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Encyclopedia > Greek Civil War
Greek Civil War
Part of the Cold War

Map of Greece.
Date December 1944 - October 16, 1949
Location Southern Balkan Peninsula
Result Western Allied/Royalist Victory
Combatants
Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans

United Kingdom For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Gr-map. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... This article is about the land force of the modern nation of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ...

Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE)
Commanders
Alexander Papagos,
Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos,
James Van Fleet
Markos Vafiadis
Strength
150,000 men 50,000 men and women
Casualties
15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured

The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was fought between 1946 and 1949, and represents the first example of a post-war Communist insurgency. The victory of the government anti-Communist forces led to Greece's membership in NATO and helped to define the ideological balance of power in the Aegean for the entire Cold War. Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle. ... The Communist Party of Greece (Greek: Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας, Kommounistikó Kómma Elládas), better known by its acronym, ΚΚΕ (usually pronounced koo-koo-eh or kappa-kappa-epsilon), is the communist party of Greece and the oldest party in the Greek political scene. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Alexander Papagos (in Greek:Αλέξανδρος Παπάγος, Alexandros Papagos). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... James Alward Van Fleet (March 19, 1892 - September 23, 1992) was a U.S. Army general during World War II and the Korean War. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle. ... Markos Vafiadis (Theodosiopolis, Asia Minor, 1906 - Athens, Greece, February 23, 1992) was a leading cadre of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) during the Greek Civil War. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The US government and media was using the term insurgent as early as 1899 to describe rebels during the Philippine-American War, here Filipinos described as insurgents at the time lie in a trench after being executed by US forces. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


The civil war consisted on one side of the armed forces of the postwar centrist and right-wing Greek administrations, and on the other communist-led leftwing forces, and key members of the biggest Anti-Nazi resistance organization (ELAS), the leadership of which was controlled by the Communist Party of Greece (KKE), with broader affiliates on the left. A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... Ethnikos Laikos Apeleftherotikos Stratos (ELAS) (Greek Εθνικός Λαϊκός Απελευθερωτικός Στράτος (ΕΛΑΣ) National Popular Liberation Army) was the military arm of the Ethniko Apeleftherotiko Metopo (ELAM) during the period of the Greek Resistance and the Greek Civil War. ... The Communist Party of Greece (Greek: Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας, Kommounistikó Kómma Elládas), better known by its acronym, ΚΚΕ (usually pronounced koo-koo-eh or kappa-kappa-epsilon), is the communist party of Greece and the oldest party in the Greek political scene. ...


The first phase of the civil war took shape in 1942-1944. The left-wing and right-wing of the resistance movement fought each other in a fratricidal conflict to establish the leadership of the Greek resistance. In the second phase (1944) the ascendant communists, in military control of most of Greece, were confronted by the returning Greek government in exile, which had been formed under Western Allied auspices in Cairo. In the third phase (commonly called the "Third Round" by the Communists) (1946-1949), a centre-right coalition government, elected under abnormal conditions, fought against armed forces controlled by the Communist Party of Greece. Although the involvement of the Communist Party in the uprisings was universally known, the party remained legal until 1948, continuing to coordinate attacks from its Athens offices until proscription. Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Proscription (Latin: proscriptio) is the public identification and official condemnation of enemies of the state. ...


The civil war left Greece with a legacy of political polarisation; as a result, Greece also entered into alliance with the United States and joined NATO, while relationships with its Soviet-allied northern neighbors became strained.

Contents

Background: 1941-44

Origins

This article is part of the series on: Image File history File links COA_of_Greece. ...


History of Greece This article covers the Greek civilization. ...

Prehistory of Greece
Helladic Civilization
Cycladic Civilization
Minoan Civilization
Mycenaean Civilization
Greek Dark Ages
Ancient Greece
Archaic Greece
Classical Greece
Hellenistic Greece
Roman Greece
Medieval Greece
Byzantine Empire
Ottoman Greece
Modern Greece
Greek War of Independence
Kingdom of Greece
Axis Occupation of Greece
Greek Civil War
Military Junta
The Hellenic Republic
Topical History
Economic history of Greece
Military history of Greece
Constitutional history of Greece
Names of the Greeks
History of Greek art
This box: view  talk  edit
An ELAS soldier
See also: Axis Occupation of Greece during WWII and Greek Resistance

The origins of the civil war lie in the occupation of Greece by Nazi Germany and Bulgaria from 1941 to 1944 and Italy from 1941 to 1943. King George II and his government escaped to Egypt, where they proclaimed a government-in-exile, recognised by the Western Allies, but not by the Soviet Union. The Western Allies actively encouraged, even coerced, the King to appoint moderate ministers; only two of his ministers were members of the dictatorial government that had governed Greece before the German invasion. Some in the left-wing resistance claimed the government to be illegitimate, on account of its roots in the dictatorship of General Ioannis Metaxas from 1936 to 1941. Regardless of its pretensions, or of the dissenters, the government's inability to influence the governance of Greece rendered it irrelevant in the minds of most Greek people. Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean. ... The Helladic is a modern term to identify a sequence of periods characterizing the culture of mainland ancient Greece during the Bronze Age. ... Cycladic civilization (also known as Cycladic culture or The Cycladic period) is an Early Bronze Age culture of the Cyclades in the Aegean Sea, spanning the period from approximately 3000 BC-2000 BC. // Cycladic marble figurine of the Keros Culture type The significant Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Cycladic... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... The Greek Dark Ages (ca. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The archaic period in Greece is the period during which the ancient Greek city-states developed, and is normally taken to cover roughly the 9th century to the 6th century BCE. The Archaic period followed the dark ages, and saw significant advancements in political theory, and the rise of democracy... Parthenon This article is on the term Classical Greece itself. ... The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... Roman Greece is the period of Greek history following the Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC until the reestablishment of the city of Byzantium and the naming of the city by Emperor Constantine I as the capital of the Roman Empire (as Nova... Roman Greece The Greek peninsula became a Roman protectorate in 146 BC, and the Aegean islands were added to this territory in 133. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 14th century until its declaration of independence in 1821. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... Capital Athens Language(s) Greek Religion Greek Orthodox Government Constitutional Monarchy King  - 1832-1862 Otto  - 1863-1913 George I  - 1913-1917 Constantine I  - 1917-1920 Alexander  - 1920-1922 Constantine I  - 1922-1924 George II Historical era Enlightenment Era  - London Protocol August 30, 1832  - Military junta April 21, 1967 The Kingdom... German soldiers raising the Reich War Flag over the Acropolis. ... The Phoenix rising from its flames and the silhouette of the soldier bearing a rifle with fixed bayonet was the emblem of the Junta. ... The history of the Hellenic Republic constitutes three discreet periods in Greek History: 1827 - 1832, 1924 - 1935 and 1974 - present. ... The economic history of the Greek World spans several millennia and encompasses many modern day nation states. ... The military history of Greece is the history of the wars and battles of the Greek people in Greece, the Balkans and the Greek colonies in the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea since classical antiquity. ... In the modern history of Greece, starting from the Greek War of Independence, the Constitution of 1975/1986/2001 is the last in a series of democratically adopted Constitutions (with the exception of the Constitutions of 1968 and 1973 imposed by a dictatorship). ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Greece has a rich and varied artistic history, spanning some 5000 years and beginning in the Cycladic and Minoan prehistorical civilization, giving birth to Western classical art in the ancient period (further developing this during the Hellenistic Period), to taking in the influences of Eastern civilisations and the new religion... Image File history File links source: Communist Party of Greece, archives File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links source: Communist Party of Greece, archives File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ethnikos Laikos Apeleftherotikos Stratos (ELAS) (Greek Εθνικός Λαϊκός Απελευθερωτικός Στράτος (ΕΛΑΣ) National Popular Liberation Army) was the military arm of the Ethniko Apeleftherotiko Metopo (ELAM) during the period of the Greek Resistance and the Greek Civil War. ... German soldiers raising the Swastika over the Acropolis. ... An ELAS fighter The Greek Resistance (Greek: , i. ... German soldiers raising the Swastika over the Acropolis. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... George II (Greek: Γεώργιος [Geōrgios]; 20 July 1890 — 1 April 1947), King of the Hellenes (Greece) ruled from 1922-1924 and 1935-1947. ... A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ... Ioannis Metaxas From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ... Ioannis Metaxas (Greek Ιωάννης Μεταξάς, April 12, 1871 – January 29, 1941) was a Greek General and the Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 until his death in 1941. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


The Germans set up a collaborationist government in Athens as soon as they entered the city; but this government, too, lacked legitimacy and support. The puppet regime was further undermined when economic mismanagement in wartime conditions created runaway inflation, acute food shortages, and even famine, amongst the Greek civilian population. Some high-profile officers of the pre-war Greek regime served the Germans in various posts. In 1943, this government’s PM, Ioannis Rallis, started creating paramilitary forces, composed mostly of local fascists, convicts, and sympathetic prisoners of war, in order to fight the communist partisans and reduce the strain on the German army. These forces, known as the Security Battalions, numbered 20,000 men at their peak in 1944. They were never used against the Western Allies, but only against the pro-communist guerillas. Collaboration, literally, consists of working together with one or more other people. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Ioannis Rallis (1878-1946) was the third Nazi collaborator prime minister of Greece, from 7 April 1943 to 12 October 1944, succeeding Konstantinos Logothetopoulos in the Nazi-held puppet government in Athens. ... The Security Battalions (Greek: Τάγματα Ασφαλείας, Tágmata Asfalías) were Greek collaborationist military groups, formed during World War II in order to support the German occupation troops. ...


The lack of legitimate government created a power vacuum, which was filled by several resistance movements that began operations shortly after the start of German occupation. The largest of those was the National Liberation Front (Greek, Ethniko Apeleftherotiko Metopo or EAM), founded in 27 September 1941, established by representatives of four left-wing parties. Following the Soviet policy of creating a broad united front against fascism, EAM won the support of many non-Communists. It became a large popular organisation which, although completely controlled by KKE, tried to appear solely as a democratic republican movement. EAM's military wing, the National People's Liberation Army (Ethnikos Laikos Apeleftherotikos Stratos, or ELAS) was later founded in February 1942. Another organization, controlled by the Greek Communist Party, was the mainly terrorist OPLA (Organization for the Protection of the People's Fighters). In the area of Florina there also was the Slavic Macedonian organization NOF, which changed its name to SNOF during the third phase of the civil war. The National Liberation Front (EAM) (Greek: , Ethniko Apeleftherotiko Metopo) was the main movement of the Greek Resistance during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II. It was founded in 27 September 1941 by representatives of four left-wing parties : Lefteris Apostolou for the Communist Party of Greece (KKE... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... A popular front is a broad coalition of different political groupings, often made up of leftists and centrists who are united by opposition to another group (most often fascist or far-right groups). ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... KKE sticker The Communist Party of Greece, better known by its acronym KKE (Greek: Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας, Kommunistiko Komma Elladas), is the major communist party in Greece. ... Allama Iqbal International Airport (IATA: LHE, ICAO: OPLA) is Pakistans second largest civil airport after Jinnah International Airport. ... Flórina (Greek: Macedonian: ), is a town in West Macedonia, Greece. ... National Liberation Front (NOF) (Macedonian: , Latinic: Narodno Osloboditelen Front (NOF)) (also known as the Peoples Liberation Front) was a political and military organization created by the ethnic Macedonian minority in Greece. ...


EAM and ELAS opposed all other resistance movements, including the National Republican Greek League (Ethnikos Dimokratikos Ellinikos Syndesmos, or EDES), led by a former army officer, Colonel Napoleon Zervas, and the National and Social Liberation (Ethniki Kai Koinoniki Apeleftherosis, or EKKA), led by Colonel Dimitrios Psarros. EKKA was a classical liberal movement, with strong opposition to the monarchy. EDES initially bore a republican ideology, but from 1943, through its increasing conflict with ELAS, it turned to a more pro-royalist stance. The National Republican Greek League (Greek: , Ethnikos Dimokratikos Ellinikos Syndesmos, abbreviated EDES) was a World War II Greek resistance movement. ... Napoleon Zervas ( Arta, May 17, 1891 - 1957) was a Greek general and resistance leader during World War II. He organized and led the National Republican Greek League (EDES), a resistance organization against the Nazi occupation of Greece. ... National and Social Liberation (Greek: , Ethniki Kai Koinoniki Apeleftherosis), also known by its initials EKKA, was the Greek Resistance movement founded by Colonel Dimitrios Psarros during Axis occupation of Greece. ... Dimitrios Psarros (Greek: ) was a Greek army officer and resistance leader. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Resistance first struck in Eastern Macedonia, where the Germans had allowed Bulgarian troops to occupy Greek territories. Large demonstrations were organized by the YBE (Defenders of Northern Greece), a right wing organization, in Greek Macedonian cities, in response.


The Greek landscape is very favourable to guerrilla operations, and by 1943 the Axis forces and their collaborators controlled only the main towns and connecting roads, leaving the mountainous interior to the resistance. By 1943 ELAS had about 30,000 men under arms and effectively controlled large areas of the mountainous Peloponnese, Crete, Thessaly, and Macedonia (a territory of 30,000 km². and 750,000 inhabitants). EDES had about 10,000 men, nearly all of them in Epirus. EKKA had only about 1,000 men. Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ...


The first conflicts: 1942-1944

The Western Allies provided all resistance organizations with funds and equipment, since they themselves needed any help they could find against the Axis. However, the British Foreign Office, foreseeing a communist upsurge, observed with displeasure the transformation of ELAS into a large-scale conventional army, as opposed to a group of autonomous small local troops without any guidance and administration. A British officer’s telegraph reveals that for the British Foreign Office: “The best level of sabotage would be no sabotage at all”[citation needed]. However, ELAS took control of the weapons of the Italian garrisons in Greece after September 8th 1943 and the Armistice with Italy. So, from October 1943 onwards, the Western Allies tried to promote the anti-communist resistance organizations and minimize ELAS’s increasing influence by stopping the flow of weapons and funds to ELAS. In 1944 ELAS was able to equip its units with weapons looted from the enemy, while EDES enjoyed Western Allied support. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom abroad. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom abroad. ... The Armistice with Italy is an armistice that occurred on September 8, 1943, during World War II. It was signed by Italy and the Allied armed forces, who were occupying the southern half of the country at the time. ...


EAM-ELAS often charged members of non-communist resistance organizations, including EDES and EKKA, with being traitors and collaborators, and such charges were the background for the launching of sustained attacks against them. The extent of the validity of this perspective , in the chaos of warime, remains a source of age-old, perennial controversy in Greece. While some such organizations did accept assistance from the Nazis in their efforts to resist EAM-ELAS persecution, some stress, the great majority of the nationalist resistance organizations refused any form of co-operation with the occupation authorities. However, others highlight that a number of the members of the nationalist resistance organizations which were attacked and destroyed by ELAS, did later 'seek refuge', as they might have seen it, in the Security Battalions set up by the collaborationist regime to fight against the communist guerillas. As the EAM-ELAS action grew fiercer so the Security Battalions numbers swelled, others again contend.[citation needed] The Security Battalions (Greek: Τάγματα Ασφαλείας, Tágmata Asfalías) were Greek collaborationist military groups, formed during World War II in order to support the German occupation troops. ...


EAM was the strongest of all resistance organizations, and from a common conservative point of view it attacked all non-communist resistance fighters. From an equally common leftwing point of view, it also carried along with it a number of non-communist leftwing elements. In order to establish a monopoly over the resistance, EAM accused EDES of collaboration with the Germans, since it was obvious that the Allies would soon invade southern Europe through Greece, and ELAS wanted to be in a dominant position when the Germans left Greece. This situation led to triangular battles among ELAS, EDES and the Germans. Given the support of the British and the Greek Cairo Government for EDES, these conflicts precipitated a civil war. In October 1943 ELAS attacked its rivals, particularly EDES, triggering a civil war across many parts of Greece which continued until February 1944, when British agents in Greece negotiated a ceasefire (the Plaka agreement). Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Elas partisans.

In Greece under Nazi occupation, the struggle was bitter and there was no room for delicate differentiations, with both ELAS and rightwing resistance movements responsible for atrocities. In the case of the ELAS activity more commonly highlighted by the right, this included the Meligalas massacre where many civilians were killed when ELAS attacked the village, and the former officers of the Greek army forced at gun-point to join ELAS, though preferring to join the anti-communist partisan groups or the forces of the government-in-exile in Middle East. The case of Stefanos Sarafis, the military leader of ELAS, is another held up as characteristic by those on the right, but not the left, who instead draw equally reasonable attention to the extent of non-communist leftwing membership within broader EAM and its implications. Sarafis, others stress, sought to join the non-communist resistance group commanded by Kostopoulos in Thessaly with a group of other officers. On their way they were caught by an ELAS group commanded by Velouhiotis, and Sarafis agreed to join ELAS at gun point when Velouhiotis killed all the other officers who refused.[1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Meligalas (Μελιγαλάς) is a municipality in Messenia, Greece. ... Ethnikos Laikos Apeleftherotikos Stratos (ELAS) (Greek Εθνικός Λαϊκός Απελευθερωτικός Στράτος (ΕΛΑΣ) National Popular Liberation Army) was the military arm of the Ethniko Apeleftherotiko Metopo (ELAM) during the period of the Greek Resistance and the Greek Civil War. ... Stefanos Sarafis (Greek: , 1890 - 31 May 1957) was an officer of the Hellenic Army who played an important role during the Greek Resistance. ...


The Egypt mutiny and Lebanon conference

See also: National People's Liberation Army (Greece)#The "Mountain Government"
Main article: Lebanon conference

In March 1944 the EAM established the Political Committee of National Liberation (Politiki Epitropi Ethnikis Apeleftherosis, or PEEA), in effect a third Greek government to rival those in Athens and Cairo. Its aims were, "to intensify the struggle against the conquerors... for full national liberation, for the consolidation of the independence and integrity of our country... and for the annihilation of domestic Fascism and armed traitor formations." PEEA consisted not only of communists but also of progressives, who had nothing to do with communist ideas. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Political Committee of National Liberation (Greek: , Politiki Epitropi Ethikis Apeleftherosis (PEEA)) was a communist-dominated government established in Greece in 1944 in opposition to both the collaborationist German-controlled government at Athens and to the royal government-in-exile in Cairo. ...


The moderate aims of the PEEA (known as κυβέρνηση του βουνού, "the Mountain Government") aroused support even among Greeks in exile. In April 1944 the Greek armed forces in Egypt, many among whom were well-disposed towards EAM, mutinied against the Western Allies, demanding that a Government of National Unity be established based on the PEEA principles. The mutiny was suppressed by Western Allied armed units and Greek officers loyal to the exiled government. Approximately 8,000 Greek soldiers were sent into prison camps in Libya, Sudan, Egypt and elsewhere. Later on, through political screening of the officers, the Cairo government created staunchly anti-Communist armed forces. 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Greece dealt the first victory for the allies by resisting initial attempts of Italian invasion and pushing Mussolinis forces back into Albania. ...


In May 1944, representatives from all political parties and resistance groups came together at a conference in Lebanon, seeking an agreement about a government of national unity. Despite EAM's accusations of collaboration, made against all the other Greek forces, and charges against EAM-ELAS members of murders, banditry and thievery, the conference ended with an agreement for a government of national unity consisting of 24 ministers (6 of whom were EAM's members). The agreement was made possible by Soviet directives to KKE to avoid harming Allied unity, but it didn't resolve the problem of disaramanent of resistance groups. 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... KKE sticker The Communist Party of Greece, better known by its acronym KKE (Greek: Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας, Kommunistiko Komma Elladas), is the major communist party in Greece. ...


Confrontation: 1944

From Lebanon conference to the outburst

By the summer of 1944 it was obvious that the Germans would soon withdraw from Greece, because the armed forces of the Soviet Union were advancing into Romania and towards Yugoslavia and the Germans risked being cut off. The government-in-exile, now led by a prominent liberal, George Papandreou, moved to Caserta in Italy in preparation for the return to Greece. Under the Caserta agreement of September 1944, all the resistance forces in Greece were placed under the command of a British officer, General Ronald Scobie. 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Georgios Papandreou, the Geros of Democracy George Papandreou (in Greek Georgios Papandreou or Γεώργιος Παπανδρέου) (18 February 1888 - 1 November 1968) was a Greek politician. ... Caserta, near Naples was certainly the largest palace and probably the largest building erected in Europe in the 18th century. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Sir Ronald MacKenzie Scobie KBE, CBE, CB, MC was a British Army officer. ...


Troops of the Western Allies landed in Greece in October. There was little fighting since the Germans were in full retreat and most of Greek territory had already been liberated by either ELAS or EDES. For example, only the central part of Athens was under German occupation on October 13, while all other regions were under EAM-ELAS rule. The German forces were greatly outnumbered by ELAS, which by this time had 50,000 men under arms and was re-equipping from supplies left behind by the Germans. On October 13 British troops entered Athens, and Papandreou and his ministers followed 6 days later. The King stayed in Cairo, because Papandreou had promised that the future of the monarchy would be decided by referendum. The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations and Poland (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...

Disarming of ELAS after the Varkiza agreement.

At this point there was little to prevent ELAS from taking full control of the country. They did not do so because the KKE leadership was under instructions from the Soviet Union not to precipitate a crisis that could jeopardise Allied unity and put at risk Stalin's larger post-war objectives. KKE’s leadership knew this, but the ELAS fighters and rank-and-file Communists didn't. This became a source of conflict within EAM and ELAS. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... KKE sticker The Communist Party of Greece, better known by its acronym KKE (Greek: Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας, Kommunistiko Komma Elladas), is the major communist party in Greece. ...


Following Stalin's instructions, KKE’s leadership tried to avoid a confrontation with the Papandreou government. The majority of ELAS members saw the Western Allies as liberators, although some KKE leaders such as Andreas Tzimas and Aris Velouchiotis did not trust the Western Allies. Tzimas was in touch with the Yugoslav Communist leader Josip Broz Tito, and he disagreed with ELAS's co-operation with the Western Allied forces. Aris Velouchiotis (Άρης Βελουχιώτης), (August 27, 1905-June 16, 1945, real name Thanassis Klaras/Θανάσης Κλάρας) was a prominent leader of the communist segment of Greek guerrilla resistance during World War II which was followed by the Greek Civil War. ... Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, May 7, 1892 [May 25th according to official birth certificate] – May 4, 1980) was the leader of the Second Yugoslavia, which lasted from 1943 until 1991. ...


The issue of disarming the resistance organizations was a cause of friction between the Papandreou government and its EAM members. Advised by the British ambassador Sir Reginald Leeper, Papandreou demanded the disarmament of all armed forces apart from the Ieros Lochos and the III Greek 'Rimini' Mountain Brigade, which were formed after the suppression of the April 1944 Egypt mutiny, and the constitution of a National Guard under government control. EAM, believing that this would leave ELAS defenceless against the right-wing militias and the anti-communist Security Battalions, submitted an alternative plan of total and simultaneous disarmament, which Papandreou rejected, as he had started viewing the Security Battalions as a good reserve against a possible communist coup, and EAM ministers resigned from the government on December 2. On December 1, Scobie had issued a proclamation requiring the dissolution of ELAS. Command of ELAS was KKE's greatest source of strength, and the KKE leader Siantos decided that the demand for ELAS's dissolution must be resisted. Sacred Band can refer to one of two elite military units of the ancient world: the Sacred Band of Thebes the Sacred Band of Carthage This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Security Battalions (Greek: Τάγματα Ασφαλείας, Tágmata Asfalías) were Greek collaborationist military groups, formed during World War II in order to support the German occupation troops. ... The Security Battalions (Greek: Τάγματα Ασφαλείας, Tágmata Asfalías) were Greek collaborationist military groups, formed during World War II in order to support the German occupation troops. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Tito's influence may have played some role in ELAS's resistance to disarmament. Tito was outwardly loyal to Stalin but had come to power through his own forces and believed that the Communist Greeks should do the same. His influence, however, had not prevented the EAM leadership from putting its forces under Scobie's command a couple of months earlier, according to the Caserta agreement.


In the meanwhile, following their leader’s instructions, X members had set up many outposts in central Athens and resisted EAM for several days, until the British troops arrived, as Grivas had been promised. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Dekemvriana

Main article: Dekemvriana

On December 3, during a major banned EAM/ELAS demonstration of approximately 250,000 people in central Athens, an outbreak of shooting by greek rightwing forces, some reports suggest possibly then supported by British forces "with machine guns positioned on the rooftops in Syntagma Square"[2], resulted in 28 deaths in the crowd and 148 wounded people, leading to full-scale fighting between ELAS and the Government in the ensuing days. is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Syntagma Square (Πλατεία Συντάγματος, Constitution Square), is located in central Athens, Greece. ...


The British tried to stay neutral but when the battle escalated they intervened, with artillery and aircraft being freely used. At the beginning the government had only a few policemen and a brigade without heavy weapons. On December 4 Papandreou attempted to resign but the British Ambassador convinced him to stay. By December 12 ELAS was in control of most of Athens and Piraeus. The British, outnumbered, flew in the 4th Infantry Division from Italy as reinforcements. During the battle with the ELAS, local militias fought alongside the British, triggering a massacre by ELAS fighters. It must be noted that although the British were fighting openly against ELAS in Athens there were no fights in the rest of Greece. In certain cases like Volos some RAF units even gave equipment to ELAS fighters. is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Kaminia (Piraeus), Greece be merged into this article or section. ... The British 4th Infantry Division served during World War II in France in 1940, North Africa and Italy. ...


Conflicts continued throughout December (hence known as Dekemvriana, "the December events"), with the British slowly gaining the upper hand. Curiously, ELAS forces in the rest of Greece did not attack the British. It seems that ELAS preferred a legitimate rise to power, but was drawn into the fighting by the indignation and, at the same time, the awe of its fighters after the slaughter on December 3, aiming at establishing its predominance. Only this version of the events can explain the simultaneous struggle against the British, the large-scale ELAS operations against trotskyists and other political dissidents in Athens and many contradictory decisions of EAM leaders. Videlicet, KKE's leadership was supporting a doctrine of 'national unity' while eminent members, e.g. Stringos or Makridis and even Georgios Siantos, were elaborating revolutionary plans. Ethnikos Laikos Apeleftherotikos Stratos (ELAS) (Greek Εθνικός Λαϊκός Απελευθερωτικός Στράτος (ΕΛΑΣ) National Popular Liberation Army) was the military arm of the Ethniko Apeleftherotiko Metopo (ELAM) during the period of the Greek Resistance and the Greek Civil War. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Georgios Siantos (Greek: , 1890 - May 20, 1947) was a prominent figure of the Greek Communist party (Greek: Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας, Kommunistiko Komma Elladas) who served as acting general secretary of the party and as a leader of the EAM/ELAS Resistance movement during the German occupation of Greece in World War II. // Siantos...


This outbreak of fighting between Allied forces and an anti-German European resistance movement, while the war in Europe was still being fought, was a serious political problem for Churchill's coalition government of left and right, and caused much protest in the British press and in the House of Commons. To prove his peace-making intention, Churchill himself arrived in Athens on December 25 and presided over a conference, in which Soviet representatives also participated, to bring about a settlement. It failed because the EAM/ELAS demands were considered excessive and, thus, rejected. Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

The aftermath of street fighting in Athens, December 1944.
The aftermath of street fighting in Athens, December 1944.

In the meanwhile, the Soviet Union remained surprisingly passive about the developments in Greece. True to their "percentages agreement" with Britain, the Soviet delegation in Greece wasn’t encouraging or discouraging EAM’s ambitions, as Greece belonged to the British sphere of influence. Pravda didn’t mention the clashes at all. If this position of the Soviet leadership had been brought home to KKE’s leadership, the Dekemvriana might have been averted. It seems that Stalin didn’t have the intention to avert the Dekemvriana, as he would profit no matter the outcome. If EAM rose to power, he would gain a country of major strategic value. If not, he could use the British actions in Greece to justify to the Allies any intervention in his own sphere of influence. Athens 1944 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The percentages agreement was an agreement between Josef Stalin and Winston Churchill about how to divide Europe in spheres of influences. ... Pravda (Russian: , The Truth) was a leading newspaper of the Soviet Union and an official organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party between 1912 and 1991. ...


By early January ELAS had been driven from Athens. As a result of Churchill's intervention, Papandreou resigned and was replaced by a firm anti-Communist, General Nikolaos Plastiras. On January 15, 1945 Scobie agreed to a ceasefire, in exchange for ELAS' withdrawal from its positions at Patras and Thessaloniki and its demobilisation in the Peloponnese. This was a severe defeat, but ELAS remained in existence and the KKE had an opportunity to reconsider its strategy. Nikolaos Plastiras (Greek: Νικόλαος Πλαστήρας) (November 4, 1883 - July 26, 1953) was a general of the Greek army. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Patras (Demotic Greek: Πάτρα, Pátra, Classical Greek: Πάτραι, Pátrai, Latin: , Ottoman Turkish: Ballıbadra) is the third-largest city of Greece and the capital of the prefecture of Achaea, located in northern Peloponnese, 215 kilometers to the west of Athens. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη) is Greeces second-largest city. ... KKE sticker The Communist Party of Greece, better known by its acronym KKE (Greek: Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας, Kommunistiko Komma Elladas), is the major communist party in Greece. ...


KKE's defeat in 1945 was mainly political. The exaltation of terrorism on the communist side made a political settlement even more difficult. The hunting of "collaborators" was extended to people who had not been involved in collaboration. Several Trotskyists had to leave the country to save their lives (e.g. Cornelius Castoriadis fled to France). After the Athens fighting, KKE support declined sharply, and as a result most of the prominent non-Communists in EAM left the organisation. But terrorism among the right-wing extremist gangs was strengthened. Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Cornelius Castoriadis[1] (Greek: Κορνήλιος Καστοριάδης) (March 11, 1922-December 26, 1997) was a Greek-French philosopher, economist and psychoanalyst. ...


Interlude: 1945-1946

In February 1945 the various Greek parties signed the Treaty of Varkiza, with the support of all the Allies. This provided for the complete demobilisation of ELAS and all other paramilitary groups, an amnesty for only political offences, a referendum on the monarchy, and a general election as soon as possible. The KKE remained legal, and its leader Nikolaos Zachariadis, who returned from Germany in April 1945, said that the KKE's objective was now a "people's democracy" to be achieved by peaceful means. There were dissenters, of course, like former ELAS leader Aris Velouchiotis. The KKE renounced Velouchiotis when he called on the veteran guerrillas to start a second struggle: shortly afterwards, he committed suicide, surrounded by the security forces. Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Treaty of Varkiza (also known as the Varkiza Pact or the Varkiza Peace Agreement) was signed in Varkiza (near Athens) on February 12, 1945 between the Greek Minister of Foreign Affairs (supported by the British) and the Secretary of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) for EAM-ELAS. One... Nikolaos Zachariadis ( 1903- 1973) has been the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Greece ( KKE) from 1931 to 1956. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... KKE sticker The Communist Party of Greece, better known by its acronym KKE (Greek: Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας, Kommunistiko Komma Elladas), is the major communist party in Greece. ... Aris Velouchiotis (Άρης Βελουχιώτης), (August 27, 1905-June 16, 1945, real name Thanassis Klaras/Θανάσης Κλάρας) was a prominent leader of the communist segment of Greek guerrilla resistance during World War II which was followed by the Greek Civil War. ...


The Treaty of Varkiza transformed the KKE's political defeat into a military one. ELAS's existence was terminated. At the same time the National Army and the right-wing extremists were free to continue their war against the ex-members of EAM. The amnesty was not comprehensive, because many actions during the German occupation were classified as criminal and so excepted from the amnesty. Thus, the authorities captured approximately 40,000 communists or ex-ELAS members. As a result, a number of veteran partisans hid their weapons in the mountains and 5,000 of them escaped to Yugoslavia, although the KKE leadership did not encourage this. The Treaty of Varkiza (also known as the Varkiza Pact or the Varkiza Peace Agreement) was signed in Varkiza (near Athens) on February 12, 1945 between the Greek Minister of Foreign Affairs (supported by the British) and the Secretary of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) for EAM-ELAS. One... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throuout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ...

Anti-communist militamen display their victims.

During 1945-1946, right-wing gangs killed about 1,190 pro-communist civilians, and tortured many others. Entire villages that helped the partisans were attacked by those right-wing gangs. According to the right-wing citizens, these gangs were retaliating for what they had suffered during the reign of ELAS. The reign of "White Terror" wave led many of persecuted ex-ELAS members to form self-defense troops, without any KKE approval. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 578 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 650 pixel, file size: 111 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Anti-communist militamen display their victims. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 578 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 650 pixel, file size: 111 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Anti-communist militamen display their victims. ...


KKE soon reversed its former political position, as relations between the Soviet Union and the Western Allies deteriorated. With the onset of the Cold War, Communist parties everywhere moved to more militant positions. This change of political attitude, the choice to escalate the crisis was primarily deriving from the persuasion that the regime subversion, that hadn’t succeeded in December 1944, could now be achieved. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


George Papandreou in July, 1945, informed the government that the dissolution of the Comintern was a fraud. Although Stalin still did not support a resumed armed struggle in Greece, showing his respect for Moscow agreement, the KKE leadership in February 1946 decided, "after weighing the domestic factors, and the Balkan and international situation," to go ahead with the, "organisation of a new armed struggle against the Monarcho-Fascist regime." The KKE boycotted the March 1946 elections, which were won by the monarchist United Patriotic Party (Inomeni Parataxis Ethnikofronon), the main member of which was the People's Party of Konstantinos Tsaldaris. In September a referendum decided to retain the monarchy, although KKE disputed the results, and King George returned to Athens. Georgios Papandreou, the Geros of Democracy George Papandreou (in Greek Georgios Papandreou or Γεώργιος Παπανδρέου) (18 February 1888 - 1 November 1968) was a Greek politician. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... In late 1945 there began, in Moscow a meeting of foreign ministers of the United States, England, and the Soviet Union. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The elections was carried out under the shadow of the Civil War 1,121,696 people voted with 1,108,473 valid votes for 354 seats in a 7 million population. ... The Peoples Party of Greece (Laiko Komma or Laikon Komma) was a conservative political party founded by Dimitrios Gounaris, the main political rival of Eleftherios Venizelos and his Liberal Party. ... Konstantinos Tsaldaris (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Τσαλδάρης) (1884 in Alexandria, Egypt - 1970 in Athens) was a Prime Minister of Greece two times He studied law at the University of Athens as well as Berlin, London and Florence. ... In 1946, a new plebiscite takes place about the form of the regime and the Greeks are asked again to decide whether they want a king or not. ...


The King's return in Greece reinforced the British influence in Greece. Nigel Clive was then a liaison officer to the Greek Government and later the head of the Athens station of MI6. In his view, 'Greece was a kind of British protectorate, but the British ambassador was not a colonial governor'. Whether this is true or not, it is a fact that six Prime Ministers changed within just two years, an indication of the instability that would characterize the country's political life for the next years. The Prime Minister of Greece (Πρωθυπουργός in Greek) is the head of government of the Hellenic Republic and the leader of the Greek cabinet. ...


Civil War: 1946-1949

The crest: 1946-1948

Fighting resumed in March 1946, as a gang of 30 ex-ELAS members, most of whom were persecuted, attacked a police station in village Litohoro. Next day, the official KKE paper’s coversheet stated that “The authorities and the gangs fabricate alleged communist attacks”. Contemporaneously, armed bands of ELAS veterans infiltrated into Greece through the mountainous regions near the Yugoslav and Albanian borders. They now were organized as the Democratic Army of Greece (Dimokratikos Stratos Elladas, DSE), under the command of the ELAS veteran Markos Vafiadis (known as "General Markos"), who operated from a base in Yugoslavia, sent from KKE to organize already existing troops. Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Litochoro, Litohoro (Greek, Modern: Λιτόχωρο, Ancient/Katharevoussa -on), older forms Litochoron, Litohoron and Litokhoron is a town and a municipality located in the southern part of the prefecture of Pieria and is the second largest community in Pieria. ... Komsomolskaya Pravda and Rizospastis in September 2005. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Markos Vafiadis (Theodosiopolis, Asia Minor, 1906 - Athens, Greece, February 23, 1992) was a leading cadre of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) during the Greek Civil War. ...


Both the Yugoslav and Albanian Communist regimes, which had come to power through their own efforts and were not Soviet puppets, supported the KKE fighters, but the Soviet Union remained ambivalent. It was not part of Stalin's strategy to conduct a war against the Western Allies in Greece, and the Soviets gave little direct support to the KKE campaign. Certain historians believe that Stalin's only object in Greece was to test the determination of the western allies.


By late 1946 DSE could deploy about 10,000 partisans in various areas of Greece, mainly in the northern mountains. According to the DSE, its fighters, "resisted the reign of terror that the right-wing gangs conducted all over Greece". Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The average and mainly peasant citizen was caught in the crossfire. When the DSE partizans were entering a village asking for supplies, the citizens could not resist. And when the national army was coming to the village the same citizens who had given supplies to the partizans, at gun point, were characterized as communist sympathizers and suffered the consequences (usually imprisonment or exile).


The Greek Army now numbered about 90,000 men, and gradually was being put on a more professional basis. The task of re-equipping and training the Army had been carried out by its fellow Western Allies. But by early 1947 Britain, which had spent 85 million pounds in Greece since 1944, no longer could afford this burden. President Harry S. Truman announced that the United States would step in to support the government of Greece against Communist pressure. This began a long and troubled relationship between Greece and the United States. For several decades the American Ambassador advised the King about important issues such as the appointment of the Prime Minister. Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ...

Markos Vafiadis.

Through 1947 the scale of fighting increased. DSE launched large-scale attacks on towns across northern Epirus, Thessaly and Macedonia, provoking the Army into massive counter-offensives, which then encountered no opposition as the DSE melted back into the mountains and into its safe havens over the northern borders. Army morale remained low, and it would be some time before the support of the United States became apparent. Markos Vafiadis File links The following pages link to this file: Markos Vafiadis Categories: Public domain images ... Markos Vafiadis File links The following pages link to this file: Markos Vafiadis Categories: Public domain images ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ...


In September 1947, however, KKE’s leadership decided to move from these guerilla tactics to full-scale conventional war, despite the opposition of Vafiadis. In December the KKE announced the formation of a Provisional Democratic Government, with Vafiadis as Prime Minister. This led the Athens government to finally ban KKE. No foreign government recognised this government. The new strategy led the DSE into costly attempts to seize a major town to be the seat of its government. In December 1947 1,200 DSE men were killed at a set-piece battle around Konitsa. However, this strategy forced the government to increase the size of the Army. Controlling the main cities, the government cracked down on KKE members and sympathizers, many of whom were imprisoned on the island of Makronisos. Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Markos Vafiadis (Theodosiopolis, Asia Minor, 1906 - Athens, Greece, February 23, 1992) was a leading cadre of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) during the Greek Civil War. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Konitsa (Greek: Κόνιτσα) is a town in Epirus, Greece, near the Albanian border. ... Makronisos (Μακρόνησος, in Greek, lit. ...


Despite setbacks such as the fighting at Konitsa, during 1948 the DSE reached the height of its power, extending its operations to the Peloponnese and even to Attica, within 20 km of Athens. It had at least 20,000 fighters, and a network of sympathizers and informants in every village and every suburb. It has been estimated that out of DSE's 20,000 fighters, 14,000 were Slavophones from the region of Macedonia[3]. Given their important role[4], KKE changed its policy on Greek Macedonia. At the fifth Plenum on January 31 1949, a resolution was passed claiming that Slavic Macedonians are distinguishing themselves, and after KKE's victory they would find their national restoration as they wish[5]. Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... The Macedonians (Македонци, Makedonci) - also referred to as Macedonian Slavs [1] - are a South Slavic ethnic group who are primarily associated with the Republic of Macedonia. ...


Western Allied funds, advisers and equipment now were flooding into the country, and under Western Allied guidance a series of major offensives were launched in the mountains of central Greece. Although these offensives did not achieve all their objectives, they inflicted some serious defeats on the DSE. Army morale rose, and the morale of the DSE fighters, many of whom had been "conscripted" at gunpoint, fell correspondingly.


The end of the war: 1949

The fatal blow to KKE and the DSE, however, was political, not military. In June of that year, the Soviet Union and its satellites broke off relations with President Tito of Yugoslavia, who had been the KKE's strongest supporter since 1944. The KKE thus had to choose between their loyalty to Stalin and their relations with their closest and most important ally. Inevitably, after some internal conflict the great majority of them, led by Zachariadis, chose Stalin. In January 1949 Vafiadis was accused of "Titoism" and removed from his political and military positions, being replaced by Zachariadis. Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Nikolaos Zachariadis ( 1903- 1973) has been the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Greece ( KKE) from 1931 to 1956. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After a year of increasing acrimony, Tito closed down the Yugoslavian border to the guerrillas of DSE in July of 1949 and disbanded their camps inside Yugoslavia. The DSE still could operate from Albania, but to the DSE that was a poor alternative. The split with Tito also set off a witch-hunt for "Tito-ites" inside the Greek Communist Party, leading to disorganisation and demoralisation within the ranks of the DSE and decline of support of the KKE in urban areas. Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the same time, the National Army found a talented commander in General Alexander Papagos. In August of 1949, Papagos launched a major counter-offensive against DSE forces in northern Greece, code-named "Operation Torch". The campaign was a major victory for the National Army and resulted in heavy losses for the DSE. The DSE army was no longer able to sustain resistance in set-piece battles. By September of 1949, most of its fighters had surrendered or escaped over the border into Albania. By the end of the month, the Albanian government, presumably with Soviet approval, announced to KKE that it would no longer allow the DSE to perform military operations from within Albanian territory. On October 16, Zachariadis announced a "temporary cease-fire to prevent the complete annihilation of Greece." This ceasefire marked the end of the Greek Civil War. Alexander Papagos (in Greek:Αλέξανδρος Παπάγος, Alexandros Papagos). ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nikolaos Zachariadis ( 1903- 1973) has been the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Greece ( KKE) from 1931 to 1956. ...


The Western Allies saw the end of the Greek Civil War, as a victory in the Cold War against the Soviet Union. The irony was that the Soviets never actively supported the Communist Party's efforts to seize power in Greece. The KKE's major supporter and supplier had always been Tito, and it was the rift between Tito and the KKE which marked the real demise of the party's efforts to assert power. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Post-war division and reconciliation

The Civil War left Greece in ruins, and in even greater economic distress than it had been after the end of the German occupation. Additionally, it divided the Greek people for the following decades, with both sides vilifying their opponents. Thousands of Greeks languished in prison for many years or were sent in exile in the islands of Yaros or Makronisos. Many thousands more took refuge in communist countries, or emigrated to Australia, Germany, the USA, and other countries. About ten thousand underaged children were abducted by communist fighters across the border, and forcibly relocated to Eastern Bloc countries. [1][2][3][4][5][6] The polarisation and instability in the 1960s of Greek politics was a direct result of feelings and ideologies lingering from the Civil War. Makronisos (Μακρόνησος, in Greek, lit. ... A Communist state is a state governed by a single political party which declares its allegiance to the principles of Marxism-Leninism. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ...


Right-wing extremist organisations played a role in the politics of the time by instigating conflict and tension, leading to the murder of the left-wing politician Gregoris Lambrakis in 1963 (the inspiration for the Costa Gavras political thriller, Z). On April 21, 1967, a group of right-wing Army officers (later referred to as the Regime of the Colonels) carried out a coup d'état and seized power from the government, using as an excuse the political instability and tension of the time. The leader of the coup, George Papadopoulos, was a member of the paramilitary organization IDEA (Ιερός Δεσμός Ελλήνων Αξιωματικών, or "Sacred Bond of Greek Officers"). In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... MP and Greek anti-fascist resistance icon Gregoris Lambrakis marching alone in the banned Marathon–Athens Peace Rally on Sunday April 21, 1963, one month before his assassination Gregoris Lambrakis (Γρηγόρης Λαμπράκης) (April 3, 1912–May 27, 1963) was a Greek politician, physician, and member of the faculty of the School of... Constantinos Gavras (born February 12, 1933, Loutra-Iraias, Greece), better known as Costa-Gavras, is a Greek-French filmmaker best known for films with overt political themes. ... Z is a 1969 French language political thriller directed by Costa Gavras, with a screenplay by Gavras and Jorge Semprún, based on the novel of the same name by Vassilis Vassilikos. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The Phoenix rising from its flames and the silhouette of the soldier bearing a rifle with fixed bayonet was the emblem of the Junta. ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Georgios Papadopoulos in the standard poster issued by the dictatorship government. ...


Before the Junta was in power, officers belonging to the ASPIDA group, a left-wing organization of anti-royalist officers, were accused of planning an attempt to take power through a coup. The attempt never took place, and the officers were court martialed for "treason against the Greek state", and "following a known communist". They allegedly were followers of socialist leader Andreas Papandreou, the son of former prime minister of Greece, George Papandreou, who had led the Center Union political party. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Andreas Georgiou Papandreou, Ανδρέας Γ. Παπανδρέου (5 February 1919 – 23 June 1996) was a Greek economist, a socialist politician and a towering figure in Greek politics. ... Georgios Papandreou, the Geros of Democracy George Papandreou (in Greek Georgios Papandreou or Γεώργιος Παπανδρέου) (18 February 1888 - 1 November 1968) was a Greek politician. ... The Center Union (Greek: Ένωση Κέντρου, Enosi Kentrou; abbreviation: EK) was the political party created in 1961 by Greek politician George Papandreou. ...


After the fall of the military junta, in 1974, a conservative centre-right wing government under Constantine Karamanlis legalised the KKE and quickly established a constitution which guaranteed political freedoms, individual rights, and free elections. In 1981 the center-left-wing government of PASOK, which was elected with a substantial majority, allowed DSE fighters who had taken refuge in Communist countries to come back to Greece and reestablish to their former estates. PASOK claimed that this helped diminish the consequences of the civil war in Greek society. Moreover, PASOK government offered state pension to former guerrillas; Markos Vafiadis was honorarily elected as member of the Greek parliament under PASOK's flag. KKE sticker The Communist Party of Greece, better known by its acronym KKE (Greek: Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας, Kommunistiko Komma Elladas), is the major communist party in Greece. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Party logo The Panhellenic Socialist Movement, better known as PASOK (Greek: Πανελλήνιο Σοσιαλιστικό Κίνημα, Panellinio Sosialistiko Kinima, ΠΑΣΟΚ), is a Greek social democratic political party. ... The 1981 elections mark a new era in mordern history of Greece. ... Markos Vafiadis (Theodosiopolis, Asia Minor, 1906 - Athens, Greece, February 23, 1992) was a leading cadre of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) during the Greek Civil War. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Werth, Nicolas; Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois (1999). The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. Harvard University Press. , noted at ?. Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
  2. ^ Daniele Ganser (2005). NATO's Secret Armies. Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe (London, Franck Cass), pp. 213-214 (his quote).
  3. ^ Ζαούσης Αλέξανδρος. Η Τραγική αναμέτρηση, 1945-1949 – Ο μύθος και η αλήθεια (ISBN: 9607213432).
  4. ^ Speech presented by Nikos Zachariadis at the Second Congress of the NOF (National Liberation Front of the ethnic Macedonians from Greek Macedonia), published in Σαράντα Χρόνια του ΚΚΕ 1918-1958", Athens, 1958, p. 575.
  5. ^ An excerpt from the Resolution of the Fifth Plenary Session of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE)

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

English Sources

  • W. Byford-Jones, The Greek Trilogy: Resistance-Liberation-Revolution, London 1945
  • R. Capell, Simiomata: A Greek Note Book 1944-45, London 1946
  • W. S. Churchill, The Second World War
  • Dominique Eude, Les Kapetanios (in French and Greek). Artheme Fayard 1970
  • N.G.L. Hammond Venture into Greece: With the Guerillas, 1943-44, London, 1983. (Like Woodhouse, he was a member of the British Military Mission)
  • Cordell Hull, The Memoirs of Cordell Hull, New York 1948.
  • S.N. Kalyvas, The Logic of Violence in Civil War. Cambridge: 2006.
  • Georgios Karras, ``The Revolution that Failed. The story of the Greek Communist Party in the period 1941-49`` M.A. Thesis.1985 Dept. of Political Studies University of Manitoba Canada.
  • D. G. Kousoulas, Revolution and Defeat: The Story of the Greek Communist Party, London 1965
  • Reginald Leeper, When Greek Meets Greek: On the War in Greece, 1943-1945
  • M. Mazower (ed.) "After the War was Over. Reconstructing the Family, Nation and State in Greece, 1943-1960" Princeton University Press, 2000 (ISBN 0691058423)[[7]]
  • E. C. W. Myers, Greek Entanglement, London 1955
  • Elias Petropoulos, Corpses, corpses, corpses (ISBN 960-211-081-3)
  • C. M. Woodhouse, Apple of Discord: A Survey of Recent Greek Politics in their International Setting, London 1948 (Woodhouse was a member of the British Military Mission to Greece during the war)
  • Clive, Nigel, A Greek experience 1943-1948, ed. Michael Russell, Great Britain 1985. (ISBN 0-85955-119-9)
  • The Greek civil war 1943,1950 studies of polarization. 1993 Routledge.

The Logic of Violence in Civil War (cover) Stathis N. Kalyvas (born in 1966) is a political scientist known for his analysis of the dynamics of polarization and civil war, ethnic and non-ethnic violence, and the formation of cleavages and identities. ...

Greek Sources

The following are available only in Greek:

  • Ευάγγελος Αβέρωφ, Φωτιά και τσεκούρι. Written by ex-New Democracy leader Evangelos Averoff — initially in French (ISBN 960-05-0208-0)
  • Αλέξανδος Ζαούσης, Οι δύο όχθες. Athens
  • Αλέξανδος Ζαούσης, Η τραγική αναμέτρηση Athens 1992
  • Νίκος Μαραντζίδης, Γιασασίν Μιλλέτ (ISBN 960-524-131-5)
  • Γιώργος Μαργαρίτης, Ιστορία του Ελληνικού εμφύλιου πολέμου 1946-1949 Εκδ. "Βιβλιόραμα", Αθήνα 2001
  • Σπύρος Μαρκεζίνης, Σύγχρονη πολιτική ιστορία της Ελλάδος. Athens 1994
  • Γεώργιος Μόδης, Αναμνήσεις. Thessaloniki 2004 (ISBN 960-8396-05-0)
  • H αθέατη πλευρά του εμφυλίου written by an ex-ELAS fighter. (ISBN 960-426-187-8)

Evangelos Averoff-Tositsas Evangelos Averoff-Tositsas was a famous Greek politician. ...

See also

Ethnikos Laikos Apeleftherotikos Stratos (ELAS) (Greek Εθνικός Λαϊκός Απελευθερωτικός Στράτος (ΕΛΑΣ) National Popular Liberation Army) was the military arm of the Ethniko Apeleftherotiko Metopo (ELAM) during the period of the Greek Resistance and the Greek Civil War. ... Aris Velouchiotis (Άρης Βελουχιώτης), (August 27, 1905-June 16, 1945, real name Thanassis Klaras/Θανάσης Κλάρας) was a prominent leader of the communist segment of Greek guerrilla resistance during World War II which was followed by the Greek Civil War. ... Nikolaos Zachariadis ( 1903- 1973) has been the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Greece ( KKE) from 1931 to 1956. ... Nikos Beloyannis during the trial, holding a carnation. ... Nikos Ploumpidis (also Ploumbidis) (Greek: ) (31 December 1902–14 August 1954) was a Greek communist and resistance fighter. ... Markos Vafiadis (Theodosiopolis, Asia Minor, 1906 - Athens, Greece, February 23, 1992) was a leading cadre of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) during the Greek Civil War. ... KKE sticker The Communist Party of Greece, better known by its acronym KKE (Greek: Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας, Kommunistiko Komma Elladas), is the major communist party in Greece. ... Georgios Papandreou, the Geros of Democracy George Papandreou (in Greek Georgios Papandreou or Γεώργιος Παπανδρέου) (18 February 1888 - 1 November 1968) was a Greek politician. ... Alexander Papagos (in Greek:Αλέξανδρος Παπάγος, Alexandros Papagos). ... Air operations during the Greek Civil War involved primarily the air forces of the United Kingdom, South Africa, and the government of Greece against ground elements of the ELAS and other anti-government forces. ... An ELAS fighter The Greek Resistance (Greek: , i. ... The Security Battalions (Greek: Τάγματα Ασφαλείας, Tágmata Asfalías) were Greek collaborationist military groups, formed during World War II in order to support the German occupation troops. ... German soldiers raising the Swastika over the Acropolis. ... A proxy war is a war where two powers use third parties as a supplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly. ...

External links

  • Andartikos - a short history of the Greek Resistance, 1941-5 on libcom.org/history
  • Report from globalsecurity.org
  • Απολογισμός των 'Δεκεμβριανών' (only in Greek) Εφημερίδα ΤΟ ΒΗΜΑ-Δεκέμβρης 1944:60 χρόνια μετά
  • Battle of Grammos-Vitsi The decisive battle which ended the Greek Civil War
  • Nicholas Gage, author of the book Eleni

  Results from FactBites:
 
Greek Civil War - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (4678 words)
The civil war consisted on one side of the predominantly conservative Greek civilian population and the armed forces of the Greek government, supported by the USA and the UK.
The origins of the civil war lie in the occupation of Greece by Nazi Germany and Bulgaria from 1941 to 1944 and Italy from 1941 to 1943.
The Civil War left Greece in ruins, and in even greater economic distress than it had been after the end of WWII and the end of the German occupation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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