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Encyclopedia > Greater Khorasan
Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan.
Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan.

Greater Khorasan (Persian: خراسان بزرگ) (also written Khorasaan, Khurasan and Khurasaan) is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia. Khorasan is originally a Pahlavi word which means "the land of sunrise". Greater Khorasan included territories that presently are part of Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (952 × 634 pixels, file size: 591 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This media file needs to be cleaned up, because: Please tilt slightly to make more horizontal For help, see Commons:Media for cleanup. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (952 × 634 pixels, file size: 591 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This media file needs to be cleaned up, because: Please tilt slightly to make more horizontal For help, see Commons:Media for cleanup. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Farsi redirects here. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ...


Greater Khorasan contained mostly Nishapur and Tus (now in Iran), Herat, Balkh, Kabul and Ghazni (now in Afghanistan), Merv and Sanjan (now in Turkmenistan), Samarqand and Bukhara (both now in Uzbekistan), Khujand and Panjakent (now in Tajikistan). Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ... Merv (Russian: Мерв, from Persian: مرو, Marv, sometimes transliterated Marw or Mary; cf. ... Sanjan was an ancient city in Greater Khorasan, a realm in northeastern Iran, in the vicinity of the historically eminent city of Merv. ... Samarkand (Samarqand or Самарқанд in Uzbek) (population 400,000) is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan, capital of the Samarkand region (Samarqand Wiloyati). ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Khujand (Tajik Хуҷанд or خجند, also transliterated as Khudzhand, Russian: , formerly Khodjend or Khodzhent until 1939 and Leninabad until 1992), is the second largest city of Tajikistan. ... Panjakent (also spelled Panjikent or Panjekent) is a city in western Tajikistan on the Zeravshan river. ...


These days, the adjective greater is partly used to distinguish it from Khorasan province, in modern-day Iran, that forms western parts of these territories, roughly half in area [1]. It is also used to indicate that Greater Khorasan encompasses territories that were perhaps called by some other popular name when they were individually referred to. For example Transoxiana (covered Uzbekistan and Tajikistan), Bactria, Kabulistan [2] , Khwarezm (containing Samarkand and Bukhara) [3] . Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Kabulistan (Persian: ‎ ) is a historical region around Kabul. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Khwarezm was a series of states centered on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as...


Until the devastating Mongol invasion of the thirteenth century, Khorasan was considered the cultural capital of Persia. (Lorentz 1995) Honorary guard of Mongolia. ...


Geographical Distribution

Names of territories during the Caliphate, Khorasan was part of Persia (in yellow).
Names of territories during the Caliphate, Khorasan was part of Persia (in yellow).

According to Mir Ghulam Mohammad, Afghanistan's current territories formed the major part of Khorasan[4] while other sources say otherwise. According to these latter sources, Khorasan province of Iran roughly comprises half of Greater Khorasan.[5] Khorasan's boundaries have varied greatly during ages. The term was loosely applied to all territories of Persia that lay east and north east of Dasht-e Kavir and therefore were subjected to change as the size of empire changed. Download high resolution version (1229x1028, 292 KB)Middle East and Europe - The Caliphate in 750 (293K) The Califate in 750. ... Download high resolution version (1229x1028, 292 KB)Middle East and Europe - The Caliphate in 750 (293K) The Califate in 750. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Dasht-e Kavir desert: satellite photograph Dasht-e Kavir (دشت كوير in Persian), also known as Kavir-e Namak or Great Salt Desert is a large desert lying in the middle of the Iranian Plateau. ...


In the Middle Ages, Persian Iraq and Khorasan were the two most important parts of the territory of Greater Iran. The dividing region between these two was mostly along with Gurgan and Damaghan cities. Especially the Ghaznavids, Seljuqs and Timurids, divided their Empire to Iraqi and Khorasani regions. This point can be observed in many books such as "Tārīkhi Bayhaqī" of Abul Fazl Bayhqi, Faza'ilul al-anam min rasa'ili hujjat al-Islam (a collection of letters of Al-Ghazali) and other books. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Persian Iraq (or Iraq Ajami) is an obsolete term for the northwestern region of Iran. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Gorgan Gorgan (Persian: گرگان, Land of the Wolf) is the capital city of the Iranian province of Golestan. ... Damghan is a town of northern Iran, in Semnan Province, 216 mi. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... This article is about dynasty which ruled the political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids were a Central Asian Sunni Muslim Turco-Mongol dynasty whose empire included the whole of Central Asia and parts of modern Iran and modern Turkey, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia and Caucasus. ... Abolfazl Beyhaghi (995-1077; Ibn Zeyd ibn Muhammad Abul-Fazl Mohammad ibn Hossein ibn Soleyman Ayyoub Ansari Evesi Khazimi BeyhaÄŸi Shafei), also known as ibn Fanduq, was a Persian historian and author. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ...


Ghulam Mohammad Ghubar, an ethnic Tajik scholar and historian from Afghanistan, talks of Proper Khorasan and Improper Khorasan in his book titled "Khorasan"[6]. According to him, Proper Khorasan contained regions lying between Balkh (in the East), Merv (in the North), Sijistan (in the South), Nishapur (in the West) and Herat, known as The Pearl of Khorasan, in the center. While Improper Khorasan's boundaries extended to Kabul and Ghazni in the East, Balochistan and Zabulistan in the South, Transoxiana and Khwarezm in the North and Damaghan and Gurgan in the West. Tajikmay refer to: Tajiks, an ethnic group living in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, and China The Tajik language, the official language of Tajikistan The Arabic-schooled, ethnically Persian administrative caste of the Turco-Persian society. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Zabulistan (Persian: ) or Zabolestan is a historical region in the border area of todays Iran and Afghanistan, around the city Zabol. ... Damghan is a town of northern Iran, in Semnan Province, 216 mi. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Gorgan Gorgan (Persian: گرگان, Land of the Wolf) is the capital city of the Iranian province of Golestan. ...



In Memoirs of Babur, it is mentioned that Indians called non-Hindustanis (non-Indians) as Khorasanis. Regarding the boundary of Hindustan and Khorasan, it is written: "On the road between Hindustān and Khorasān, there are two great marts: the one Kābul, the other Kandahār." 1 Thus, Improper Khorasan bordered Hindustan (old India). Bāburnāma (Chaghatay/Persian: ‎ ; literally: Book of Babur or Letters of Babur) are the memoirs of Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad Bābur (1483-1530), the founder of the Mughal Empire and the great-great-great-grandson of Timur. ... The term Hindustan (Hindi: हिन्दुस्तान [Hindustān], Urdu: [Hindustān], from the (Persian) Hindu + -stān, often formerly rendered Hindoostan) and the adjective Hindustani may relate to various aspects of three geographical areas (see Names of India): The modern Republic of India. ...


Historical overview

Greater Khorasan is one of the regions of Greater Iran. Before being conquered by Alexander the Great in 330 BC, it was part of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In 1st century AD, the eastern regions of greater Khorasan fell into the hands of the Kushan empire. The Kushans introduced Buddhism culture to these regions, as numerous Kushanian temples and buried cities with treasures in the northern and south-eastern areas of Afghanistan have been found. However the western parts of Greater Khorasan remained predominantly Zoroastrian as one of the three great fire-temples of the Sassanids "Azar-burzin Mehr" is situated in the western regions of Khorasan, near Sabzevar in Iran. The boundary was pushed to the west towards the Persian Empire during the Kushans. The boundary kept changing until the demise of the Kushan Empire where Sassanids took control of the entire region. In Sassanid era, Persian empire was divided into four quarters, "Xwawaran" meaning west, apAxtar meaning north, Nīmrūz meaning south and Xurasan (Khorasan) meaning east. The Eastern regions saw some conflict with Hephthalites, but the borders remained much stable afterwards until the Muslim invasion. After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... Persia redirects here. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Persia redirects here. ... The Hephthalites or White Huns were a Central Asian nomadic confederation whose precise origins and composition remain obscure. ...


Being the eastern parts of the Sassanid empire and further away from Arabia, Khorasan quarter was conquered in the later stages of Muslim invasions. In fact the last Sassanid king of Persia, Yazdgerd III, moved the throne to Khorasan following the Arab invasion in the western parts of the empire. After the assassination of the king, Khorasan was conquered by the Islamic troops in 647. Like other provinces of Persia it became one of the provinces of Umayad dynasty. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ...


The first liberal movement against the Arab invasions was led by Abu Muslim Khorasani between 747 and 750. He helped the Abbasids come to power but was later killed by Al-Mansur, an Abbasid Caliph. The first independent kingdom from Arab rule was established in Khorasan by Tahir Phoshanji in 821. But it seems that it was more a matter of political and territorial gain. In fact Tahir had helped the Caliph subdue other nationalistic movements in other parts of Persia such as Maziar's movement in Tabaristan. A sculpture of Abu Muslim Khorasani Abu Muslim Abd al-Rahman ibn Muslim al-Khorasani (Persian: , Arabic: , ca. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Tahir ibn Husayn (d. ... Iranian (Hyrcanian) freedom fighter revolting against the Arabo-muslim occupation of Iran. ... Mazandaran (مازندران in Persian) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian Sea in the north. ...


The first dynasty in Khorasan, after the introduction of Islam, whose rulers considered themselves Iranian was the Saffarid dynasty (861-1003)[7]. Other grand Iranian dynasties were Samanids[8] (875-999), Ghaznavids[9] (962-1187), Ghurids (1149-1212), Seljukids (1037-1194), Khwarezmids (1077-1231) and Timurids (1370-1506). It should be mentioned that some of these dynasties were not Persian by ethnicity, nonetheless they were the advocates of Persian language and were praised by the poets as the kings of Iran. The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Ghurids (or Ghorids; self-designation: ShansabānÄ«) (Persian: ) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty in Khorasan, most likely of Eastern Persians (Tajiks)[1][2] origin. ... This article is about dynasty which ruled the political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... Khwarezmid Empire Template:History of Greater Turkey The Khwarezmian Empire, more commonly known as the empire of the Khwarezm Shahs[1] (Persian: , KhwārezmÅ¡hāḥīān, Kings of Khwarezmia) was a Turkoman[2][3][4] Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk[5] origin which ruled Central Asia and Iran, first... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids were a Central Asian Sunni Muslim Turco-Mongol dynasty whose empire included the whole of Central Asia and parts of modern Iran and modern Turkey, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia and Caucasus. ... Farsi redirects here. ...


Among them, the periods of Ghaznavids of Ghazni and Timurids of Herat are considered as one of the most brilliant eras of Khorasan's history. During these periods, there was a great cultural awakening. Many famous Persian poets, scientists and scholars lived in this period. Numerous valuable works in Persian literature were written. Nishapur, Herat, Ghazni and Merv were the centers of all these cultural developments. Most of the Khorasani regions were then parts of the Moghul Empire between 1506 and 1707. For Moghuls, Khorasan was always a region with great importance. The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids were a Central Asian Sunni Muslim Turco-Mongol dynasty whose empire included the whole of Central Asia and parts of modern Iran and modern Turkey, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia and Caucasus. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ... Merv (Russian: Мерв, from Persian: مرو, Marv, sometimes transliterated Marw or Mary; cf. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area...


References and footnotes

  • Lorentz, J. Historical Dictionary of Iran. 1995 ISBN 0-8108-2994-0
  1. ^ Dabeersiaghi, Commentary on Safarnâma-e Nâsir Khusraw, 6th Ed. Tehran, Zavvâr: 1375 (Solar Hijri Calendar) 235-236
  2. ^ For example refer to Shahname. e.g. So happy became the king of Kabulistan from the marriage of the sun of Zabulistan [1]
  3. ^ or refer to Anvari Qasida in which he refers to Samarqand as Turan and complains about devastation in Khorasan (and more generally Iran) caused by Ghuz Turks. [2]
  4. ^ Ghubar, Mir Ghulam Mohammad, Khorasan, 1937 Kabul Printing House, Kabul, Afghanistan
  5. ^ Dabeersiaghi, "Commentary", Nâseer khusraw, Safarnâma, 6th Ed. Tehran, Zavvâr:1375 (Solar Hijri Calendar) 235-236
  6. ^ Ghubar, Mir Ghulam Mohammad, Khorasan, 1937 Kabul Printing House, Kabul, Afghanistan
  7. ^ Roudaki calls Saffari Amir as the "Glory of Iran" [3]
  8. ^ Samanid's traced their ancestry to Saman Khuda who claimed to ba a descendant of Bahram Chubin a famous Persian army general during Sassanid time.
  9. ^ For example Farrokhi Sistani calls Sultan Mahmoud Ghaznavi "the king of Iran" [4]

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Afghanistan (6585 words)
Many centuries later, Afghanistan was part of Greater Khorasan, and hence was recognized with the name Khorasan (along with regions centered around Merv and Neishabur), which in Pahlavi means "The Eastern Land" (خاور زمین in Persian).
Thereafter, Aryana fell to a number of Eurasian tribes — including Parthians, Scythians, and Huns, as well as the Sassanian Persians and local rulers such as the Hindu Shahis in Kabul — until the 7th century CE, when Muslim Arab armies invaded the region.
The Arabs initially annexed parts of western Afghanistan in 652 and then conquered most of the rest of Afghanistan between 706-709 CE and administered the region as Khorasan, and over time much of the local population converted to Islam, but retained their Iranian languages.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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