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Encyclopedia > Greater London
Greater London
London region
London
London region shown within England
Geography
Status Region
Administrative area
Ceremonial county *
Area
— Total
Ranked 9th
1,579 km²
609 sq mi
NUTS 1 UKI
Demographics
Population
— Total
— Density
Ranked 2nd
7,512,400[1] (mid-2006)
4,758/km² (mid-2006)
GDP per capita £27,633 (1st)
Government
HQ City Hall, Southwark
Assembly
— Type
London Assembly
directly elected
Authority Greater London Authority
Mayor Ken Livingstone
European parliament London
Website
Notes
† - called London
* - excluding the City of London

Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. The administrative area was created in 1965 and covers the City of London and 32 London boroughs. Its area also forms the London region of England and the London European Parliament constituency. The Greater London region has by far the highest GDP/capita in the entire United Kingdom. better map File links The following pages link to this file: Greater London London Categories: GFDL images ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of English administrative division used for the purposes of local government. ... The Ceremonial counties of England are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government with reference to the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England. ... Area is the measure of how much exposed area any two dimensional object has. ... A list of United Kingdom nations (and English regions) by area: See also List of countries by area List of United Kingdom nations by population UK topics ... To help compare sizes of different geographic regions, we list here areas between 10 km² (1000 hectares) and 100 km² (10,000 hectares). ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the administrative division of countries for statistical purposes. ... A list of United Kingdom nations (and English regions) by population as recorded by the 2001 Census: source: the 2001 census See also List of United Kingdom nations by area List of countries by population Population of England - historical population estimates National population register UK topics Categories: Demographics of the... GBP may be: short for Game Boy Player the ISO currency code for the British Pound Sterling. ... A list of United Kingdom nations and English regions by GDP per capita in GBP[1]: List of countries by area List of United Kingdom nations by population UK topics Categories: | ... Regional Assembly is a title which has universally been adopted by the English bodies established as regional chambers under the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998. ... The London Assembly is an elected body that supervises the Greater London Authority and the Mayor of London. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ... Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born June 17, 1945) is an English politician who became Mayor of London on the creation of the post in 2000. ... London is a constituency of the European Parliament. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ... The administrative area of Greater London contains thirty-two London boroughs. ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... London is a constituency of the European Parliament. ... A list of United Kingdom nations and English regions by GDP per capita in GBP[1]: List of countries by area List of United Kingdom nations by population UK topics Categories: | ... Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a calculation method in national accounting (see Measures of national income and output) is defined as the total value of final goods and services produced within a countrys borders in a year, regardless of ownership. ...


It covers 1579 km² (609 square miles) and had a 2006 mid-year estimated population of 7,512,400.[1] It is bounded by the Home Counties of Essex and Hertfordshire in the East of England region and Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Surrey and Kent in South East England. The highest point is Westerham Heights, in the North Downs and on the boundary with Kent, at 245 metres (804 ft). The phrase Home Counties is used to designate the group of English counties which border or surround London. ... For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ... The East of England is one of the nine official regions of England. ... Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is one of the home counties in South East England. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the English county. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... South East England is one of the nine official regions of England. ... Geology of the South East, Chalk is light green (6) A cross-section , showing the Wealden Dome, and relating it to the towns of Kent The North Downs are a ridge of chalk hills located in south east England that stretch for 120 miles (190 km) from Hampshire through Surrey...

Contents

Status

Greater London is not a city in that it does not have official city status granted by the Crown. This is because one of the London boroughs, Westminster, is officially a city,[2] as well as the City of London itself which would make such a status anomalous. Despite this, Greater London is commonly regarded as a city in the general sense of a municipality. A Lord Lieutenant of Greater London is appointed for its area, less the City of London; an area identical to the Metropolitan Police District; and for the purposes of the Lieutenancies Act 1997 this area is defined as a county.[3] Historically, city status in England and Wales was associated with the presence of a cathedral, such as York Minster. ... The administrative area of Greater London contains thirty-two London boroughs. ... The City of Westminster is a borough of London, England with city status. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ... . ... The Metropolitan Police District (MPD) is the area policed by Londons Metropolitan Police Service. ... The Lieutenancies Act 1997 (1997 c. ... The Ceremonial counties of England are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government with reference to the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England. ...


The term "London" is normally used in reference to Greater London or to the overall conurbation, but not often to the ancient, tiny City of London in east central London. Instead, this small area is often referred to simply as "the City" or "the Square Mile" and it forms the main financial district. Archaically the urbanised area of London was known as the Metropolis. In common usage, the terms 'London' and 'Greater London' are usually used interchangeably to refer to the conurbation. Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ... Cities with at least 500. ...


It is officially divided for some purposes, with varying definitions, into Inner London and Outer London. For strategic planning purposes the region is divided into five sub regions. Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs which form the central part of Greater London and are surrounded by Outer London. ... Outer London is the name for the group of London Boroughs that do not form part of Inner London, but form a ring around it. ... Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ...


Politics

The Greater London Authority is based in City Hall
The Greater London Authority is based in City Hall

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2125x1524, 552 KB) City Hall, London, England, taken from the high walkway on Tower Bridge. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2125x1524, 552 KB) City Hall, London, England, taken from the high walkway on Tower Bridge. ... City Hall in London is the headquarters of the Greater London Authority, and stands on the south bank of the River Thames near to Tower Bridge. ...

Regional government

It is the only English region with a directly elected mayor with wide ranging devolved powers and an elected regional assembly which together comprise the Greater London Authority (the "GLA"). The current Mayor of London is Ken Livingstone. He is scrutinised by an elected London Assembly, which may amend his annual budget (by two-thirds majority) but otherwise lacks the power to block his directives. The headquarters of the GLA is at City Hall in Southwark. The Mayor is responsible for London's strategic planning and is required to produce a London Plan document. The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ... Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ... Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born June 17, 1945) is an English politician who became Mayor of London on the creation of the post in 2000. ... The London Assembly is an elected body that supervises the Greater London Authority and the Mayor of London. ... City Hall, taken from the high walkway on Tower Bridge The interior of City Hall City Hall in London, informally known as the Leaning Tower of Pizzas or Fosters Nutsack (see also 30 St Mary Axe), is the headquarters of the Greater London Authority and the Mayor of London. ... The London Borough of Southwark is a London borough in London, England. ... Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ...


Local government

Further information: London borough

Greater London is divided into 32 London boroughs, each governed by a London borough council; and the City of London, which has a unique government dating back to the 12th century. They are often considered as unitary authorities but not named as such. All London borough councils belong to the London Councils association. Two London boroughs, Kensington and Chelsea, and Kingston, carry the purely honorific title of Royal borough. The administrative area of Greater London contains thirty-two London boroughs. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... London Councils is the local government association for London, bringing together representatives of the 32 London Boroughs and the Corporation of London. ... The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea (often abbreviated to RBKC) is a London borough in the west side of central London. ... The Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames is a London borough in south-west London. ... // Beeston Regis Bere Regis Bognor Regis Grafton Regis Houghton Regis Lyme Regis Melcombe Regis Milton Regis Rowley Regis Wyke Regis Royal County of Berkshire Royal Leamington Spa Royal Tunbridge Wells Although several English boroughs sometimes are called royal, there are actually only three boroughs that have legal right to the...


Demographics

Main articles: Demographics of London and Religion in London With increasing industrialisation, London's population grew rapidly throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and was the most populated city in the world until overtaken by New York in 1925. Its population peaked at 8,615,245 in 1939. There were an estimated 7,512,400 official residents in Greater London as of mid-2006.[1] However, London's continuous urban area extends beyond the borders of Greater London and was home to an estimated 9,332,000 people in 2005, while its wider metropolitan area has a population of between 12 and 14 million depending on the definition of that area.[70] According to Eurostat, London is the most populous city and metropolitan area of the European Union.[71]


Country of Birth Population (2001)

 United Kingdom 5,230,155 India 172,162 Republic of Ireland 157,285 Bangladesh 84,565 Jamaica 80,319 Nigeria 68,907 Pakistan 66,658 Kenya 66,311 Sri Lanka 49,932 Ghana 46,513 Cyprus 45,888 South Africa 45,506 United States 44,622 Australia 41,488 Germany 39,818 Turkey 39,128 Italy 38,694 France 38,130 Somalia 33,831 Uganda 32,082 New Zealand 27,494 

The region covers an area of 1,579 square kilometres. The population density is 4,761 people per square kilometre, more than ten times that of any other British region. In terms of population, London is the 25th largest city and the 17th largest metropolitan region in the world. It is also ranked 4th in the world in number of billionaires (United States Dollars) residing in the city.[72] London ranks as one of the most expensive cities in the world, alongside Tokyo and Moscow.[73]


Ethnic groups

In the 2001 census, 71.15% of these seven and a half million people classed their ethnic group as white, including White British (59.79%), White Irish (3.07%) or "Other White" (8.29%, mostly Polish, Greek Cypriot, Italian and French). 12.09% classed themselves as British Asian, including Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and "Other Asian" (mostly Sri Lankan, Arab and other Southern Asian ethnicities). 10.91% classed themselves as Black British (around 7% as Black African, 4.79% as Black Caribbean, 0.84% as "Other Black"). 3.15% were of mixed race; 1.12% as Chinese; and 1.58% as other (mostly Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and other "British Orientals"). 21.8% of inhabitants were born outside the European Union. The Irish, from both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, number approximately 200,000, as do the Scots and Welsh combined.


In January 2005, a survey of London's ethnic and religious diversity claimed that there were more than 300 languages spoken and more than 50 non-indigenous communities which have a population of more than 10,000 in London.[74] Figures from the Office for National Statistics show that, as of 2006, London's foreign-born population is 2,288,000 (31%), up from 1,630,000 in 1997.[75] The 2001 census showed that 27.1% of Greater London's population were born outside the UK, and a slightly higher proportion were classed as non-white.[76]


The table to the right shows the 'Country of Birth' of London residents in 2001, the date of the last UK Census. (Top 21).[77] Note that a portion of the German-born population are likely to be British nationals born to parents serving in the British armed forces in Germany.[78]


London has been a focus for immigration for centuries, whether as a place of safety or for economic reasons. Huguenots, eastern European Jews and Cypriots are examples of the former; Irish, Bangla Deshis and West Indians came for new lives. The East End district around Spitalfields has been first home for several ethnic groups, which have subsequently moved elsewhere in London as they gained prosperity.


Religion

See also: List of churches and cathedrals of London


The largest religious groupings in London are Christian (58.2%), No Religion (15.8%), Muslim (8.2%), Hindu (4.1%), Jewish (2.1%), and Sikh (1.5%). London has traditionally been dominated by Christianity, and has a large number of churches, particularly in the City. The famous St Paul's Cathedral in the City and Southwark Cathedral south of the river are Anglican administrative centres, while the head of the Church of England and worldwide Anglican Communion, the Archbishop of Canterbury has his main residence at Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth. Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between St Paul's and Westminster Abbey. The Abbey is not to be confused with nearby Westminster Cathedral, a relatively recent edifice which is the largest Roman Catholic cathedral in England and Wales. Religious practice is lower than any other part of the UK or Western Europe and is around seven times lower than American averages.[79] Despite the prevalence of Anglican churches, observance is very low within the Anglican denomination, although in recent years church attendance, particularly at evangelical Anglican churches in London, has started to increase.[80]


London is also home to sizeable Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, and Jewish communities. Many Muslims live in Tower Hamlets and Newham; the most important Muslim edifice is London Central Mosque on the edge of Regent's Park. London's large Hindu community is found in the north-western boroughs of Harrow and Brent, the latter of which contains one of Europe's largest Hindu temples, Neasden Temple.[81] Sikh communities are located in East and West London, which is also home to the largest Sikh Temples in the world, outside India. The majority of British Jews live in London, with significant Jewish communities in Stamford Hill (the most Orthodox Jewish area outside New York City and Israel) and St. John's Wood, Golders Green, Edgware in North London

  1. City of London
  2. City of Westminster
  3. Kensington and Chelsea
  4. Hammersmith and Fulham
  5. Wandsworth
  6. Lambeth
  7. Southwark
  8. Tower Hamlets
  9. Hackney
  10. Islington
  11. Camden
  12. Brent
  13. Ealing
  14. Hounslow
  15. Richmond
  16. Kingston
  17. Merton
City of London City of Westminster Kensington and Chelsea Hammersmith and Fulham Wandsworth Lambeth Southwark Tower Hamlets Hackney Islington Camden Brent Ealing Hounslow Richmond upon Thames Kingston Merton Sutton Croydon Bromley Lewisham Greenwich Bexley Havering Barking and Dagenham Redbridge Newham Waltham Forest Haringey Enfield Barnet Harrow Hillingdon
  1. Sutton
  2. Croydon
  3. Bromley
  4. Lewisham
  5. Greenwich
  6. Bexley
  7. Havering
  8. Barking and Dagenham
  9. Redbridge
  10. Newham
  11. Waltham Forest
  12. Haringey
  13. Enfield
  14. Barnet
  15. Harrow
  16. Hillingdon

Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ... The City of Westminster is a borough of London, England with city status. ... The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea (often abbreviated to RBKC) is a London borough in the west side of central London. ... The London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham is a London borough in West London and forms part of Inner London. ... The London Borough of Wandsworth is a London borough in south west London, England and forms part of Inner London. ... The London Borough of Lambeth is a London borough in South London, England and forms part of Inner London. ... The London Borough of Southwark is a London borough in London, England. ... The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is a London borough to the east of the City of London and north of the River Thames in East London. ... The London Borough of Hackney is a London Borough in the east end of London and part of inner London. ... Arms of Islington London Borough Council Islington Town Hall Islington is a borough of London to the north of the City of London, west of Hackney, east of Camden, and south of Haringey. ... The London Borough of Camden is a borough of London, England, which forms part of Inner London. ... The London Borough of Brent is a London borough in north west London and forms part of Outer London. ... The London Borough of Ealing is a London borough in the west of the city. ... The London Borough of Hounslow is a London borough in West London, England. ... The London Borough of Richmond upon Thames is a London borough in South West London and part of Outer London. ... The Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames is a London borough in south-west London. ... The London Borough of Merton is a London borough in south west London. ... New style numbered map of London boroughs File links The following pages link to this file: Greater London London borough Categories: NowCommons | GFDL images ... The London Borough of Sutton is a London borough in outer southwest London. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The London Borough of Bromley is a London Borough of outer southeast London, England. ... The London Borough of Lewisham is a London borough in south east London, England and forms part of Inner London. ... The London Borough of Greenwich is an Inner London borough in south-east London, England. ... The London Borough of Bexley is a London borough in south east Greater London which forms, with other boroughs, part of Outer London. ... The London Borough of Havering is a London borough in east London, England and forms part of Outer London. ... The London Borough of Barking and Dagenham is a London borough in East London and forms part of Outer London. ... The London Borough of Redbridge is a London borough in North East London, England. ... This article is about the London borough. ... The London Borough of Waltham Forest is a London borough in North-East London, England and forms part of Outer London. ... The London Borough of Haringey is a London borough in North London, England, and forms part of Outer London. ... The London Borough of Enfield is the most northerly London borough and forms part of Outer London. ... The London Borough of Barnet is a London borough in North London and forms part of Outer London. ... The London Borough of Harrow is a London borough of outer north-west London. ... The London Borough of Hillingdon is the westernmost borough in Greater London, England. ...

London Assembly

Further information: London Assembly constituencies

For elections to the London Assembly, London is divided into fourteen constituencies. The constituencies are formed from the area of two or three boroughs combined. The City of London forms part of the City and East constituency. Greater London is divided into a number of constituencies for London Assembly elections. ... City and East is a constituency represented in the London Assembly. ...


UK Parliament

Further information: List of Parliamentary constituencies in Greater London

London is divided into 74 Parliamentary constituencies, which are all small borough constituencies. They are formed from the combined area of several wards from one or more London Boroughs. Typically a single borough is covered by two or three constituencies. Their number will be reduced to 73 before the next general election. The adminstrative region and ceremonial county of Greater London, together with the enclave of the City of London, is divided into 74 Parliamentary constituencies (all Borough constituencies). ... A borough constituency (in Scotland, a burgh constituency) is a type of parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom. ... A ward is an electoral district used in local politics, most notably in England, Scotland, and Wales, as well as Australia, Canada, the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and many cities in the United States and the federal district of Washington, DC. Wards are usually named after neighbourhoods...


History

Creation

Arms of Greater London Council
Arms of Greater London Council

Although the London County Council had been created as a London-wide authority covering the County of London in 1889, the County did not even cover all the built-up area of London then, particularly West Ham and East Ham; furthermore many of the LCC housing projects, including the vast Becontree Estate, were constructed outside its formal boundaries. [4] Image File history File links Arms_of_the_Greater_London_Council. ... Image File history File links Arms_of_the_Greater_London_Council. ... London County Council emblem is still seen today on buildings, especially housing, from that era London County Council (LCC) was the principal local government body for the County of London from 1889 until 1965, when it was replaced by the Greater London Council. ... The County of London was an administrative county and ceremonial county of England from 1889 to 1965. ... For other uses, see West Ham (disambiguation). ... East Ham is a place in the London Borough of Newham. ... Becontree is a place in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham in East London, 11. ...


London County Council pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the First World War, noting that within the Metropolitan and City Police Districts there were 122 housing authorities. A Royal Commission was set up to consider the issue. [5] [6] London County Council proposed a vast new Greater London, somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the entire Home Counties. [7] Protests were made at the possibility of including Windsor, Slough and Eton in the authority. [8] Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... In states that are Commonwealth Realms a Royal Commission is a major government public inquiry into an issue. ... The phrase Home Counties is used to designate the group of English counties which border or surround London. ... This article is about the English town. ... Slough (pronounced ) is a town and unitary authority (Borough of Slough) in England. ... Eton is a town in Berkshire, England, lying on the opposite bank of the River Thames to Windsor and connected to it by Windsor Bridge. ...


The Commission made its report in 1923, rejecting the LCC's scheme. Two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a Central Authority for strategic functions. The London Traffic Act 1924 was a result of the Commission. [9] The London Traffic Act 1924 (14 & 15 Geo. ...


Greater London was formally created by the London Government Act 1963, which took force on 1 April 1965, replacing the former administrative counties of Middlesex and London, adding the City of London, which was not under the London County Council, and absorbing parts of Kent, Surrey, Essex and Hertfordshire. The term 'Greater London' had been used well before 1965, particularly to refer to the area covered by the Metropolitan Police District or the London Passenger Transport Area and by 1958 an area somewhat larger than the current region had been defined by the Registrar General as the Greater London Conurbation. The London Government Act 1963 was an Act of the UK parliament which led to the official recognition of the conurbation known as Greater London. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The division into counties is one of the larger divisions of England. ... The Middlesex Guildhall at Westminster Middlesex is one of the 39 historic counties of England and was the second smallest (after Rutland). ... The County of London was an administrative county and ceremonial county of England from 1889 to 1965. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... This article is about the English county. ... For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ... The Metropolitan Police District (MPD) is the area policed by Londons Metropolitan Police Service. ... The transport of London has, since 1933, been under a single control with various names. ... The Registrar General is the Government official responsible for the registration of births, deaths and marriages in England and Wales. ...


Greater London Council

Greater London originally had a two-tier system of local government, with the Greater London Council (GLC) sharing power with the Corporation of London (governing the small City of London) and the 32 London borough councils. The Greater London Council was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985. Its functions were devolved to the Corporation and the London boroughs with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards. Arms of the Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. ... Coat of arms of the City of London as shown on Blackfriars station. ... The Local Government Act 1985 was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom. ...


Greater London Authority

Greater London was used to form the London region of England in 1994. A referendum held in 1998, established public will to create a regional authority. The Greater London Authority, London Assembly and the directly-elected Mayor of London were created in 2000 by the Greater London Authority Act 1999. The 2000 and 2004 mayoral elections were both won by Ken Livingstone, who had been the final leader of the GLC. In 2000 the outer boundary of the Metropolitan Police District was re-aligned to the Greater London boundary. The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... The London referendum of 1998 was a referendum held in London only over whether there was support for the creation the Greater London Authority, consisting of an assembly for London and a directly elected Mayor of London. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ... The London Assembly is an elected body that supervises the Greater London Authority and the Mayor of London. ... Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ... The Greater London Authority Act 1999 (1999 c. ... The first election to the office of Mayor of London took place on May 4, 2000. ... The latest election to the post of Mayor of London took place on June 10, 2004. ... Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born June 17, 1945) is an English politician who became Mayor of London on the creation of the post in 2000. ... The Metropolitan Police District (MPD) is the area policed by Londons Metropolitan Police Service. ...


Statistics

Population

Population of Greater London

The population on the current territory of Greater London rose from about 1.1 million in 1801 (back then only about 0.85 million people were in the urban area of London, while 0.25 million were living in villages and towns not yet part of London) to an estimated 8.6 million in 1939, but declined to 6.7 million in 1988, before starting to rebound in the end of the 1980s. As of 2006, the population in Greater London has only recovered the level of 1970 (which was also the level of population in the 1920s). Some researchers expect the population of Greater London to reach 8.15 million by 2016, which would still be 0.45 million short of the 1939 peak. Image File history File links Population_greater-london_graph. ...


Figures here are for Greater London in its 2001 limits. Figures before 1971 have been reconstructed by the Office for National Statistics based on past censuses in order to fit the 2001 limits. Figures from 1981 onward are midyear estimates (revised as of August 2007), which are more accurate than the censuses themselves, known to underestimate the population of London.

1891 April 5/6 5,572,012
1901 March 31/April 1 6,506,954
1911 April 2/3 7,160,525
1921 June 19/20 7,386,848
1931 April 26/27 8,110,480
1939 Midyear estimate 8,615,245
1951 April 8/9 8,196,978
1961 April 23/24 7,992,616
1965 Greater London formally created
1971 April 25/26 7,452,520
1981 Midyear estimate 6,805,000[10]
1988 Midyear estimate 6,729,300[11]
1991 Midyear estimate 6,829,300[12]
2001 Midyear estimate 7,322,400[13]
2002 Midyear estimate 7,361,600[14]
2003 Midyear estimate 7,364,100[15]
2004 Midyear estimate 7,389,100[16]
2005 Midyear estimate 7,456,100[17]
2006 Midyear estimate 7,512,400[1]

The London Government Act 1963 was an Act of the UK parliament which led to the official recognition of the conurbation known as Greater London. ...

Economy

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Inner London at current basic prices published (pp.240-253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[18] Agriculture[19] Industry[20] Services[21]
1995 64,616 7 8,147 56,461
2000 92,330 6 10,094 82,229
2003 112,090 12 10,154 101,924

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Outer London at current basic prices published (pp.240-253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[18] Agriculture[19] Industry[20] Services[21]
1995 44,160 51 10,801 33,307
2000 60,304 43 12,529 47,732
2003 67,582 39 13,081 54,462

Area

The area of Greater London has not changed significantly since its creation. There have been a considerable number of small boundary changes. The most significant of these were the 1969 transfers of Knockholt to Kent and Farleigh to Surrey[22] and a series of minor adjustments during the 1990s which realigned the boundary to the M25 motorway in some places. There have been a considerable number of small changes to the Greater London boundary since its creation in 1965. ... Knockholt is a village in Kent, England lying approximately 5 miles south of Orpington and 3 miles northwest of Sevenoaks. ... Farleigh is a village in Surrey, England about 5 miles to the South East of Croydon. ... The M25 motorway looking south between junctions 14 and 15, near Heathrow Airport. ...


Education

The education system has been split into the thirty three separate LEAs, which correspond to the City of London and the 32 London boroughs, since the 1990 enactment of the Education Reform Act 1988.[23] From 1965 to 1990, twelve Inner London boroughs and the City of London had been served by an Inner London Education Authority.[23] The introduction of comprehensive schools, directed by Circular 10/65 in 1965, was mostly followed in Greater London, however 19 grammar schools have been retained in some Outer London boroughs.[24] At GCSE and A level, Outer London boroughs have broadly better results than Inner London boroughs.[25] A Local Education Authority (LEA) is the part of a council in England or Wales that is responsible for education within that councils jurisdiction. ... The Education Reform Act of 1988 is widely regarded as the most important single piece of education legislation in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland since the Butler Education Act 1944. ... The Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) was the education authority for the 12 inner London boroughs, from 1965 until its abolition in 1990. ... Circular 10/65, also known as the Crosland Circular, was a document issued by the Ministry of Education requesting local authorities in England and Wales to begin converting their secondary schools to the Comprehensive System. ... Outer London is the name for the group of London Boroughs that do not form part of Inner London, but form a ring around it. ... GCSE is an acronym that can refer to: General Certificate of Secondary Education global common subexpression elimination - an optimisation technique used by some compilers This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs which form the central part of Greater London and are surrounded by Outer London. ...


Wider population

Greater London is not exactly coterminous with London's built up area and a somewhat wider Greater London Urban Area has been defined and is used for mainly statistical purposes. London's wider metropolitan area is known as the London commuter belt. The Greater London Urban Area is the conurbation based around London in the South East of England. ... Commuters from East Anglia arrive at Londons Liverpool Street station The London commuter belt is the metropolitan area surrounding London from which it is possible to commute to work in the capital. ...


See also

The Greater London Urban Area is the conurbation based around London in the South East of England. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c T 08: Selected age groups for local authorities in the United Kingdom; estimated resident population; Mid-2006 Population Estimates. Office for National Statistics (August 22, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  2. ^ Westminster City Council - One City - An Introduction
  3. ^ HMSO, Lieutenancies Act 1997, (1997)
  4. ^ Saint, A., Politics and the people of London: the London County Council (1889-1965), (1989)
  5. ^ London Local Government. The Times. April 18, 1921.
  6. ^ Complex London: Big Task For Inquiry Commission. The Times. August 5, 1921.
  7. ^ Greater London: Case for Central Authority: Area and Powers. The Times. December 14, 1921.
  8. ^ Windsor and Greater London : Protests Against Proposals. The Times. December 27, 1921
  9. ^ Greater London: Report of Royal Commission. The Times. March 22, 1923.
  10. ^ T 08: Quinary age group and sex for local authorities in England and Wales; estimated resident population based on the 1991 Census; Mid-1981 Population Estimates.. Office for National Statistics (August 22, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  11. ^ T 08h: Mid-1988 Population Estimates; Quinary age groups and sex for local authorities in England and Wales; estimated resident population revised in light of results of the 2001 Census. Office for National Statistics (August 22, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  12. ^ T 09a: Mid-1991 Population Estimates; Quinary age groups and sex for local authorities in the United Kingdom; estimated resident population. Office for National Statistics (August 22, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  13. ^ T 08: Selected age groups for local authorities in the United Kingdom; estimated resident population; revised in light of the local authority population studies; Mid-2001 Population Estimates. Office for National Statistics (August 22, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  14. ^ T 09L: Quinary age groups and sex for local authorities in the United Kingdom; estimated resident population Mid-2002 Population Estimates; reflecting the revisions due to improved international migration. Office for National Statistics (August 22, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  15. ^ T 09m: Quinary age groups and sex for local authorities in the United Kingdom; estimated resident population Mid-2003 Population Estimates; reflecting the revisions due to improved international migration. Office for National Statistics (August 22, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  16. ^ T 09n: Quinary age groups and sex for local authorities in the United Kingdom; estimated resident population Mid-2004 Population Estimates; reflecting the revisions due to improved international migration. Office for National Statistics (August 22, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  17. ^ T 09p: Quinary age groups and sex for local authorities in the United Kingdom; estimated resident population Mid-2005 Population Estimates; reflecting the revisions due to improved international migration. Office for National Statistics (August 22, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  18. ^ a b Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  19. ^ a b includes hunting and forestry
  20. ^ a b includes energy and construction
  21. ^ a b includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured Hi
  22. ^ The Greater London, Kent and Surrey Order, 1968
  23. ^ a b Tomlinson, S., Education in a post-welfare society, (2001)
  24. ^ BBC News - What future for grammar schools?. 15 February 2003.
  25. ^ OFSTED, Improvements in London schools 2000–06, (2006)

Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

London Portal

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