 schooners, 1 cutter 3... Admiral Edward Codrington Sir Edward Codrington (1770-1851) was a British admiral, hero of the Battle of Trafalgar and the Battle of Navarino. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... statue of John Capodistria in Panepistimiou Street, Athens John Capodistria, (in Greek Ioannis Kapodistrias or Ιωάννης Καποδίστριας, and in Italian Giovanni Capo dIstria, Count Capo dIstria) (February 11, 1776 - October 9, 1831), Greek-born diplomat of the Russian Empire and later first head of state of independent Greece... The Parthenon seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west Athens (Greek: Αθήνα Athínai IPA ) is the capital of Greece and one of the most famous cities in the world. ... For the ancient capital of Upper Egypt, see Thebes, Egypt. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... Greece, having won its independence from the Ottoman Empire after eight years of war (1821-1829) with the help of the Great Powers (Great Britain, France and Russia) at the Battle of Navarino had formed a republican government with John Capodistrias (Καποδíστριας)as its leader. ... King Otto of Greece Otto of Wittelsbach, Prince of Bavaria and King of Greece (Salzburg, June 1, 1815 - Bamberg, July 26, 1867) was made the first modern king of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London, whereby Greece became a new independent kingdom under the protection of the United... Ludwig I (or Louis I, which is the French form of his name, his godfather was Louis XVI of France) (born August 25, 1786 Strasbourg, – died February 29, 1868 Nice) was king of Bavaria from 1825 until 1848. ... This is a list of the Kings of Greece, formally known by the title of King of the Hellenes. ... The Τreaty of Constantinople was the product of the Constantinople Conference which opened in February 1832 with the participation of the Great Powers (Great Britain, France and Russia on the one hand and the Ottoman Empire on the other. ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The new state, however, contained fewer than one third of the Greek inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire and for much of the next century the Greek state was to seek the liberation of the “unredeemed” Greeks of the Ottoman Empire.


The Movement For Independence

The reasons why the Greeks were the first people to break away from the multi-ethnic, multi-religious Ottoman Empire are several. The fact that the Ottoman Empire was in manifest decline made such a revolt feasible. In a number of ways Greeks enjoyed a privileged position in the Ottoman state. They controlled the affairs of the Orthodox Church and the Ecumenical Patriarch, based in Constantinople, and the higher clergy were always Greek. From the 18th century onwards Phanariot Greek notables (Turkish-appointed Greek administrators from the Phanar district of Constantinople) played an influential role in the governance of the Ottoman Empire. Map of Constantinople. ... Phanariotes (from Phanar, the chief Greek quarter at Istambul, where the oecumenical patriarchate is situated) were those members of families resident in the Phanar quarter who between the years 1711 and 1821 were appointed voivodes of the Danubian principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia). ...


A strong maritime tradition in the islands of the Aegean together with the emergence in the 18th century of an influential merchant class generated the wealth necessary to found schools and libraries and to pay for young Greeks to study in the universities of Western Europe. Here they came into contact with the radical ideas of the European Enlightenment and the French Revolution.Rigas Velestinlis (Pheraios), aimed to overthrow Ottoman rule in an armed uprising, although Rigas was killed by the Turks before he could put his ideas into practice. In 1814 three young Greeks, much influenced by the martyrdom of Rigas, founded the Filiki Eteria, the secret “Friendly Society” which laid the organizational groundwork for the revolt. The society was founded in Odessa, an important centre of the Greek mercantile diaspora. The Greeks’ success marked the beginning of the gradual break-up of the Ottoman Empire, Moreover, the other peoples of the Balkan peninsula were to follow the Greek example in seeking their freedom from Ottoman rule. Categories: Greek poets | 1757 births | 1798 deaths | Historical stubs ... The Filiki Eteria (spelt also Philikí Etaireía), meaning Friendly Society in Greek, was a secret organisation working in the early 19th century, whose purpose was to overthrow the Ottoman rule over Greece and to establish an independent Greek state. ... ODESSA (German Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen; The Organization of Former SS-Members) was an alleged Nazi-German fugitive network set up towards the end of World War II by a group of SS officers, among whom Martin Bormann and Heinrich Himmler. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... The Statue of Liberty is a symbol of freedom recognized throughout the world. ...


Major Greek Figures

John Capodistria John Capodistria (in Greek Ioannis Kapodistrias or Ιωάννης Καποδίστριας, and in Italian Giovanni Capo dIstria, Count Capo dIstria) (February 11, 1776 – October 9, 1831) was a Greek-born diplomat of the Russian Empire and later first head of state of independent Greece. ... Theodoros Kolokotronis (Grk. ... Georgios Karaiskakis, (Γεώργιος Καραϊσκάκης in Greek), (1782 in Agrapha, Epirus – 4 May 1827 in Athens) was a leader of the Greek War of Independence. ... Petros Mavromichalis (1765-1848) (in Greek Πέτρος Μαυρομιχάλης) also known as Petrobey (Πετρομπέης), was the leader of the Maniot people during the first half of the 19th century. ... Prince Alexander Mavrocordato (1791-August 18, 1865), Greek statesman, a descendant of the hospodars, was born at Constantinople February 1791. ... Athanasios Diakos (1788-1821). ... Markos Botsaris (c. ... Demetrius Ypsilanti, sometimes spelled Ypsilantis, (1793 - January 3, 1832), second son of Prince Constantine, distinguished himself as a Russian officer in the campaign of 1814, and in the spring of 1821 went to the Morea, where the war of Greek independence had just broken out. ... Alexander Ypsilanti (1792 – January 31, 1828) was a Greek military commander and national hero. ...

Gallery of romantic paintings depicting the war

External links

  • A History of the Greek Revolution
  • Greek Revolution

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Greek War of Independence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (751 words)
The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution of 1821, was a war against the Ottoman Empire for independence, which started that year.
The retribution, however, drew sympathy for the Greek cause in western Europe—although the British and French governments suspected that the uprising was a Russian plot to seize Greece and possibly Constantinople from the Ottomans.
The Greeks were unable to establish a coherent government in the areas they controlled, and soon fell to fighting among themselves.
Greece - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3721 words)
The mythical ancestor of the Greeks is the eponymous Hellen.
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