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Encyclopedia > Greek Mythology

Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. Modern scholars refer to the myths and study them in an attempt to throw light on the religious and political institutions of Ancient Greece and on the Ancient Greek civilization, and to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1840x2800, 2899 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Greek mythology Otricoli Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1840x2800, 2899 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Greek mythology Otricoli Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Otricoli (pop. ... Entrance to the museum Staircase of the Vatican Museum The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani) are the public art and sculpture museums in the Vatican City, which display works from the extensive collection of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... In traditional usage, the cult of a religion, quite apart from its sacred writings (scriptures), its theology or myths, or the personal faith of its believers, is the totality of external religious practice and observance, the neglect of which is the definition of impiety. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... For other uses, see Myth (disambiguation). ...


Greek mythology is embodied explicitly in a large collection of narratives and implicitly in representational arts, such as vase-paintings and votive gifts. Greek myth explains the origins of the world and details the lives and adventures of a wide variety of gods, goddesses, heroes, heroines, and other mythological creatures. These accounts were initially disseminated in an oral-poetic tradition; the Greek myths are known today primarily from Greek literature. The oldest known literary sources, the epic poems Iliad and Odyssey, focus on events surrounding the Trojan War. Two poems by Homer's near contemporary Hesiod, the Theogony and the Works and Days, contain accounts of the genesis of the world, the succession of divine rulers, the succession of human ages, the origin of human woes, and the origin of sacrificial practices. Myths are also preserved in the Homeric Hymns, in fragments of epic poems of the Epic Cycle, in lyric poems, in the works of the tragedians of the 5th century BC, in writings of scholars and poets of the Hellenistic Age and in writers of the time of the Roman Empire, for example, Plutarch and Pausanias. Bilingual amphora by the Andokides Painter, ca. ... An icon of Aghia Paraskevi with votive offerings hung beside it. ... A listing of Greek mythological beings. ... Creatures of Greek mythology. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... // Main article: Ancient Greek literature Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek from the oldest surviving written works in the Greek language until the 4th century and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... Beginning of the Odyssey The Odyssey (Greek Οδύσσεια (Odússeia)) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to the Ionian poet Homer. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... Theogony (Greek: Θεογονία, theogonia = the birth of God(s)) is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins and genealogies of the gods of the ancient Greeks, composed circa 700 BC. The title of the work comes from the Greek words for god and seed. // Hesiods Theogony is a large-scale... The book Works and Days Works and Days (in ancient Greek , which sometimes goes by the Latin name Opera et Dies, as in the OCT) is a Greek poem of some 800 verses written by Hesiod (around 700 BC). ... The anonymous Homeric Hymns are a collection of ancient Greek hymns. ... The Epic Cycle (Greek: Επικός Κύκλος) was a collection of Ancient Greek epic poems that related the story of the Trojan War, which includes the Kypria, the Aithiopis, the Little Iliad, the Iliou persis (The Sack of Troy), the Nostoi (Returns), and the Telegony. ... // Lyric poetry refers to either poetry that has the form and musical quality of a song, or a usually short poem that expresses personal feelings, which may or may not be set to music. ... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ...


Monumental evidence at Mycenaean and Minoan sites helped to explain many of the questions about Homer's epics and provided archaeological evidence of many of the mythological details about gods and heroes. Greek mythology was also depicted in artifacts; Geometric designs on pottery of the 8th century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle, as well as the adventures of Heracles. In the succeeding Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic periods, Homeric and various other mythological scenes appear to supplement the existing literary evidence.[2] Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... Alcides redirects here. ... The archaic period in Greece is the period during which the ancient Greek city-states developed, and is normally taken to cover roughly the 9th century to the 6th century BCE. The Archaic period followed the dark ages, and saw significant advancements in political theory, and the rise of democracy... The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which...


Greek mythology has had extensive influence on the culture, the arts and the literature of Western civilization and remains part of Western heritage and language. It has been a part of the educational fabric from childhood, while poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in classical mythological themes.[3] For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ...

Contents

Sources of Greek mythology

Prometheus (1868 by Gustave Moreau). The myth of Prometheus was first attested by Hesiodus and then constituted the basis for a tragic trilogy of plays, possibly by Aeschylus, consisting of Prometheus Bound, Prometheus Unbound and Prometheus Pyrphoros
Prometheus (1868 by Gustave Moreau). The myth of Prometheus was first attested by Hesiodus and then constituted the basis for a tragic trilogy of plays, possibly by Aeschylus, consisting of Prometheus Bound, Prometheus Unbound and Prometheus Pyrphoros
The Roman poet Virgil, here depicted in the 5th century manuscript the Vergilius Romanus, preserved details of Greek mythology in many of his writings.
The Roman poet Virgil, here depicted in the 5th century manuscript the Vergilius Romanus, preserved details of Greek mythology in many of his writings.
Achilles killing a Trojan prisoner in front of Charon on a red-figure Etruscan calyx-krater, made towards the end of the 4th century-beginning of the 3rd century BC.
Achilles killing a Trojan prisoner in front of Charon on a red-figure Etruscan calyx-krater, made towards the end of the 4th century-beginning of the 3rd century BC.

Greek mythology is known today primarily from Greek literature and representations on visual media dating from the Geometric period (c. 900-800 BC) onward.[4] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1576x2656, 354 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Prometheus ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1576x2656, 354 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Prometheus ... For other uses, see Prometheus (disambiguation). ... Self portrait of Gustav Moreau, 1850 Gustave Moreau (April 6, 1826 – April 18, 1898) was a French Symbolist painter. ... Prometheus Bound is an Ancient Greek tragedy. ... There are two plays named Prometheus Unbound. ... Prometheus Pyrphoros was the third play in the Prometheia, a series of plays written by the ancient Greek playwright, Aeschylus, chronicaling the trials of Prometheus, the creator and protector of man, who was imprisoned for giving man fire. ... Image File history File links RomanVirgilFolio014rVergilPortrait. ... Image File history File links RomanVirgilFolio014rVergilPortrait. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Folio 14 recto of the Vergilius Romanus contains an author portrait of Virgil. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 553 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1623 × 1758 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 553 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1623 × 1758 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... Michelangelos rendering of Charon. ... Red-figure pottery is a style of Greek pottery in which the figure outlines, details and the background are painted black, while the figure itself is not painted. ... Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... Dipylon Vase The Geometric Style is a style of Greek art preserved largely in the form of vase painting that flourished towards the end of the Greek Dark Ages, circa 900 BCE to 800 BCE. Its centre was in Athens and was diffused amongst the trading cities of the Aegean. ...


Literary sources

Mythical narration plays an important role in nearly every genre of Greek literature. Nevertheless, the only general mythographical handbook to survive from Greek antiquity was the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus, which attempts to reconcile the contradictory tales of the poets and provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends.[5] The Bibliotheca (in English Library), in three books, provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends. ... Apollodorus was a common name in ancient Greece. ...


Among the literary sources first in age are Homer's two epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Other poets completed the "epic cycle", but these later and lesser poems are now almost entirely lost. Despite their traditional name, the Homeric Hymns have no connection with Homer. They are choral hymns from the earlier part of the so-called Lyric age.[6] Hesiod, a possible contemporary with Homer, offers in Theogony (Origin of the Gods) the fullest account of the earliest Greek myths, dealing with the creation of the world; the origin of the gods, Titans and Giants; elaborate genealogies and folktales and etiological myths. Hesiod's Works and Days, a didactic poem about farming life, also includes the myths of Prometheus, Pandora and the Four Ages. The poet gives advice on the best way to succeed in a dangerous world rendered yet more dangerous by its gods.[2] // Lyric poetry refers to either poetry that has the form and musical quality of a song, or a usually short poem that expresses personal feelings, which may or may not be set to music. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... Jack the Giant-Killer by Arthur Rackham. ... For other uses, see Prometheus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pandora (disambiguation) and Pandoras box (disambiguation). ... The Ages of Man are the stages of human existence on the Earth according to Classical mythology. ...


Lyrical poets sometimes take their subjects from myth, but the treatment becomes gradually less narrative and more allusive. Greek lyric poets, including Pindar, Bacchylides, Simonides, and bucolic poets, such as Theocritus and Bion, provide individual mythological incidents.[7] Additionally, myth was central to classical Athenian drama. The tragic playwrights Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides took their plots from the age of heroes and the Trojan War. Many of the great tragic stories (i.e. Agamemnon and his children, Oedipus, Jason, Medea etc.) took on their classic form in these tragic plays. For his part, the comic playwright Aristophanes used myths, as in The Birds or The Frogs.[8] Pindar (or Pindarus) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was perhaps the greatest of the nine lyric poets of ancient Greece. ... Bacchylides, Ancient Greek lyric poet, was born at Iulis, in the island of Ceos. ... Bold textil8jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjpooSimonides of Ceos (ca. ... Theocritus (Greek Θεόκριτος), the creator of ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC. Little is known of him beyond what can be inferred from his writings. ... Bion, Greek bucolic poet, was born at Phlossa near Smyrna, and flourished about 100 BC. The account formerly given of him, that he was the contemporary and imitator of Theocritus, the friend and tutor of Moschus, and lived about 280 BC, is now generally regarded as incorrect. ... A view of the Acropolis of Athens during the Ottoman period, showing the buildings which were removed at the time of independence The history of Athens is the longest of any city in Europe: Athens has been continuously inhabited for at least 3,000 years. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... This article is about the Greek tragedian. ... A statue of Euripides. ... This article is about a character in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Oedipus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the hero from Greek mythology. ... This article is about the Greek mythological figure. ... Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , ca. ... The Birds (Ornithes) is a comedy written by the Ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes in 414 BC, and performed that year for the Festival of Dionysus. ... Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Frogs Frogs (Βάτραχοι (Bátrachoi)) is a comedy written by the Ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes. ...


Historians Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, and geographers Pausanias and Strabo, who traveled around the Greek world and noted the stories they heard, supply numerous local myths, often giving little-known, alternative versions.[7] Herodotus in particular, searched the various traditions presented him and found the historical or mythological roots in the confrontation between Greece and the East.[9] Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...


The poetry of the Hellenistic and Roman ages, which although composed as a literary rather than cultic exercise, nevertheless contains many important details that would otherwise be lost. This category includes the works of: The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...

  1. The Roman poets Ovid, Statius, Valerius Flaccus, Seneca and Virgil with Servius's commentary.
  2. The Greek poets of the Late Antique period: Nonnus, Antoninus Liberalis and Quintus Smyrnaeus.
  3. The Greek poets of the Hellenistic period: Apollonius of Rhodes, Callimachus, Pseudo-Eratosthenes and Parthenius.
  4. The ancient novels of Greeks and Romans such as Apuleius, Petronius, Lollianus and Heliodorus.

The Fabulae and Astronomica of the Roman writer styled Pseudo-Hyginus are two important, non-poetical compendiums of myth. The Imagines of Philostratus the Elder and Younger and the Descriptions of Callistratus, are two other useful sources. For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... Publius Papinius Statius, (c. ... Gaius Valerius Flaccus (late 1st century AD) was a Roman poet, who flourished under the emperors Vespasian and Titus. ... Seneca may refer to: Roman figures (any links to Seneca in Roman pages should be relinked to one of these two) Marcus (or Lucius) Annaeus Seneca also called rhetor, Roman orator and father of Seneca the philosopher and dramatist. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Maurus (or Marius) Servius Honoratius, Roman grammarian and commentator on Virgil, flourished at the end of the 4th century AD. He is one of the interlocutors in the Saturnalia of Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius, and allusions in that work and a letter from Quintus Aurelius Symmachus to Servius show that he... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... The Greek epic poet Nonnus (Greek Nonnos), a native of Panopolis (Akhmim) in the Egyptian Thebaid, probably lived at the end of the 4th or the beginning of the 5th century AD. He produced the Dionysiaca, an epic tale of the god Dionysus, a paraphrase of the Gospel of John... Antoninus Liberalis, Greek grammarian, probably flourished about AD 150. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Apollonius of Rhodes, also known as Apollonius Rhodius (Latin; Greek Apollōnios Rhodios), early 3rd century BC - after 246 BC, was an epic poet, scholar, and director of the Library of Alexandria. ... Callimachus (Greek: ; ca. ... This article is about the Greek scholar of the third century BC. For the ancient Athenian statesman of the fifth century BC, see Eratosthenes (statesman). ... The name Parthenius may refer to one of several persons: the Greek grammarian and poet Parthenius of Nicaea the Armenian Saint Parthenius Hierarch Parthenius, bishop of Lampsacus one of several Patriarchs of Alexandria one of several Patriarchs of Constantinople the chief chamberlain of Domitian (died 96) a silver-chaser mentioned... Lucius Apuleius (c. ... This article is about the Roman author Petronius. ... Lollianus (sometimes rendered in English as Lollian) is a Roman personal name which can refer to many figures of classical antiquity, including: Lollianus (sometimes called Lollianus Spurius), a general proclaimed emperor by his soldiers in Gaul and very soon murdered; he is one of the Thirty Tyrants whose lives are... Heliodorus of Emesa, from Emesa, Syria, was a Greek writer generally dated in the 3rd century of the Common Era, and is known for the ancient Greek romance or novel called the Aethiopica (the Ethiopian Story) or sometimes Theagenes and Chariclea. According to his own statement, his fathers name... Gaius Julius Hyginus, (c. ... Philostratus, was the name of several, three (or four), Greek sophists of the Roman imperial period: Philostratus the Athenian (c. ...


Finally, the Christian apologist Arnobius, quoting cult practices in order to disparage them, and a number of Byzantine Greek writers provide important details of myth, some of it sourced from lost Greek works. These preservers of myth include Hesychius' lexicon, the Suda, and the treatises of John Tzetzes and Eustathius. The Christian moralizing view of Greek myth is encapsulated in the saying ἐν παντὶ μύθῳ καὶ τὸ Δαιδάλου μύσος / en panti muthōi kai to Daidalou musos ("In every myth there is also the defilement of Daidalos"), on which subject the encyclopedic Sudas reported of the role of Daedalus in satisfying the "unnatural lust" of Pasiphae for the bull of Poseidon: "Since the origin and blame for these evils were attributed to Daidalos and he was loathed for them, he became the subject of the proverb."[10] Arnobius of Sicca (died c. ... page of Marc. ... Suda (Σουδα or alternatively Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopædia of the ancient Mediterranean world. ... John Tzetzes, was a Byzantine poet and grammarian, known to have lived at Constantinople during the 12th century. ... Eustathius(or Eumathius) surnamed Macrembolites (living near the long bazaar), the last of the Greek romance writers, flourished in the second half of the 12th century AD. His title Protonobilissimus shows him to have been a person of distinction, and if he is also correctly described in the manuscripts, as... Sudas is a king from the Rig Veda. ... Daedalus and Icarus, by Charles Paul Landon, 1799 (Musée des Beaux-Arts et de la Dentelle, Alençon) In Greek mythology, Daedalus (Latin, also Hellenized Latin Daedalos, Greek Daidalos (Δαίδαλος) meaning cunning worker, and Etruscan Taitle) was a most skillful artificer, so skillful that he was said to have invented... ...


Archaeological sources

The discovery of the Mycenaean civilization by German amateur archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann in the 19th century, and the discovery of the Minoan civilization in Crete by British archaeologist, Sir Arthur Evans in the 20th century, helped to explain many of the questions about Homer's epics and provided archaeoloical evidence of many of the mythological details about gods and heroes. Unfortunately, the evidence about myth and ritual at Mycenaean and Minoan sites is entirely monumental, as the Linear B script (an ancient form of Greek found in both Crete and Greece) was mainly used to record inventories, though the names of gods and heroes have been doubtfully revealed.[2] Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Portrait of Heinrich Schliemann. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... For Arthur Evans, the recipient of the Victoria Cross, see Arthur Evans (VC) Sir Arthur John Evans (July 8, 1851 - July 11, 1941), brought into the light of day the civilization he dubbed Minoan, which had been a dim mythic memory. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ...


Geometric designs on pottery of the 8th century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle, as well as the adventures of Heracles.[2] These visual representations of myths are important for two reasons; on the one hand, many Greek myths are attested on vases earlier than in literary sources (of the twelve labors of Heracles, only the Cerberus adventure occurs for the first time in a literary text[11]) and, on the other hand, visual sources sometimes represent myths or mythical scenes that are not attested in any extant literary source. In some cases, the first known representation of a myth in geometric art predates its first known representation in late archaic poetry by several centuries.[4] In the Archaic (c. 750–c. 500 BC), Classical (c. 480–323 BC), and Hellenistic periods, Homeric and various other mythological scenes appear to supplement the existing literary evidence.[2] (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... Heracles and threatened Cerberus, Attic black-figure neck-amphora, ca. ...


Survey of mythic history

The Greeks' mythology has changed over time to accommodate the evolution of their own culture. The earlier inhabitants of the Balkan Peninsula were an agricultural people who assigned a spirit to every aspect of nature. Eventually, these vague spirits assumed human shape and entered the local mythology as gods and goddesses.[12] When tribes from the north of the Balkan Peninsula invaded, they brought with them a new pantheon of gods, based on conquest, force, prowess in battle, and violent heroism. Other older deities of the agricultural world fused with those of the more powerful invaders or else faded into insignificance.[13] The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ...


After the middle of the Archaic period myths about relationships between male gods and male heroes become more and more frequent, indicating the parallel development of pedagogic pederasty (Eros paidikos, παιδικός ἔρως), thought to have been introduced around 630 BC. By the end of the 5th century BC, poets had assigned at least one eromenos to every important god except Ares and to many legendary figures.[14] Previously existing myths, such as that of Achilles and Patroclus, were also cast in a pederastic light.[15] Alexandrian poets at first, then more generally literary mythographers in the early Roman Empire, often adapted stories of Greek mythological characters. Pederastic courtship scene Athenian black-figure amphora, 5th c. ... In the pederastic tradition of Classical Athens, the eromenos (Greek ἐρόμενος, pl. ... This article is about the ancient Greek god; for other uses, see Ares (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... A cup depicting Achilles bandaging Patroklos arm, by the Sosias Painter. ... Religious narrative has included stories interpreted by many as accounts of same-sex love and sexuality. ...


The achievement of epic poetry was to create story-cycles, and as a result to develop a sense of mythological chronology. Thus Greek mythology unfolds like a phase in the development of the world and of man.[16] While self-contradictions in the stories make an absolute timeline impossible, an approximate chronology may be discerned. The mythological history of the world can be divided in 3 or 4 broader periods:

  1. The myths of origin or age of gods (Theogonies, "births of gods"): myths about the origins of the world, the gods, and the human race.
  2. The age when gods and mortals mingled freely: stories of the early interactions between gods, demigods, and mortals.
  3. The age of heroes (heroic age), where divine activity was more limited. The last and greatest of the heroic legends is the stories of the Trojan War and after (regarded by some researchers as a separate fourth period).[17]

While the age of gods has often been of more interest to contemporary students of myth, the Greek authors of the archaic and classical eras had a clear preference for the age of heroes. For example, the heroic Iliad and Odyssey dwarfed the divine-focused Theogony and Homeric Hymns in both size and popularity. Under the influence of Homer the "hero cult" leads to a restructuring in spiritual life, expressed in the separation of the realm of the gods from the realm of the dead (=heroes), of the Olympian from the Chthonic.[18] In the Works and Days, Hesiod makes use of a scheme of Four Ages of Man (or Races): Golden, Silver, Bronze, and Iron. These races or ages are separate creations of the gods, the Golden Age belonging to the reign of Cronus, the subsequent races the creation of Zeus. Hesiod intercalates the Age (or Race) of Heroes just after the Bronze Age. The final age was the Iron Age, during which the poet himself lived. The poet regards it as the worst; the presence of evil was explained by Pandora's myth.[19] In Metamorphoses Ovid follows Hesiod's concept of the four ages.[20] The term demigod, meaning half-god, is a modern distinction, often misapplied in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... The Ages of Man are the stages of human existence on the Earth according to Classical mythology. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... // Cover of George Sandyss 1632 edition of Ovids Metamorphosis Englished The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a poem in fifteen books that describes the creation and history of the world in terms according to Greek and Roman points of view. ...


Age of gods

Cosmogony and cosmology

See also: Greek primordial gods and Family tree of the Greek gods
Amor vincit omnia (Love Conquers All), a depiction of the god of love, Eros. By Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, circa 1601–1602.
Amor vincit omnia (Love Conquers All), a depiction of the god of love, Eros. By Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, circa 1601–1602.

"Myths of origin" or "creation myths" represent an attempt to render the universe comprehensible in human terms and explain the origin of the world.[21] The most widely accepted account of beginning of things as reported by Hesiod's Theogony, starts with Chaos, a yawning nothingness. Out of the void emerged Ge or Gaia (the Earth) and some other primary divine beings: Eros (Love), the Abyss (the Tartarus), and the Erebus.[22] Without male assistance Gaia gave birth to Uranus (the Sky) who then fertilised her. From that union were born, first, the Titans: six males and six females (Oceanus, Coeus and Crius and Hyperion and Iapetus, Theia and Rhea, Themis and Mnemosyne, Phoebe and Tethys, and Cronus); then the one-eyed Cyclopes and the Hecatonchires or Hundred-Handers. Cronus ("the wily, youngest and most terrible of [Gaia's] children"[22])castrated his father and became the ruler of the gods with his sister-wife Rhea as his consort and the other Titans became his court. This motif of father/son conflict was repeated when Cronus was confronted by his son, Zeus. Zeus, persuaded by his mother, challenged him to war for the kingship of the gods. At last, with the help of the Cyclopes, (whom Zeus freed from Tarturus), Zeus and his siblings were victorious, while Cronus and the Titans were hurled down to imprisonment in Tartarus.[23] The ancient Greeks proposed many different ideas about the primordial gods in their mythology. ... Another tree with color coding Hesiods Family of the Gods graphic of family tree of gods from Hesiods Theogony Categories: | | ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (871x1190, 212 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Greek mythology John the Baptist (Caravaggio) Ancient Greek eros ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (871x1190, 212 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Greek mythology John the Baptist (Caravaggio) Ancient Greek eros ... Amor Vincit Omnia (meaning Love Conquers All, known in English by a variety of names including Amor Victorious, Victorious Cupid, Love Triumphant, Love Victorious, or Earthly Love) is a painting by the Baroque artist Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571-1610), currently in the Gemäldegalerie (Berlin). ... Caravaggio re-directs here; for alternate uses see Caravaggio (disambiguation) Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571-1610), often short Caravaggio after his hometown, was an Italian Baroque painter, whose large religious works portrayed saints and other biblical figures as ordinary people. ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... Theogony (Greek: Θεογονία, theogonia = the birth of God(s)) is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins and genealogies of the gods of the ancient Greeks, composed circa 700 BC. The title of the work comes from the Greek words for god and seed. // Hesiods Theogony is a large-scale... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Chaos. ... For other uses, see Gaia. ... In Greek mythology, Eros was the god responsible for lust, love, and sex; he was also worshipped as a fertility deity. ... An abyss (Greek: a-, privative, bussos, bottom) is a bottomless depth; hence any deep place. ... In classic Greek mythology, below Heaven, Earth, and Pontus is Tartarus, or Tartaros (Greek Τάρταρος, deep place). ... In Greek mythology Erebus (Έρεβος Erebos, Deep blackness/darkness or shadow from Ancient Greek Έρεβος) was the son of a primordial God, Chaos, the personification of darkness and shadow, which filled in all the corners and crannies of the world. ... Uranus is the Latinized form of Ouranos (), the Greek word for sky. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... Oceanus, with his wife, Tethys, ruled the seas before Poseidon. ... In Greek mythology, Coeus (also Koios) was the Titan of intelligence. ... In Greek mythology, Crius was one of the Titans, a son of Uranus and Gaia. ... This article is about Hyperion, a Titan in Greek mythology. ... In Greek mythology Iapetus, or Iapetos, was a Titan, the son of Uranus and Gaia, and father (by an Oceanid named Clymene or Asia) of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius and through Prometheus and Epimetheus and Atlas an ancestor of the human race. ... In Greek mythology, Theia (also written Thea or Thia), also called Euryphaessa (wide-shining), was a Titan. ... Rhea (or Ria meaning she who flows) was the Titaness daughter of Uranus and of Gaia. ... In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions Themis among the six sons and six daughters—of whom Cronos was one—of Gaia and Ouranos, that is, of Earth with Sky. ... Mnemosyne (Greek , IPA in RP and in General American) (sometimes confused with Mneme or compared with Memoria) was the personification of memory in Greek mythology. ... Phoebe (pronunced fee-bee) was one of the original Titans, one set of sons and daughters of Uranus and Gaia. ... In Greek mythology, Tethys was a Titaness and sea goddess who was both sister and wife of Oceanus. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This page is about the mythical creature. ... The Hecatonchires, or Hekatonkheires, were three gargantuan figures of an archaic stage of Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... In classic Greek mythology, below Heaven, Earth, and Pontus is Tartarus, or Tartaros (Greek Τάρταρος, deep place). ...


The earliest Greek thought about poetry considered the theogony to be the prototypical poetic genre — the prototypical mythos — and imputed almost magical powers to it. Orpheus, the archetypal poet, was also the archetypal singer of theogonies, which he uses to calm seas and storms in Apollonius' Argonautica, and to move the stony hearts of the underworld gods in his descent to Hades. When Hermes invents the lyre in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes, the first thing he does is sing the birth of the gods.[24] Hesiod's Theogony is not only the fullest surviving account of the gods, but also the fullest surviving account of the archaic poet's function, with its long preliminary invocation to the Muses. Theogony was also the subject of many lost poems, including those attributed to Orpheus, Musaeus, Epimenides, Abaris and other legendary seers, which were used in private ritual purifications and mystery-rites. There are indications that Plato was familiar with some version of the Orphic theogony.[25] A few fragments of these works survive in quotations by Neoplatonist philosophers and recently unearthed papyrus scraps. One of these scraps, the Derveni Papyrus now proves that at least in the 5th century BC a theogonic-cosmogonic poem of Orpheus was in existence. This poem attempted to outdo Hesiod's Theogony and the genealogy of the gods was extended back with Nyx (Night) as an ultimate beginning before Uranus, Cronus and Zeus.[26] For other uses, see Orpheus (disambiguation). ... The Argonautica (Greek: ) is a Greek epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BC. The only surviving Hellenistic epic, the Argonautica tells the myth of the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts to retrieve the Golden Fleece from the mythical land of Colchis. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... “Lyres” redirects here. ... In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek , Mousai: perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- think[1]) are a number of goddesses or spirits who embody the arts and inspire the creation process with their graces through remembered and improvised song and stage, writing, traditional music and dance. ... Musaeus was the name of three Greek poets. ... Epimenides of Knossos Epimenides of Knossos (Crete) (Greek: Επιμενίδης) was a semi-mythical 6th century BC Greek seer and philosopher-poet, who is said to have fallen asleep for fifty-seven years in a Cretian cave sacred to Zeus, after which he reportedly awoke with the gift of prophecy. ... Abaris the Hyperborean was a legendary or semi-legendary sage, healer and priest known to the ancient Greeks. ... Mystery religions, or simply Mysteries, were belief systems of the Graeco-Roman world full admission to which was restricted to those who had gone through certain secret initiation rites. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... The Derveni papyrus is an ancient Greek papyrus scroll which was found in 1962. ... In Greek mythology, Nyx (, Nox in Roman translation) was the primordial goddess of the night. ...


The first philosophical cosmologists reacted against, or sometimes built upon, popular mythical conceptions that had existed in the Greek world for some time. Some of these popular conceptions can be gleaned from the poetry of Homer and Hesiod. In Homer, the Earth was viewed as a flat disk afloat on the river of Oceanus and overlooked by a hemispherical sky with sun, moon and stars. The Sun (Helios) traversed the heavens as a charioteer and sailed around the Earth in a golden bowl at night. Sun, earth, heaven, rivers, and winds could be addressed in prayers and called to witness oaths. Natural fissures were popularly regarded as entrances to the subterranean house of Hades, home of the dead.[27] Oceanus, with his wife, Tethys, ruled the seas before Poseidon. ... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ...


Greek gods

See also: Religion in ancient Greece and Twelve Olympians
The Twelve Olympians by Monsiau, circa late 18th century.

According to Classical-era mythology, after the overthrow of the Titans, the new pantheon of gods and goddesses was confirmed. Among the principal Greek deities were the Olympians (The limitation of their number to twelve seems to have been a comparatively modern idea),[28] residing atop Mount Olympus under the eye of Zeus. Besides the Olympians, the Greeks worshiped various gods of the countryside, the goat-god Pan, Nymphs (spirits of rivers), Naiads (who dwelled in springs), Dryads (who were spirits of the trees), Nereids (who inhabited the sea), river gods, Satyrs, and others. In addition, there were the dark powers of the underworld, such as the Erinyes (or Furies), said to pursue those guilty of crimes against blood-relatives.[29] In order to honor the ancient Greek pantheon, poets composed the Homeric Hymns (a group of thirty-three songs).[30] Gregory Nagy regards "the larger Homeric Hymns as simple preludes (compared with Theogony), each of which invokes one god".[31] Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, there for the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: Δωδεκάθεον < δωδεκα, dodeka, twelve + θεον, theon, of the gods), in Greek religion, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. ... Image File history File links Olympians. ... Image File history File links Olympians. ... Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: Δωδεκάθεον < δωδεκα, dodeka, twelve + θεον, theon, of the gods), in Greek religion, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. ... Monsiaus Consulta of the République cisalpine to receive the First Consul, 26 January 1802 (1808) Nicolas-André Monsiau (1754- 31 May 1837) was a French history painter and refined draughtsman,[1] who turned to book illustration to supplement his income when the French Revolution disrupted patronage. ... A pantheon (from Greek Πάνθειον, temple of all gods, from πᾶν, all + θεός, god) is a set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology, such as the gods of Hinduism, Norse, Egyptian, Shintoism, Greek, vodun, Yoruba Mythology and Roman mythology. ... God, as a male deity, contrasts with female deities, or goddesses while the term goddess specifically refers to a female deity, words like gods and deities can be applied to all gods collectively, regardless of gender. ... For the 1934 film, see, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... This article is about the Greek mountain. ... Pan (Greek , genitive ) is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music: paein means to pasture. ... For other uses of nymph see Nymph (disambiguation). ... Naiad by John William Waterhouse, 1893 In Greek mythology, the Naiads (from the Greek &#957;&#940;&#949;&#953;&#957;, to flow, and &#957;&#7939;&#956;&#945;, running water) were a type of nymph who presided over fountains, wells, springs, streams, and brooks, as river gods embodied rivers, and some very... The Dryad by Evelyn De Morgan Dryads are tree spirits in Greek mythology. ... In Greek mythology, the Nereids (NEER-ee-eds) are blue-haired sea nymphs, the fifty daughters of Nereus and Doris. ... Satyrs (Satyri) in Greek mythology are half-man half-beast nature spirits that haunted the woods and mountains, companions of Pan and Dionysus. ... Two Furies, from an ancient vase. ...


In the wide variety of myths and legends that Greek mythology consists of, the deities that were native to the Greek peoples are described as having essentially corporeal but ideal bodies. According to Walter Burkert, the defining characteristic of Greek anthropomorphism is that "the Greek gods are persons, not abstractions, ideas or concepts".[32] Regardless of their underlying forms, the ancient Greek gods have many fantastic abilities; most significantly, the gods are not affected by disease, and can be wounded only under highly unusual circumstances. The Greeks considered immortality as the distinctive local variants, which do not always agree with one another. When these gods were called upon in poetry, prayer or cult, they are referred to by a combination of their name and epithets, that identify them by these distinctions from other manifestations of themselves (e.g. Apollo Musagetes is "Apollo, [as] leader of the Muses"). Alternatively the epithet may identify a particular and localized aspect of the god, sometimes thought to be already ancient during the classical epoch of Greece. Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... An epithet (Greek - επιθετον and Latin - epitheton; literally meaning imposed) is a descriptive word or phrase. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek , Mousai: perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- think[1]) are a number of goddesses or spirits who embody the arts and inspire the creation process with their graces through remembered and improvised song and stage, writing, traditional music and dance. ...


Most gods were associated with specific aspects of life. For example, Aphrodite was the goddess of love and beauty, Ares was the god of war, Hades the god of the dead, and Athena the goddess of wisdom and courage.[33] Some deities, such as Apollo and Dionysus, revealed complex personalities and mixtures of functions, while others, such as Hestia (literally "hearth") and Helios (literally "sun"), were little more than personifications. The most impressive temples tended to be dedicated to a limited number of gods, who were the focus of large pan-Hellenic cults. It was, however, common for individual regions and villages to devote their own cults to minor gods. Many cities also honored the more well-known gods with unusual local rites and associated strange myths with them that were unknown elsewhere. During the heroic age, the cult of heroes (or demi-gods) supplemented this of the gods. The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient Greek god; for other uses, see Ares (disambiguation). ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... In Greek mythology, virginal Hestia (ancient Greek ) is the goddess of the hearth, of the right ordering of domesticity and the family, who received the first offering at every sacrifice in the household. ... The Greeks began to build monumental temples in the first half of the eighth century BC. The temples of Hera at Samos and of Poseidon at Isthmia were among the first erected. ...


Age of gods and men

The Marriage of Peleus and Thetis, by Hans Rottenhammer
The Marriage of Peleus and Thetis, by Hans Rottenhammer

Bridging the age when gods lived alone and the age when divine interference in human affairs was limited was a transitional age in which gods and men moved together. These were the early days of the world when the groups mingled more freely than they did later. Most of these tales were later told by Ovid's Metamorphoses and they are often divided in two thematic groups: tales of love, and tales of punishment.[34] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2536x1845, 316 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Greek mythology ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2536x1845, 316 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Greek mythology ... Minerva and the Muses, by Hans Rottenhammer, painted 1603 Hans Rottenhammer, or Johannes Rottenhammer, (1564-1625) was a German painter. ...


Tales of love often involve incest, or the seduction or rape of a mortal woman by a male god, resulting in heroic offspring. The stories generally suggest that relationships between gods and mortals are something to avoid; even consenting relationships rarely have happy endings.[35] In a few cases, a female divinity mates with a mortal man, as in the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, where the goddess lies with Anchises to produce Aeneas.[36] The marriage of Peleus and Thetis, which yielded Achilles, is another such myth. Aeneas Bearing Anchises from Troy, by Carle van Loo, 1729 (Louvre) In Greek mythology, Anchises was a son of Capys and Themiste (daughter of Ilus, son of Tros) or Hieromneme, a naiad. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... Peleus consigns Achilles to Chirons care, white-ground lekythos by the Edinburgh Painter, ca. ... This article is about the Greek sea nymph. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ...

Dionysus with satyrs. Interior of a cup painted by the Brygos Painter, Cabinet des Médailles
Dionysus with satyrs. Interior of a cup painted by the Brygos Painter, Cabinet des Médailles

The second type (tales of punishment) involves the appropriation or invention of some important cultural artifact, as when Prometheus steals fire from the gods, when Tantalus steals nectar and ambrosia from Zeus' table and gives it to his own subjects—revealing to them the secrets of the gods, when Prometheus or Lycaon invents sacrifice, when Demeter teaches agriculture and the Mysteries to Triptolemus, or when Marsyas invents the aulos and enters into a musical contest with Apollo. Prometheus' adventures mark "a place between the history of the gods and that of man".[37] An anonymous papyrus fragment, dated to the third century BC, vividly portrays Dionysus' punishment of the king of Thrace, Lycurgus, whose recognition of the new god came too late, resulting in horrific penalties that extended into the afterlife.[38] The story of the arrival of Dionysus to establish his cult in Thrace was also the subject of an Aeschylean trilogy.[39] In another tragedy, Euripides' The Bacchae, the king of Thebes, Pentheus, is punished by Dionysus, because he disrespected the god and spied on his Maenads, the female worshippers of the god.[40] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 602 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1974 × 1965 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 602 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1974 × 1965 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... A bald, bearded, horse-tailed satyr balances a winecup on his erect penis, a trick worthy of note, on an Attic red-figured psykter, ca. ... Dionysos and satyrs, tondo from a kylix by the Brygos Painter, ca. ... Gold 20-stater of Eucratides I (175-150 BCE), the largest gold coin ever minted in Antiquity. ... For other uses, see Prometheus (disambiguation). ... Tantalos, by Goya In Greek mythology Tantalus (Greek Τάνταλος) was a son of Zeus[1] and the nymph Plouto (riches)[2] Thus he was a king in the primordial world, the father of a son Broteas whose very name signifies mortals (brotoi)[3] Other versions name his father as Tmolus wreathed... In ancient Greek mythology, Ambrosia (Greek ) is sometimes the food, sometimes the drink, of the gods, often depicted as conferring immortality on whoever consumes it. ... For other uses, see Prometheus (disambiguation). ... Zeus turning Lycaon into a wolf, engraving by Hendrik Goltzius. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... Triptolemus (threefold warrior; also Buzyges), in Greek mythology always connected with Demeter of the Eleusinian Mysteries, might be accounted the son of King Celeus of Eleusis in Attica, or, according to Apollodorus (Library I.v. ... In Greek mythology, Marsyas was a satyr who challenged Apollo to a contest of music. ... A nude youth plays the aulos at a banquet: Attic red-figure cup by the Euaion Painter, ca. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... (4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Great Wall of China begun Indian traders regularly visited Arabia Scythians occupy... This article is about the ancient deity. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Template:Greek myth (Dionysus) Lycurgus was the King of the Edones in Thrace, and the father of Dryas. ... The Bacchae (also known as The Bacchantes) is a tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright Euripides. ... Thebes (Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva; Katharevousa: — Thêbai or Thívai) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ... In Greek mythology, Pentheus was a king of Thebes. ... In Greek mythology, Maenads [MEE-nads] were female worshippers of Dionysus, the Greek god of mystery, wine and intoxication. ... A worshipper is one who is a devout follower to a certain subject. ...


In another story, based on an old folktale-motif,[41] and echoeing a similar theme, Demeter was searching for her daughter, Persephone, having taken the form of an old woman called Doso, and received a hospitable welcome from Celeus, the King of Eleusis in Attica. As a gift to Celeus, because of his hospitality, Demeter planned to make Demophon as a god, but she was unable to complete the ritual because his mother Metanira walked in and saw her son in the fire and screamed in fright, which angered Demeter, who lamented that foolish mortals do not understand the concept and ritual.[42] This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... Proserpine by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1874) (Tate Gallery, London In Greek mythology, Persephone (Greek Περσεφόνη, Persephónē) was the Queen of the Underworld of epic literature. ... In Greek mythology, Doso was an alias of Demeter. ... Celeus was a king in Greek mythology. ... Eleusis (Game) The cardgame invented by Robert Abbott in 1962, and later popularized in 1977 by Martin Gardner in his Mathematical Games column in Scientific American magazine. ... This article is about Attica in Greece. ...

Achilles binds the wound of Patroclus, on a late archaic Kylix by the Sosias painter.

Image File history File links Achilles_Patroclus_Berlin_F2278. ... Image File history File links Achilles_Patroclus_Berlin_F2278. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... A cup depicting Achilles bandaging Patroklos arm, by the Sosias Painter. ... Kylix by Euergides (circa 500 BC) in the British Museum, London. ...

Heroic age

The age in which the heroes lived is known as the heroic age.[43] The epic and genealogical poetry created cycles of stories clustered around particular heroes or events and established the family relationships between the heroes of different stories; they thus arranged the stories in sequence. According to Ken Dowden, "there is even a saga effect: we can follow the fates of some families in successive generations".[16]


After the rise of the hero cult, gods and heroes constitute the sacral sphere and are invoked together in oaths, and prayers which are addressed to them.[18] In contrast to the age of gods, during the heroic age the roster of heroes is never given fixed and final form; great gods are no longer born, but new heroes can always be raised up from the army of the dead. Another important difference between the hero cult and the cult of gods is that the hero becomes the centre of local group identity.[18]


The monumental events of Heracles are regarded as the dawn of the age of heroes. To the Heroic Age are also ascribed three great military events, the Argonautic expedition and the Trojan War as well as the Theban War.[44] The Argo, by Lorenzo Costa In Greek mythology, the Argonauts (Ancient Greek: ) were a band of heroes who, in the years before the Trojan War, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest for the Golden Fleece. ...


Heracles and the Heracleidae

For more details on this topic, see Heracles and Heracleidae
Herakles with his baby Telephos (Louvre Museum, Paris).
Herakles with his baby Telephos (Louvre Museum, Paris).

Some scholars believe[attribution needed] that behind Heracles' complicated mythology there was probably a real man, perhaps a chieftain-vassal of the kingdom of Argos. Some scholars suggest the story of Heracles is an allegory for the sun's yearly passage through the twelve constellations of the zodiac.[45] Others point to earlier myths from other cultures, showing the story of Heracles as a local adaptation of hero myths already well established. Traditionally, Heracles was the son of Zeus and Alcmene, granddaughter of Perseus.[46] His fantastic solitary exploits, with their many folk tale themes, provided much material for popular legend. He is portrayed as a sacrificier, mentioned as a founder of altars, and imagined as a voracious eater himself; it is in this role that he appears in comedy, while his tragic end provided much material for tragedy — Heracles is regarded by Thalia Papadopoulou as "a play of great significance in examination of other Euripidean dramas".[47] In art and literature Heracles was represented as an enormously strong man of moderate height; his characteristic weapon was the bow but frequently also the club. The vase paintings demonstrate the unparalleled popularity of Heracles, his fight with the lion being depicted many hundreds of times.[48] Alcides redirects here. ... Heracleidae, the general name for the numerous descendants of Heracles (Hercules), and specially applied in a narrower sense to the descendants of Hyllus, the eldest of his four sons by Deianira, the conquerors of Peloponnesus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x1249, 789 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Greek mythology Telephus Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x1249, 789 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Greek mythology Telephus Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... The main courtyard of the Louvre. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the city in Greece. ... In Greek mythology Alcmene, or Alkmênê (might of the moon) was the mother of Heracles. ... Perseus with the head of Medusa, by Antonio Canova, completed 1801 (Vatican Museums) Perseus, Perseos, or Perseas (Greek: Περσεύς, Περσέως, Περσέας), the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, and was the hero who killed Medusa. ... Folklore is the ethnographic concept of the tales, legends, or superstitions current among a particular ethnic population, a part of the oral history of a particular culture. ... Heracles or Hercules Furens is a play by Euripides (c. ...


Heracles also entered Etruscan and Roman mythology and cult, and the exclamation "mehercule" became as familiar to the Romans as "Herakleis" was to the Greeks.[48] In Italy he was worshipped as a god of merchants and traders, although others also prayed to him for his characteristic gifts of good luck or rescue from danger.[46]


Heracles attained the highest social prestige through his appointment as official ancestor of the Dorian kings. This probably served as a legitimation for the Dorian migrations into the Peloponnese. Hyllus, the eponymous hero of one Dorian phyle, became the son of Heracles and one of the Heracleidae or Heraclids (the numerous descendants of Heracles, especially the descendants of Hyllus — other Heracleidae included Macaria, Lamos, Manto, Bianor, Tlepolemus, and Telephus). These Heraclids conquered the Peloponnesian kingdoms of Mycenae, Sparta and Argos, claiming, according to legend, a right to rule it through their ancestor. Their rise to dominance is frequently called the "Dorian invasion". The Lydian and later the Macedonian kings, as rulers of the same rank, also became Heracleidae.[49] [[Im Category: ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... In Greek mythology, Hyllus (also Hyllas or Hylles) was the son of Heracles and Deianira and husband of Iole. ... In Greek mythology, Hyllus (also Hyllas or Hylles) was the son of Heracles and Deianira and husband of Iole. ... In Greek mythology, Macaria was one of the Heraclidae, children of Heracles. ... The LAMOS (League Aiming to Menace and Overthrow the Spies) is a fictional small organization from the animated series Totally Spies! The LAMOS is a group of supervillains who are trying to take the world to their own. ... There are two figures in Greek mythology named Manto, one a daughter of Tiresias, the other a daughter of Heracles. ... 1. ... Tlepolemus, or Tlêpólemos, in Greek mythology was the son of Heracles by Astyocheia, daughter of the King of Ephyra. ... A Greek mythological figure, Telephus referred to two different people. ... Peloponnesos (Greek: &#928;&#949;&#955;&#959;&#960;&#972;&#957;&#957;&#951;&#963;&#959;&#962;, sometime Latinized as Peloponnesus or Anglicized as The Peloponnese) is a large peninsula in Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Isthmus of Corinth. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... For other uses see Sparta (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Greece. ... This article or section should be merged with Dorian The Dorian invasion is one of the theories advanced to explain the decline of the Mycenaean civilization in ancient Greece. ...


Other members of this earliest generation of heroes, such as Perseus, Deucalion, Theseus and Bellerophon, have many traits in common with Heracles. Like him, their exploits are solitary, fantastic and border on fairy tale, as they slay monsters such as the Chimera and Medusa. Bellerophon's adventures are commonplace types, similar to the adventures of Heracles and Theseus. Sending a hero to his presumed death is also a recurrent theme of this early heroic tradition, used in the cases of Perseus and Bellerophon.[50] Deucalion In Greek mythology, Deucalion, or Deukálion (new-wine sailor) was the name of at least two figures: a son of Prometheus, and a son of Minos. ... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ... For other uses, see Bellerophon (disambiguation). ... A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... Chimera on a red-figure Apulian plate, ca 350-340 BCE (Musée du Louvre) In Greek mythology, the Chimera (Greek Χίμαιρα (Chímaira); Latin Chimaera) is a monstrous creature of Lycia in Asia Minor, which was made of the parts of multiple animals. ... A relatively modern image of Medusa painted by Arnold Böcklin In Greek mythology, Medusa (&#924;&#949;&#948;&#959;&#965;&#963;&#945; Queen), was a monstrous female character whose gaze could turn people to stone. ...


Argonauts

For more details on this topic, see Argonauts.

The only surviving Hellenistic epic, the Argonautica of Apollonius of Rhodes (epic poet, scholar, and director of the Library of Alexandria) tells the myth of the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts to retrieve the Golden Fleece from the mythical land of Colchis. In the Argonautica, Jason is impelled on his quest by king Pelias, who receives a prophecy that a man with one sandal would be his nemesis. Jason loses a sandal in a river, arrives at the court of Pelias, and the epic is set in motion. Nearly every member of the next generation of heroes, as well as Heracles, went with Jason in the ship Argo to fetch the Golden Fleece. This generation also included Theseus, who went to Crete to slay the Minotaur; Atalanta, the female heroine; and Meleager, who once had an epic cycle of his own to rival the Iliad and Odyssey. Pindar, Apollonius and Apollodorus endeavor to give full lists of the Argonauts.[51] The Argo, by Lorenzo Costa In Greek mythology, the Argonauts (Ancient Greek: ) were a band of heroes who, in the years before the Trojan War, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest for the Golden Fleece. ... The Argonautica (Greek: ) is a Greek epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BC. The only surviving Hellenistic epic, the Argonautica tells the myth of the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts to retrieve the Golden Fleece from the mythical land of Colchis. ... Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ... This article is about the hero from Greek mythology. ... Jason returns with the golden Fleece on an Apulian red-figure calyx krater, ca. ... In ancient geography, Colchis (sometimes spelled also as Kolchis) (Greek: Κολχίς, kŏl´kĬs; Georgian: კოლხეთი, Kolkheti) was a nearly triangular district in Caucasus. ... King Pelias was the father of Acastus, Pisidice, Alcestis in Greek mythology. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Argo, painting by Lorenzo Costa In Greek mythology, the Argo was the ship on which Jason and the Argonauts sailed from Iolcus to retrieve the Golden Fleece. ... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, the Minotaur (Greek: Μινόταυρος, Minótauros) was a creature that was said to be part man and part bull. ... For other meanings, see Atalanta (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mythological figure, for the Macedonian king see Meleager (king). ...


Although Apollonius wrote his poem in the 3rd century BC, the composition of the story of the Argonauts is earlier than Odyssey, which shows familiarity with the exploits of Jason (the wandering of Odysseus may have been partly founded on it).[52] In ancient times the expedition was regarded as a historical fact, an incident in the opening up of the Black Sea to Greek commerce and colonization.[53] It was also extremely popular, forming a cycle to which a number of local legends became attached. The story of Medea, in particular, caught the imagination of the tragic poets.[54] The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


House of Atreus and Theban Cycle

See also: Theban Cycle and Seven Against Thebes
Cadmus Sowing the Dragon's teeth, by Maxfield Parrish, 1908
Cadmus Sowing the Dragon's teeth, by Maxfield Parrish, 1908

In between the Argo and the Trojan War, there was a generation known chiefly for its horrific crimes. This includes the doings of Atreus and Thyestes at Argos. Behind the myth of the house of Atreus (one of the two principal heroic dynasties with the house of Labdacus) lies the problem of the devolution of power and of the mode of accession to sovereignty. The twins Atreus and Thyestes with their descendants played the leading role in the tragedy of the devolution of power in Mycenae.[55] The Theban Cycle is a collection of four lost epics of ancient Greek literature which related the mythical history of the Boiotian city of Thebes. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Επτά επί Θήβας The Seven Against Thebes is a mythic narrative that finds its classic statement in the play by Aeschylus (467 BCE) concerning the battle between the Seven led by Polynices and the army of Thebes headed by Eteocles and his supporters, traditional Theban... Cadmus Sowing the Dragons Teeth, 1908 Source: http://mcduffskeep. ... Cadmus Sowing the Dragons Teeth, 1908 Source: http://mcduffskeep. ... In Greek myth, dragons teeth feature prominently in the legends of the Phoenician prince Cadmus and Jasons quest for the Golden Fleece. ... The Dinky Bird, by Maxfield Parrish, an illustration from Poems of Childhood by Eugene Field, 1904. ... In Greek mythology, King Atreus (Greek: Ατρεύς, Atreús) (fearless) of Mycenae was the son of Pelops and Hippodamia and father of Agamemnon and Menelaus. ... In Greek mythology, Thyestes was the son of Pelops, King of Mycenae, and Hippodamia and father of Pelopia and Aegisthus. ... In Greek mythology, Labdacus was the only son of Polydorus and a King of Thebes, and the grandson of Thebes founder, Cadmus. ...


The Theban Cycle deals with events associated especially with Cadmus, the city's founder, and later with the doings of Laius and Oedipus at Thebes; a series of stories that lead to the eventual pillage of that city at the hands of the Seven Against Thebes (it is not known whether the Seven against Thebes figured in early epic) and Epigoni.[56] As far as Oedipus is concerned, early epic accounts seem to have followed a different pattern (in which he continued to rule at Thebes after the revelation that Iokaste was his mother and subsequently married a second wife who became the mother of his children) from the one known to us through tragedy (e.g. Sophocles' "Oedipus the King") and later mythological accounts.[57] Cadmus Sowing the Dragons teeth, by Maxfield Parrish, 1908 Caddmus, or Kadmos (Greek: Κάδμος), in Greek mythology, was the son of the king of Phoenicia (Modern day Lebanon) and brother of Europa. ... Laius abducting Chrysippus, who is reaching out to Pelops, his father (detail). ... This is an article about the Greek myth. ... In Greek mythology, Jocasta, also Iocaste or Epikastê, was a daughter of Menocenes. ...


Trojan War and aftermath

In The Rage of Achilles by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1757, Fresco, 300 x 300 cm, Villa Valmarana, Vicenza) Achilles is outraged that Agamemnon would threaten to seize his warprize, Briseis, and he draws his sword to kill Agamemnon. The sudden appearance of the goddess Minerva, who, in this fresco, has grabbed Achilles by the hair, prevents the act of violence.
In The Rage of Achilles by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1757, Fresco, 300 x 300 cm, Villa Valmarana, Vicenza) Achilles is outraged that Agamemnon would threaten to seize his warprize, Briseis, and he draws his sword to kill Agamemnon. The sudden appearance of the goddess Minerva, who, in this fresco, has grabbed Achilles by the hair, prevents the act of violence.
For more details on this topic, see Trojan War and Epic Cycle

Greek mythology culminates in the Trojan War, fought between the Greeks and Troy, and its aftermath. In Homer's works the chief stories have already taken shape and substance, and individual themes were elaborated later, especially in Greek drama. The Trojan War acquired also a great interest for the Roman culture because of the story of Aeneas, a Trojan hero, whose journey from Troy led to the founding of the city that would one day become Rome, is recounted in Virgil's Aeneid (Book II of Virgil's Aeneid contains the best-known account of the sack of Troy).[58] Finally there are two pseudo-chronicles written in Latin that passed under the names of Dictys Cretensis and Dares Phrygius.[59] Download high resolution version (814x1023, 163 KB)The Rage of Achilles by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696-1770) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (814x1023, 163 KB)The Rage of Achilles by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696-1770) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, also known as Gianbattista or Giambattista Tiepolo (March 5, 1696 - March 27, 1770) was an Venetian painter and printmaker, considered among the last Grand Manner fresco painters from the Venetian republic. ... Vicenza is a city in northern Italy, is the capital of the eponymous province in the Veneto region, at the northern base of the Monte Berico, straddling the Bacchiglione. ... Head of Minerva by Elihu Vedder, 1896 For other uses, see Minerva (disambiguation). ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... The Epic Cycle (Greek: Επικός Κύκλος) was a collection of Ancient Greek epic poems that related the story of the Trojan War, which includes the Kypria, the Aithiopis, the Little Iliad, the Iliou persis (The Sack of Troy), the Nostoi (Returns), and the Telegony. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... This is a tentative list of topics regarding Roman culture. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story... Dictys Cretensis, of Cnossus in Crete, was the supposed companion of Idomeneus during the Trojan War, and author of a diary of its events. ... Dares Phrygius, according to Homer (Iliad, v. ...


The Trojan War cycle, a collection of epic poems, starts with the events leading up to the war: (Eris and the golden apple of Kallisti, the Judgement of Paris, the abduction of Helen, the sacrifice of Iphigenia at Aulis). To recover Helen, the Greeks launched a great expedition under the overall command of Menelaus' brother, Agamemnon, king of Argos or Mycenae, but The Trojans refused to return Helen. The Iliad, which is set in the tenth year of the war, tells of the quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles, who was the finest Greek warrior, and the consequent deaths in battle of Achilles' friend Patroclus and Priam's eldest son, Hector. After Hector's death the Trojans were joined by two exotic allies, Penthesilea, queen of the Amazons, and Memnon, king of the Ethiopians and son of the dawn-goddess Eos.[60] Achilles killed both of these, but Paris then managed to kill Achilles with an arrow. Before they could take Troy, the Greeks had to steal from the citadel the wooden image of Pallas Athena (the Palladium). Finally, with Athena's help, they built the Trojan Horse. Despite the warnings of Priam's daughter Cassandra, the Trojans were persuaded by Sinon, a Greek who feigned desertion, to take the horse inside the walls of Troy as an offering to Athena; the priest Laocoon, who tried to have the horse destroyed, was killed by sea-serpents. At night the Greek fleet returned, and the Greeks from the horse opened the gates of Troy. In the total sack that followed, Priam and his remaining sons were slaughtered; the Trojan women passed into slavery in various cities of Greece. The adventurous homeward voyages of the Greek leaders (including the wanderings of Odysseus and Aeneas (the Aeneid), and the murder of Agamemnon) were told in two epics, the Returns (Nostoi; lost) and Homer's Odyssey.[61] The Trojan cycle also includes the adventures of the children of the Trojan generation (e.g. Orestes and Telemachus).[60] The Trojan War cycle, also widely known as the Epic Cycle, was a collection of eight Ancient Greek epic poems that related the history of the Trojan War. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of poetry, which retells in a continuous narrative the life and works of a heroic or mythological person or group of persons. ... Eris (ca. ... // The Golden apple is an element that appears in some countries legends or fairy tales. ... Kallisti is a word from the Greek language. ... The Judgment of Paris, Peter Paul Rubens, ca 1636 (National Gallery, London) For the wine-tasting event known as The Judgment of Paris, see Paris Wine Tasting of 1976 The Judgement of Paris is a story from Greek mythology, in which the legendary roots of the Trojan War can be... Helen was the wife of Menelaus and reputed to be the most beautiful woman in the world, and her abduction by Paris brought about the Trojan War. ... 112 Iphigenia is an asteroid. ... In Greek mythology, Aulis was a daughter of King Ogyges and Thebe. ... Menelaus regains Helen, detail of an Attic red-figure crater, ca. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... A cup depicting Achilles bandaging Patroklos arm, by the Sosias Painter. ... For other uses, see Hector (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Penthesilea (also spelled Penthesilia) was an Amazonian queen, daughter of Ares and Otrera, sister of Hippolyte, Antiope and Melanippe. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... In Greek mythology, Memnon was an Ethiopian king and son of Tithonus and Eos. ... Eos, by Evelyn De Morgan (1850 - 1919), 1895 (Columbia Museum of Art, Columbia, SC): for a Pre-Raphaelite painter, Eos was still the classical pagan equivalent of an angel Eos (dawn) was, in Greek Mythology, the Titan goddess of the dawn, who rose from her home at the edge of... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Palladion. ... For other uses, see Trojan Horse (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cassandra (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Sinon, a son of Aesimus (son of Autolycus), or of the crafty Sisyphus, was a Greek warrior during the Trojan War. ... For other meanings, see Odysseus (disambiguation) Ulysses redirects here. ... The Nostoi (Greek: Νόστοι; also known as Nosti in Latin; English: Returns;) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... Orestes &#927;&#961;&#949;&#963;&#964;&#951;&#962; is a Greek name, literally he who stands on the mountain, or mountain-dweller. Orestes can refer to: In Greek mythology, the son of Agamemnon. ... Slaughter of the suitors by Odysseus and Telemachus, Campanian red-figure bell-krater, ca. ...

El Greco was inspired in his Laocoon (1608–1614, oil on canvas, 142 x 193 cm, National Gallery of Art, Washington) by the famous myth of the Trojan cycle. Laocoon was a Trojan priest who tried to have the Trojan horse destroyed, but was killed by sea-serpents.
El Greco was inspired in his Laocoon (1608–1614, oil on canvas, 142 x 193 cm, National Gallery of Art, Washington) by the famous myth of the Trojan cycle. Laocoon was a Trojan priest who tried to have the Trojan horse destroyed, but was killed by sea-serpents.

The Trojan War provided a variety of themes and became a main source of inspiration for ancient Greek artists (e.g. metopes on the Parthenon depicting the sack of Troy); this artistic preference for themes deriving from the Trojan Cycle indicates its importance for the ancient Greek civilization.[61] The same mythological cycle also inspired a series of posterior European literary writings. For instance, Trojan Medieval European writers, unacquainted with Homer at first hand, found in the Troy legend a rich source of heroic and romantic storytelling and a convenient framework into which to fit their own courtly and chivalric ideals. 12th century authors, such as Benoît de Sainte-Maure (Roman de Troie [Romance of Troy, 1154–60]) and Joseph of Exeter (De Bello Troiano [On the Trojan War, 1183]) describe the war while rewriting the standard version they found in Dictys and Dares. They thus follow Horace's advice and Virgil's example: they rewrite a poem of Troy instead of telling something completely new.[62] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2536x2012, 505 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Greek mythology ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2536x2012, 505 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Greek mythology ... The West building of the National Gallery of Art with the East building visible behind and to to the left The National Gallery of Art is an art museum, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museum was established in 1937 by the Congress, with funds for... Flag Seal Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ... Laocoön (Greek &#923;&#945;&#959;&#954;&#959;&#969;&#957;, pronounced roughly La-oh-koh-on), son of Acoetes, was allegedly a priest of Poseidon (or of Apollo, by some accounts) at Troy; he is famous for warning the Trojans in vain against accepting the Trojan Horse from the Greeks... In classical architecture, a metope is the rectangular blank spaces on the surface between two triglyphs on a Doric frieze which were often decorated with carvings. ... For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Benoît de Sainte-Maure (1154 - 1173) was a twelth century French poet and trouvere. ... Joseph of Exeter was a twelfth century Latin poet from Exeter, England. ... Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ...


Greek and Roman conceptions of myth

Mythology was at the heart of everyday life in ancient Greece.[63] Greeks regarded mythology as a part of their history. They used myth to explain natural phenomena, cultural variations, traditional enmities and friendships. It was a source of pride to be able to trace one's leaders' descent from a mythological hero or a god. Few ever doubted that there was truth behind the account of the Trojan War in the Iliad and Odyssey. According to Victor Davis Hanson, a military historian, columnist, political essayist and former Classics professor, and John Heath, associate professor of Classics at Santa Clara University, the profound knowledge of the Homeric epos was deemed by the Greeks the basis of their acculturation. Homer was the "education of Greece" (Ἑλλάδος παίδευσις), and his poetry "the Book".[64] Victor Davis Hanson giving a lecture at Kenyon College. ... This article is about the occupation of studying history. ... A columnist is a journalist who produces a specific form of writing for publication called a column. Columns appear in newspapers, magazines and the Internet. ... For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... The Santa Clara Mission is a notable on-campus landmark. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ...


Philosophy and myth

Raphael's Plato in The School of Athens fresco (probably in the likeness of Leonardo da Vinci). The philosopher expelled the study of Homer, of the tragedies and of the related mythological traditions from his utopian Republic.
Raphael's Plato in The School of Athens fresco (probably in the likeness of Leonardo da Vinci). The philosopher expelled the study of Homer, of the tragedies and of the related mythological traditions from his utopian Republic.

After the rise of philosophy, and history, prose and rationalism in the late 5th century BC the fate of myth became uncertain, and mythological genealogies gave place to a conception of history which tried to exclude the supernatural (such as the Thucydidean history).[65] While poets and dramatists were reworking the myths, Greek historians and philosophers were beginning to criticize them.[6] Image File history File links Plato-raphael. ... Image File history File links Plato-raphael. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... The School of Athens or in Italian is one of the most famous paintings by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ...


A few radical philosophers like Xenophanes of Colophon were already beginning to label the poets' tales as blasphemous lies in the 6th century BC; Xenophanes had complained that Homer and Hesiod attributed to the gods "all that is shameful and disgraceful among men; they steal, commit adultery, and deceive one another".[66] This line of thought found its most sweeping expression in Plato's Republic and Laws. Plato created his own allegorical myths (such as the vision of Er in the Republic), attacked the traditional tales of the gods' tricks, thefts and adulteries as immoral, and objected to their central role in literature.[6] Plato's criticism (he called the myths "old wives' chatter")[67] was the first serious challenge to the Homeric mythological tradition.[64] For his part Aristotle criticized the Pre-socratic quasi-mythical philosophical approach and underscored that "Hesiod and the theological writers were concerned only with what seemed plausible to themselves, and had no respect for us [...] But it is not worth taking seriously writers who show off in the mythical style; as for those who do proceed by proving their assertions, we must cross-examine them".[65] Xenophanes of Colophon (Greek: Ξενοφάνης, 570 BC-480 BC) was a Greek philosopher, poet, and social and religious critic. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... The Republic is an influential dialogue by Plato, written in the first half of the 4th century BC. This Socratic dialogue mainly is about political philosophy and ethics. ... The Laws is Platos last and longest dialogue. ...


Nevertheless, even Plato did not manage to wean himself and his society from the influence of myth; his own characterization for Socrates is based on the traditional Homeric and tragic patterns, used by the philosopher to praise the righteous life of his teacher:[68]

But perhaps someone might say: "Are you then not ashamed, Socrates, of having followed such a pursuit, that you are now in danger of being put to death as a result?" But I should make to him a just reply: "You do not speak well, Sir, if you think a man in whom there is even a little merit ought to consider danger of life or death, and not rather regard this only, when he does things, whether the things he does are right or wrong and the acts of a good or a bad man. For according to your argument all the demigods would be bad who died at Troy, including the son of Thetis, who so despised danger, in comparison with enduring any disgrace, that when his mother (and she was a goddess) said to him, as he was eager to slay Hector, something like this, I believe,
My son, if you avenge the death of your friend Patroclus and kill Hector, you yourself shall die;
for straightway, after Hector, is death appointed unto you (Hom. Il. 18.96) [...] "

Hanson and Heath estimate that Plato's rejection of the Homeric tradition was not favorably received by the grassroots Greek civilization.[64] The old myths were kept alive in local cults; they continued to influence poetry, and to form the main subject of painting and sculpture.[65] This article is about the Greek sea nymph. ...


More sportingly, the 5th century BC tragedian Euripides often played with the old traditions, mocking them, and through the voice of his characters injecting notes of doubt. Yet the subjects of his plays were taken, without exception, from myth. Many of these plays were written in answer to a predecessor's version of the same or similar myth. Euripides impugns mainly the myths about the gods and begins his critique with an objection similar to the one previously expressed by Xenocrates: the gods, as traditionally represented, are far too crassly anthropomorphic.[66] For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... An anthropomorphic character; a cat ascribed human characteristics. ...


Hellenistic and Roman rationalism

Cicero saw himself as the defender of the established order, despite his personal scepticism with regard to myth and his inclination towards more philosophical conceptions of divinity.
Cicero saw himself as the defender of the established order, despite his personal scepticism with regard to myth and his inclination towards more philosophical conceptions of divinity.

During the Hellenistic period, mythology took on the prestige of elite knowledge that marks its possessors as belonging to a certain class. At the same time, the skeptical turn of the Classical age became even more pronounced.[69] Greek mythographer Euhemerus established the tradition of seeking an actual historical basis for mythical beings and events.[70] Although his original work (Sacred Scriptures) is lost, much is known about it from what is recorded by Diodorus and Lactantius.[71] Scanned from a book dated 1900. ... Scanned from a book dated 1900. ... The Hellenistic period (4th - 1st c. ... Euhemerus (Ευήμερος) (working late 4th century BCE) was a Greek mythographer at the court of Cassander, the king of Macedonia. ... Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (c. ...


Rationalizing hermeneutics of myth became even more popular under the Roman Empire, thanks to the physicalist theories of Stoic and Epicurean philosophy. Stoics presented explanations of the gods and heroes as physical phenomena, while the euhemerists rationalized them as historical figures. At the same time, the Stoics and the Neoplatonists promoted the moral significations of the mythological tradition, often based on Greek etymologies.[72] Through his Epicurean message, Lucretius had sought to expel superstitious fears from the minds of his fellow-citizens.[73] Livy, too, is sceptical about the mythological tradition and claims that he does not intend to pass judgement on such legends (fabulae).[74] The challenge for Romans with a strong and apologetic sense of religious tradition was to defend that tradition while conceding that it was often a breeding-ground for superstition. The antiquarian Varro, who regarded religion as a human institution with great importance for the preservation of good in society, devoted rigorous study to the origins of religious cults. In his Antiquitates Rerum Divinarum (which has not survived, but Augustine's City of God indicates its general approach) Varro argues that whereas the superstitious man fears the gods, the truly religious person venerates them as parents.[73] In his work he distinguished three kinds of gods: Hermeneutics (Hermeneutic means interpretive), is a branch of philosophy concerned with human understanding and the interpretation of texts. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A restored Stoa in Athens. ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. ... Euhemerus (flourished around 316 BCE) was a Greek mythographer at the court of Cassander, the king of Macedonia. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... Lucretius Titus Lucretius Carus (c. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... The term Roman religion may refer to: Ancient Roman religion Imperial cult (Ancient Rome), Sol Invictus Mithraism Roman Christianity Category: ... Marcus Terentius Varro ([[116 BC]&#8211;27 BC), also known as Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his contemporary Varro Atacinus, was a Roman scholar and writer, who the Romans came to call the most learned of all the Romans. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... This article is about the work by St. ...

  • The gods of nature: personifications of phenomena like rain and fire.
  • The gods of the poets: invented by unscrupulous bards to stir the passions.
  • The gods of the city: invented by wise legislators to soothe and enlighten the populace.

Roman Academic Cotta ridicules both literal and allegorical acceptance of myth, declaring roundly that myths have no place in philosophy.[75] Cicero is also generally disdainful of myth, but, like Varro, he is emphatic in his support for the state religion and its institutions. It is difficult to know how far down the social scale this rationalism extended.[74] Cicero asserts that no one (not even old women and boys) is so foolish as to believe in the terrors of Hades or the existence of Scyllas, centaurs or other composite creatures,[76] but, on the other hand, the orator elsewhere complains of the superstitious and credulous character of the people.[77] De Natura Deorum is the most comprehensive summary of Cicero's line of thought.[78] For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... See also centaur (planetoid), Centaur (rocket stage) Guido Reni, Abduction of Deianira, 1620-21 In Greek mythology, the centaurs (Greek: &#922;&#8051;&#957;&#964;&#945;&#965;&#961;&#959;&#953;) are a race part human and part horse, with a horses body and a human head and torso (illustration, right). ...


Syncretizing trends

In Roman religion the worship of the Greek god Apollo (early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth century Greek original, Louvre Museum) was combined with the cult of Sol Invictus. The worship of Sol as special protector of the emperors and of the empire remained the chief imperial religion until it was replaced by Christianity.
In Roman religion the worship of the Greek god Apollo (early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth century Greek original, Louvre Museum) was combined with the cult of Sol Invictus. The worship of Sol as special protector of the emperors and of the empire remained the chief imperial religion until it was replaced by Christianity.

During the Roman era appears a popular trend to syncretize multiple Greek and foreign gods in strange, nearly unrecognizable new cults. Syncretization was also due to the fact that the Romans had little mythology of their own, and inherited the Greek mythological tradition; therefore, the major Roman gods were syncretized with those of the Greeks.[74] In addition to the combination of the two mythological traditions, the association of the Romans with eastern religions led to further syncretizations.[79] For instance, the cult of Sun was introduced in Rome after Aurelian's successful campaigns in Syria. The Asiatic divinities Mithras (that is to say, the Sun) and Ba'al were combined with Apollo and Helios into one Sol Invictus, with conglomerated rites and compound attributes.[80] Apollo might be increasingly identified in religion with Helios or even Dionysus, but texts retelling his myths seldom reflected such developments. The traditional literary mythology was increasingly dissociated from actual religious practice. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1084x2544, 1667 KB) Description fr: Apollon lycien. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1084x2544, 1667 KB) Description fr: Apollon lycien. ... The main courtyard of the Louvre. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... Lucius Domitius Aurelianus[1] (September 9, 214–September 275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth. ... This article or section contains too much jargon and may need simplification or further explanation. ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the Unconquered Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ...


The surviving 2nd century collection of Orphic Hymns and Macrobius's Saturnalia are influenced by the theories of rationalism and the syncretizing trends as well. The Orphic Hymns are a set of pre-classical poetic compositions, attributed to Orpheus, himself the subject of a renowned myth. In reality, these poems were probably composed by several different poets, and contain a rich set of clues about prehistoric European mythology.[81] The stated purpose of the Saturnalia is to transmit the Hellenic culture he has derived from his reading, even though much of his treatment of gods is colored by Egyptian and North African mythology and theology (which also affect the interpretation of Virgil). In Saturnalia reappear mythographical comments influenced by the euhemerists, the Stoics and the Neoplatonists.[72] Orphism or Orphic cubism, is a term coined in 1912 France by the poet Guillaume Apollinaire. ... Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius, Roman grammarian and philosopher, flourished during the reigns of Honorius and Arcadius (395-423). ...


Modern interpretations

For more details on this topic, see Modern understanding of Greek mythology.

The genesis of modern understanding of Greek mythology is regarded by some scholars as a double reaction at the end of the eighteenth century against "the traditional attitude of Christian animosity", in which the Christian reinterpretation of myth as a "lie" or fable had been retained.[82] In Germany, by about 1795, there was a growing interest in Homer and Greek mythology. In Göttingen Johann Matthias Gesner began to revive Greek studies, while his successor, Christian Gottlob Heyne, worked with Johann Joachim Winckelmann, and laid the foundations for mythological research both in Germany and elsewhere.[83] The genesis of modern understanding of Greek mythology is regarded by some scholars as a double reaction at the end of the eighteenth century against the traditional attitude of Christian animosity mixed with disdain, which had prevailed for centuries, in which the Christian reinterpretation of myth as a lie or... For other uses, see Fable (disambiguation). ... Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Johann Matthias Gesner (April 9, 1691 - August 3, 1761), was a German classical scholar and schoolmaster. ... Christian Gottlob Heyne Odysseus and Euryclea, by Christian G. Heyne Christian Gottlob Heyne (25 September 1729-14 July 1812) was a German classical scholar and archaeologist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Comparative and psychoanalytic approaches

Max Müller is regarded as one of the founders of comparative mythology. In his Comparative Mythology (1867) Müller analysed the "disturbing" similarity between the mythologies of "savage" races with those of the early European races.
See also: Comparative mythology

The development of comparative philology in the 19th century, together with ethnological discoveries in the 20th century, established the science of myth. Since the Romantics, all study of myth has been comparative. Wilhelm Mannhardt, Sir James Frazer, and Stith Thompson employed the comparative approach to collect and classify the themes of folklore and mythology.[84] In 1871 Edward Burnett Tylor published his Primitive Culture, in which he applied the comparative method and tried to explain the origin and evolution of religion.[85] Tylor's procedure of drawing together material culture, ritual and myth of widely separated cultures influenced both Carl Jung and Joseph Campbell. Max Müller applied the new science of comparative mythology to the study of myth, in which he detected the distorted remains of Aryan nature worship. Bronislaw Malinowski emphasized the ways myth fulfills common social functions. Claude Lévi-Strauss and other structuralists have compared the formal relations and patterns in myths throughout the world.[84] Image File history File links Muller. ... Image File history File links Muller. ... Comparative mythology, related to comparative religion, is a field of study which is technically part of anthropology but more usually regarded as part of the subject of ancient history. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901&#8211;2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900&#8211;1999... Wilhelm Mannhardt (1831- 1880) was a German scholar and folklorist. ... Sir James George Frazer (January 1, 1854 - May 7, 1941), a social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion, was born in Glasgow, Scotland. ... Stith Thompson (1885-1976) was one of the worlds leading authorities on folklore. ... Edward Burnett Tylor. ... “Jung” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Joseph Campbell (disambiguation). ... Max Müller as a young man Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Pantheism (Greek: pan = all and Theos = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... For the Olympic champion athlete see Bronislaw Malinowski (athlete). ... This article is about the anthropologist. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ...

For Karl Kerényi mythology is "a body of material contained in tales about gods and god-like beings, heroic battles and journeys to the Underworld—mythologem is the best Greek word for them—tales already well-known but not amenable to further re-shaping".
For Karl Kerényi mythology is "a body of material contained in tales about gods and god-like beings, heroic battles and journeys to the Underworld—mythologem is the best Greek word for them—tales already well-known but not amenable to further re-shaping".[86]

Sigmund Freud introduced a transhistorical and biological conception of man and a view of myth as an expression of repressed ideas. Dream interpretation is the basis of Freudian myth interpretation and Freud's concept of dreamwork recognizes the importance of contextual relationships for the interpretation of any individual element in a dream. This suggestion would find an important point of rapprochment between the structuralist and psychoanalytic approaches to myth in Freud's thought.[87] Carl Jung extended the transhistorical, psychological approach with his theory of the "collective unconscious" and the archetypes (inherited "archaic" patterns), often encoded in myth, that arise out of it.[2] According to Jung, "myth-forming structural elements must be present in the unconscious psyche".[88] Comparing Jung's methodology with Joseph Campbell's theory, Robert A. Segal concludes that "to interpret a myth Campbell simply identifies the archetypes in it. An interpretation of the Odyssey, for example, would show how Odysseus’s life conforms to a heroic pattern. Jung, by contrast, considers the identification of archetypes merely the first step in the interpretation of a myth".[89] Karl Kerenyi, one of the founders of modern studies in Greek mythology, gave up his early views of myth, in order to apply Jung's theories of archetypes to Greek myth.[90] Image File history File links Kerenyi_karoly. ... Image File history File links Kerenyi_karoly. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... For other uses, see Joseph Campbell (disambiguation). ... One of the founders of modern studies in Greek mythology, Karl (Carl, Károly) Kerényi (January 19, 1897 - April 14, 1973) was born in Hungary but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1943. ...


Origin theories

See also: Similarities between Roman, Greek, and Etruscan mythologies
Jupiter et Thétis by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, 1811.
Jupiter et Thétis by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, 1811.

There are various modern theories about the origins of Greek mythology. According to the Scriptural Theory, all mythological legends are derived from the narratives of the Scriptures, although the real facts have been disguised and altered.[91] According to the Historical Theory all the persons mentioned in mythology were once real human beings, and the legends relating to them are merely the additions of later times. Thus the story of Aeolus is supposed to have risen from the fact that Aeolus was the ruler of some islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea.[92] The Allegorical Theory supposes that all the ancient myths were allegorical and symbolical. While the Physical Theory subscribed to the idea that the elements of air, fire, and water were originally the objects of religious adoration, thus the principal deities were personifications of these powers of nature.[93] Max Müller attempted to understand an Indo-European religious form by tracing it back to its Aryan, "original" manifestation. In 1891, he claimed that "the most important discovery which has been made during the nineteenth century with respect to the ancient history of mankind [...] was this sample equation: Sanskrit Dyaus-pitar = Greek Zeus = Latin Jupiter = Old Norse Tyr".[94] In other cases, close parallels in character and function suggest a common heritage, yet lack of linguistic evidence makes it difficult to prove, as in the comparison between Uranus and the Sanskrit Varuna or the Moirae and the Norns.[95] Roman mythology was strongly influenced by Greek mythology and Etruscan mythology. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (571x680, 298 KB) Description: Jupiter et Thétis, 1811 Source: [1] Date:  Author: Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Permission:  Other versions of this file:  File links The following pages link to this file: Jupiter (god) ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (571x680, 298 KB) Description: Jupiter et Thétis, 1811 Source: [1] Date:  Author: Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Permission:  Other versions of this file:  File links The following pages link to this file: Jupiter (god) ... Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (pronounced (Ang, rhymes with bang, with a hint of the r, but the final es is not pronounced) (August 29, 1780 - January 14, 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Tyrrhenian Sea. ... For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... In vedic religion, Dyaus Pita is the Sky Father, husband of Prthivi and father of Agni and Indra (RV 4. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... Týr, depicted here with both hands intact, is identified with Mars in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... In Vedic religion, Varuna (Devanagari:वरुण, IAST:) is a god of the sky, of rain and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. ... Fates redirects here. ... The Norns spin the threads of fate at the foot of Yggdrasil, the tree of the world. ...

Aphrodite and Adonis, Attic red-figure aryballos-shaped lekythos by Aison (c. 410 BC, Louvre, Paris).
Aphrodite and Adonis, Attic red-figure aryballos-shaped lekythos by Aison (c. 410 BC, Louvre, Paris).

Archaeology and mythography, on the other hand, has revealed that the Greeks were inspired by some of the civilizations of Asia Minor and the Near East. Adonis seems to be the Greek counterpart — more clearly in cult than in myth — of a Near Eastern "dying god". Cybele is rooted in Anatolian culture while much of Aphrodite's iconography springs from Semitic goddesses. There are also possible parallels between the earliest divine generations (Chaos and its children) and Tiamat in the Enuma Elish.[96] According to Meyer Reinhold, "near Eastern theogonic concepts, involving divine succession through violence and generational conflicts for power, found their way [...] into Greek mythology".[97] In addition to Indo-European and Near Eastern origins, some scholars have speculated on the debts of Greek mythology to the pre-Hellenic societies: Crete, Mycenae, Pylos, Thebes and Orchomenos.[98] Historians of religion were fascinated by a number of apparently ancient configurations of myth connencted with Crete (the god as bull, Zeus and Europa, Pasiphaë who yields to the bull and gives birth to the Minotaur etc.) Professor Martin P. Nilsson concluded that all great classical Greek myths were tied to Mycenaen centres and were anchored in pehistoric times.[99] Nevertheless, according to Burkert, the iconography of the Cretan Palace Period has provided almost no confirmation for these theories.[100] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1890x1920, 2500 KB) Description Description: Aphrodite and Adonis. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1890x1920, 2500 KB) Description Description: Aphrodite and Adonis. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... An aryballos (Greek: αρύβαλλος) was a small spherical or globular flask with a narrow neck used in Ancient Greece. ... Theseus and the Marathonian bull, white-ground lekythos, ca. ... In Greek mythology Adonis (Greek: , also: Άδωνις) is an archetypal life-death-rebirth deity of Semitic origin, and a central cult figure in various mystery religions. ... Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Tiamat (disambiguation). ... Enûma Elish is the creation epic of Babylonian mythology. ... This article is about the Greek geographical feature and town. ... Orchomenos (Greek: ), the setting for many early Greek Myths, is a rich archaeological site in Boeotia, (modern Viotia, Greece) that was inhabited from the Neolithic through the Hellenistic periods. ... In Greek mythology, Pasiphaë (Eng. ... In Greek mythology, the Minotaur (Greek: Μινόταυρος, Minótauros) was a creature that was said to be part man and part bull. ...


Motifs in Western art and literature

For more details on this topic, see Greek mythology in western art and literature.
See also: List of movies based on Greco-Roman mythology
Botticelli's The Birth of Venus (c. 1485–1486, oil on canvas, Uffizi, Florence) — a revived Venus Pudica for a new view of pagan Antiquity—is often said to epitomize for modern viewers the spirit of the Renaissance.
Botticelli's The Birth of Venus (c. 1485–1486, oil on canvas, Uffizi, Florence) — a revived Venus Pudica for a new view of pagan Antiquity—is often said to epitomize for modern viewers the spirit of the Renaissance.[2]

The widespread adoption of Christianity did not curb the popularity of the myths. With the rediscovery of classical antiquity in the Renaissance, the poetry of Ovid became a major influence on the imagination of poets, dramatists, musicians and artists.[101] From the early years of Renaissance, artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael, portrayed the pagan subjects of Greek mythology alongside more conventional Christian themes.[101] Through the medium of Latin and the works of Ovid, Greek myth influenced medieval and Renaissance poets such as Petrarch, Boccaccio and Dante in Italy.[2] Botticellis The Birth of Venus (c. ... This is a list of movies loosely based on Greco-Roman mythology. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1322, 306 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1322, 306 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Birth of Venus is a painting by Sandro Botticelli. ... The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... “Ancient” redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... From the c. ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ...


In Northern Europe, Greek mythology never took the same hold of the visual arts, but its effect was very obvious on literature. The English imagination was fired by Greek mythology starting with Chaucer and John Milton and continuing through Shakespeare to Robert Bridges in the 20th century. Racine in France and Goethe in Germany revived Greek drama, reworking the ancient myths.[101] Although during the Enlightenment of the 18th century reaction against Greek myth spread throughout Europe, the myths continued to provide an important source of raw material for dramatists, including those who wrote the libretti for many of Handel's and Mozart's operas.[102] By the end of the 18th century, Romanticism initiated a surge of enthusiasm for all things Greek, including Greek mythology. In Britain, new translations of Greek tragedies and Homer inspired contemporary poets (such as Alfred Lord Tennyson, Keats, Byron and Shelley) and painters (such as Lord Leighton and Lawrence Alma-Tadema).[103] Christoph Gluck, Richard Strauss, Jacques Offenbach and many others set Greek mythological themes to music.[2] American authors of the 19th century, such as Thomas Bulfinch and Nathaniel Hawthorne, held that the study of the classical myths was essential to the understanding of English and American literature.[104] In more recent times, classical themes have been reinterpreted by dramatists Jean Anouilh, Jean Cocteau, and Jean Giraudoux in France, Eugene O'Neill in America, and T.S. Eliot in Britain and by novelists such as James Joyce and André Gide.[2] Chaucer: Illustration from Cassells History of England, circa 1902 Chanticleer the rooster from an outdoor production of Chanticleer and the Fox at Ashby_de_la_Zouch castle Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Bridges on the cover of Time in 1929 Robert Seymour Bridges, OM, (October 23, 1844 – April 21, 1930) was an English poet, holder of the honour of poet laureate from 1913. ... Racine is the name of several communities in the United States of America: Racine, Wisconsin, the largest Racine Racine, Minnesota Racine, Missouri Racine, Ohio Racine, West Virginia Racine County, Wisconsin Jean Racine was a 17th century French dramatist. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø t&#601;]) (August 28, 1749&#8211;March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... 18th century philosophy redirects here. ... Libretto can also refer to a sub-notebook PC manufactured by Toshiba. ... HANDEL was the code-name for the UKs National Attack Warning System in the Cold War. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 &#8211; December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ... The family name Keats, a surname of England is believed to be descended originally from the Anglo Saxon race from old English word cyta or cyte which has been used to describe a worker at the shed, outhouse for animals, hence herdsman. ... The poet George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron is often referred to simply as Byron. ... Shelley may mean; People As a given name: Shelley Winters, American actress Shelley Rudman, British athlete Shelley Duncan Yankees player As a surname: George Ernest Shelley, an ornithologist Howard Shelley, a British pianist Percy Bysshe Shelley, English poet and husband of Mary Shelley Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, English novelist famous for... Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton (December 31, 1830 - January 25, 1896) was an English painter and sculptor. ... Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, OM, RA (January 8, 1836, Dronrijp, the Netherlands. ... Christoph Willibald Gluck (July 2, 1714 &#8211; November 15, 1787) was a German composer. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Jacques Offenbach (20 June 1819 – 5 October 1880) was a French composer and cellist of the Romantic era with German-Jewish descent and one of the originators of the operetta form. ... Thomas Bulfinch (July 15, 1796 - May 27, 1867) was an American writer, born in Newton, Massachusetts to a highly-educated but not rich Bostonian merchant family. ... Nathaniel Hawthorne (born Nathaniel Hathorne; July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was a 19th century American novelist and short story writer. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Jean Cocteau Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 – 11 October 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ... Hippolyte Jean Giraudoux (October 29, 1882 - January 31, 1944) was a French dramatist who wrote internationally acclaimed plays. ... Eugene Gladstone ONeill (October 16, 1888 – November 27, 1953) was a Nobel- and four-time Pulitzer Prize-winning American playwright. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot (September 26, 1888 - January 4, 1965), was a major Modernist Anglo-American poet, dramatist, and literary critic. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... André Gide in 1893 Gide redirects here, for other people named Gide, see Gide (disambiguation) André Paul Guillaume Gide (November 22, 1869 – February 19, 1951) was a French author and winner of the Nobel Prize in literature in 1947. ...


Notes

  1. ^ "Volume: Hellas, Article: Greek Mythology". Encyclopaedia The Helios. (1952). 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Greek Mythology". Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2002). 
  3. ^ J.M. Foley, Homer's Traditional Art, 43
  4. ^ a b F. Graf, Greek Mythology, 200
  5. ^ R. Hard, The Routledge Handbook of Greek Mythology, 1
  6. ^ a b c Miles, Classical Mythology in English Literature, 7
  7. ^ a b Klatt-Brazouski, Ancient Greek nad Roman Mythology, xii
  8. ^ Miles, Classical Mythology in English Literature, 8
  9. ^ P. Cartledge, The Spartans, 60, and The Greeks, 22
  10. ^ Pasiphae, Encyclopedia: Greek Gods, Spirits, Monsters
  11. ^ Homer, Iliad, 8. An epic poem about the Battle of Troy. 366–369
  12. ^ Albala-Johnson-Johnson, Understanding the Odyssey, 17
  13. ^ Albala-Johnson-Johnson, Understanding the Odyssey, 18
  14. ^ A. Calimach, Lovers' Legends: The Gay Greek Myths;, 12–109
  15. ^ W.A. Percy, Pederasty and Pedagogy in Archaic Greece, 54
  16. ^ a b K. Dowden, The Uses of Greek Mythology, 11
  17. ^ G. Miles, Classical Mythology in English Literature, 35
  18. ^ a b c W. Burkert, Greek Religion, 205
  19. ^ Hesiod, Works and Days, 90–105
  20. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses, I, 89–162
  21. ^ Klatt-Brazouski, Ancient Greek and Roman Mythology, 10
  22. ^ a b Hesiod, Theogony, 116–138
  23. ^ Hesiod, Theogony, 713–735
  24. ^ Homeric Hymn to Hermes, 414–435
  25. ^ G. Betegh, The Derveni Papyrus, 147
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Jane Ellen Harrison (September 9, 1850&#8211;April 5, 1928) was a ground-breaking English classical scholar and feminist. ...

References

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Primary sources (Greek and Roman)

The Persians (Πέρσαι) is a tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright Aeschylus. ... Prometheus Bound is an Ancient Greek tragedy. ... Ciceros De Divinatione (Latin, Concerning Divination) is a philosophical treatise in two books written in 45 BC . ... The Histories of Herodotus by Herodotus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... (The) Apology (of Socrates) is Platos version of the speech given by Socrates as he defends himself against the charges of being a man who corrupted the young, did not believe in the gods, and created new deities. Apology here has its earlier meaning (now usually expressed by the... Theaetetus ( 417 B.C. &#8211; 369 B.C.) was a Greek mathematician of Geometry. ...

Secondary sources

  • Ackerman, Robert (1991—Reprint edition). "Introduction", Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion by Jane Ellen Harrison. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01514-7. 
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  • Bulfinch, Thomas (2003). "Greek Mythology and Homer", Bulfinch's Greek and Roman Mythology. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30881-0. 
  • Burkert, Walter (2002). "Prehistory and the Minoan Mycenaen Era", Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical (translated by John Raffan). Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-15624-0. 
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  • Calimach, Andrew (2002). "The Cultural Background", Lovers' Legends: The Gay Greek Myths. Haiduk Press. ISBN 0-9714686-0-5. 
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  • Cartledge, Paul A. (2004). The Spartans (translated in Greek). Livanis. ISBN 960-14-0843-6. 
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  • Foley, John Miles (1999). "Homeric and South Slavic Epic", Homer's Traditional Art. Penn State Press. ISBN 0-271-01870-4. 
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  • Kirk, Geoffrey Stephen (1973). "The Thematic Simplicity of the Myths", Myth. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-02389-7. 
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  • Morris, Ian (2000). Archaeology As Cultural History. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-19602-1. 
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  • Nagy, Gregory (1992). "The Hellenization of the Indo-European Poetics", Greek Mythology and Poetics. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-8048-5. 
  • Nilsson, Martin P. (1940). "The Religion of Eleusis", Greek Popular Religion. Columbia University Press. 
  • North John A., Beard Mary, Price Simon R.F. (1998). "The Religions of Imperial Rome", Classical Mythology in English Literature: A Critical Anthology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31682-0. 
  • Papadopoulou, Thalia (2005). "Introduction", Heracles and Euripidean Tragedy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85126-2. 
  • Percy, William Armostrong III (1999). "The Institutionalization of Pederasty", Pederasty and Pedagogy in Archaic Greece. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-252-06740-1. 
  • Poleman, Horace I. (March 1943). "Review of "Ouranos-Varuna. Etude de mythologie comparee indo-europeenne by Georges Dumezil"". "Journal of the American Oriental Society" 63 (No.1): 78–79. American Oriental Society. 
  • Reinhold, Meyer (October 20, 1970). "The Generation Gap in Antiquity". "Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society" 114 (No.5): 347–365. American Philosophical Society. 
  • Rose, Herbert Jennings (1991). A Handbook of Greek Mythology. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-04601-7. 
  • Segal, Robert A. (1991). "A Greek Eternal Child", Myth and the Polis edited by Dora Carlisky Pozzi, John Moore Wickersham. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-2473-9. 
  • Segal, Robert A. (April 4 1990). "The Romantic Appeal of Joseph Campbell". "Christian Century". Christian Century Foundation. 
  • Segal, Robert A. (1999). "Jung on Mythology", Theorizing about Myth. Univ of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 1-55849-191-0. 
  • Stoll, Heinrich Wilhelm (translated by R. B. Paul) (1852). Handbook of the religion and mythology of the Greeks. Francis and John Rivington. 
  • Trobe, Kala (2001). "Dionysus", Invoke the Gods. Llewellyn Worldwide. ISBN 0-7387-0096-7. 
  • "Trojan War". Encyclopaedia The Helios. (1952). 
  • "Troy". Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2002). 
  • "Volume: Hellas, Article: Greek Mythology". Encyclopaedia The Helios. (1952). 
  • Walsh, Patrick Gerald (1998). "Liberating Appearance in Mythic Content", The Nature of the Gods. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-282511-9. 
  • Weaver, John B. (1998). "Introduction", The Plots of Epiphany. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-018266-1. 
  • Winterbourne, Anthony (2004). "Spinning and Weaving Fate", When the Norns Have Spoken. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. ISBN 0-8386-4048-6. 
  • Wood, Michael (1998). "The Coming of the Greeks", In Search of the Trojan War. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21599-0. 

Further reading

  • Graves, Robert (1955—Cmb/Rep edition 1993). The Greek Myths. Penguin (Non-Classics). ISBN 0-14-017199-1. 
  • Hamilton, Edith (1942—New edition 1998). Mythology. Back Bay Books. ISBN 0-316-34151-7. 
  • Kerenyi, Karl (1951—Reissue edition 1980). The Gods of the Greeks. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27048-1. 
  • Kerenyi, Karl (1959—Reissue edition 1978). The Heroes of the Greeks. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27049-X. 
  • Morford M.P.O., Lenardon L.J. (2006). Classical Mythology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-530805-0. 
  • Ruck Carl, Staples Blaise Daniel (1994). The World of Classical Myth. Carolina Academic Press. ISBN 0-89089-575-9. 
  • Smith, William (1870), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
  • Veyne, Paul (1988). Did the Greeks Believe in Their Myths? An Essay on Constitutive Imagination (translated by Paula Wissing). University of Chicago. ISBN 0-226-85434-5. 

Sir William Smith (1813 - 1893), English lexicographer, was born at Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
| greek mythology (993 words)
In the various greek mythology legends, stories and hymns, the gods of ancient Greece are nearly all described as human in appearance, unaging, nearly immune to all wounds and sickness, capable of becoming invisible, able to travel vast distances almost instantly, and able to speak through human beings with or without their knowledge.
When these greek mythology gods were called upon in poetry or prayer, they are referred to by a combination of their name and epithets, with the epithets identifying them by these distinctions from the other gods.
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Greek Mythology - MSN Encarta (555 words)
Greek Mythology, set of diverse traditional tales told by the ancient Greeks about the exploits of gods and heroes and their relations with ordinary mortals.
Greek mythology was like a complex and rich language, in which the Greeks could express a vast range of perceptions about the world.
The Greek gods resembled human beings in their form and in their emotions, and they lived in a society that resembled human society in its levels of authority and power.
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