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Encyclopedia > Greater Iran
History of Greater Iran
Empires of Persia · Kings of Persia
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Greater Iran (in Persian: ایران بزرگ Irān-e Bozorg, or ایران‌زمین Irān-zamīn; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to the entire region with significant Iranian cultural influence. It roughly corresponds to the territory stretching from the Caucasus to the Indus River, or that of the two Persian Empires (Achaemenid and Sassanid), and conform to the historical understanding of the full territory of "Iran." The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... “BCE” redirects here. ... Zayandeh River Civilization (تمدن زاینده رود) is a hypothetical pre-historic culture that is supposed to have flourished around the Zayandeh River in Iran in the 5th millennium BC.[1] During the 2006 excavations, the Iranian archaeologists uncovered some artifacts that they linked to those from Sialk and Marvdasht. ... The 5500 year old skeletons and other unearthed artifacts here are preserved and off access to visitors. ... edit The Jiroft Kingdom or Jiroft Civilization (تمدن جيرفت) was an ancient civilization that existed in what is now Iran from roughly 3000 BCE to ? BCE. Research into this civilization is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archaeological project that is uncovering a previously unknown civilization in a series of newly discovered... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Proto-Elamite inscription on it. ... The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia, dated to ca. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... Mede nobility. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (or Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom) covered the areas of Bactria and Sogdiana, comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into northern India from 180 BCE established... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... “BCE” redirects here. ... “BCE” redirects here. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... The Kushano-Hephthalites (565 - 670 CE) were the successors of Kushans and Hephthalites. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Ghurids (or Ghorids; self-designation: ShansabānÄ«) (Persian: ) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty in Khorasan, most likely of Eastern Persians (Tajiks)[1][2] origin. ... This article is about political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... Khwarezmid Empire After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Khwarezmian Empire, more commonly known as the empire of the Khwarezm Shahs[1] (Persian: , KhwārezmÅ¡hāḥīān, Kings of Khwarezmia) was a Persianate[2][3][4] Sunni Muslim dynasty... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... The Chupanids, also known as the Chobanids, (سلسله امرای چوپانی, Amir Chupani), were descendants of a Mongol family that came to prominence in 14th century Persia. ... edit The Jalayirids (آل جلایر) were a Mongol descendant dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia [1] after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids (Chaghatay/Persian: - TÄ«mÅ«rÄ«yān), self-designated GurkānÄ« (Persian: ), were a Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty whose empire included the whole of Central Asia, Iran and modern Afghanistan, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia and Caucasus. ... Flag of the Kara Koyunlu For the district in Turkey, see Karakoyunlu. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Flag Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Agra, Delhi Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1738) was founded by Muhamad Baqer Hotaki, an ethnic Tatar. ... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... The Durrani Empire was a larger state that included modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of eastern Iran and western India. ... // It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ... Reign of King Amanullah, 1919-1929 Amanullah Khan reigned in Afghanistan from 1919, achieving full independence from the British Empire shortly afterwards. ... // Reign of Mohammed Nadir Shah, 1929-1933 Mohammed Nadir Shah quickly abolished most of Amanullah Khans reforms, but despite his efforts to rebuild an army that had just been engaged in suppressing a rebellion, the forces remained weak while the religious and tribal leaders grew strong. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was the communist governance in Afghanistan between 1978 and 1992. ... After the Soviets withdrew completely from Afghanistan in February 1989, fighting between the communist backed government and mujahideen continued. ... This is a timeline of the history of Afghanistan. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... The name Bahrain comes from Arabic Bahárayn, literally meaning two seas, which is thought to be an inaccurate folk etymology for the much older, non-Semitic term, Bahran; according to some scholars Bahran originates from Varahrdn, the later form of the old Avestan Verethragna - a Zoroastrian divinity that is... The name Bahrain comes from Arabic Bahárayn, literally meaning two seas, which is thought to be an inaccurate folk etymology for the much older, non-Semitic term, Bahran; according to some scholars Bahran originates from Varahrdn, the later form of the old Avestan Verethragna - a Zoroastrian divinity that is... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... The Interim Government of Iran (1979-1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... Flag Capital Bukhara Language(s) Tajik, Uzbek, Bukhori Religion Sunni Islam, Sufism (Naqshbandi), Judaism Government Socialist republic President Faizullah Khojaev Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy overthrown 1920-09-02  - Established October 8, 1920  - Joined the Uzbek SSR February 17, 1925 The Bukharan Peoples Soviet Republic (Russian: Бухарская Народная Советская Республика) was the name... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...

Contents

Definition

Traditionally, and until recent times, ethnicity has never been a defining separating criteria in these regions. In the words of Richard Nelson Frye: Richard Nelson Frye (c. ...

Many times I have emphasized that the present peoples of Central Asia, whether Iranian or Turkic speaking, have one culture, one religion, one set of social values and traditions with only language separating them.

Only in modern times did western colonial intervention and ethnicity tend to become a dividing force between the provinces of Greater Iran. As Patrick Clawson states, "ethnic nationalism is largely a nineteenth century phenomenon, even if it is fashionable to retroactively extend it."[2] "Greater Iran" however has been more of a cultural super-state, rather than a political one to begin with. Patrick Clawson is the Deputy Director for Research at the Zionist Washington Institute for Near East Policy. ...


Richard Nelson Frye defines Greater Iran as including "much of the Caucasus, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Central Asia, with cultural influences extending to China, western India, and the Semitic speaking world." According to Frye, "Iran means all lands and peoples where Iranian languages were and are spoken, and where in the past, multi-faceted Iranian cultures existed."[3] Richard Nelson Frye (c. ...


In the work Nuzhat al-Qolub (نزهه القلوب), the medieval geographer Hamdollah Mostowfi writes: Tomb of Hamdollah Mostowfi, Qazvin, Iran. ...


چند شهر است اندر ایران مرتفع تر از همه
Some cities of Iran are better than the rest,
بهتر و سازنده تر از خوشی آب و هوا
these have pleasant and compromising weather,
گنجه پر گنج در اران صفاهان در عراق
The wealthy Ganjeh of Arran, and Isfahan as well,
در خراسان مرو و طوس در روم باشد اقسرا
Merv and Tus in Khorasan, and Konya (Aqsara) too. Ganja links here. ... Arran (ar-Ran) is a historic geographic and sometimes political term used in the Azerbaijan Republic to signify the territory which lays within the triangle of land, lowland in the east and mountainous in the west, formed by the junction of Kura and Aras rivers,[1] including the highland and... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Merv (Russian: Мерв, from Persian: مرو, Merw, sometimes transliterated Marw or Mary; cf. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ... Konya (Ottoman Turkish: ; also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically also known as Iconium (Latin), Greek: Ikónion) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ...


The Cambridge History of Iran takes a geographical approach in referring to the "historical and cultural" entity of "Greater Iran" as "areas of Iran, parts of Afghanistan, and Chinese and Soviet Central Asia".[4] A detailed list of these territories follows in this article.


Background

Patrick Clawson of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy writes: Patrick Clawson is the Deputy Director for Research at the Zionist Washington Institute for Near East Policy. ... Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) is a Jewish organization founded in 1985 by Martin Indyk, previously research director of the leading pro-Israel lobby, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (Aipac). ...

"Many Iranians consider their natural sphere of influence to extend beyond Iran's present borders. After all, Iran was once much larger. Portuguese forces seized islands and ports in the 16th and 17th centuries. In the 19th century, the Russian Empire wrested from Tehran's control what is today Armenia, Republic of Azerbaijan, and part of Georgia. Iranian elementary school texts teach about the Iranian roots not only of cities like Baku, but also cities further north like Derbent in southern Russia. The Shah lost much of his claim to western Afghanistan following the Anglo-Iranian war of 1856-1857. Only in 1970 did a UN sponsored consultation end Iranian claims to suzerainty over the Persian Gulf island nation of Bahrain. In centuries past, Iranian rule once stretched westward into modern Iraq and beyond. When the western world complains of Iranian interference beyond its borders, the Iranian government often convinced itself that it is merely exerting its influence in lands that were once its own. Simultaneously, Iran's losses at the hands of outside powers have contributed to a sense of grievance that continues to the present day."[5]

In Persian, Greater Iran is called Iranzamin (ایران‌زمین) which means "The Land of Iran". Iranzamin was in the mythical times opposed to the Turanzamin the Land of Turan, which was located in the upper part of Central Asia.[6] The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Coordinates: , Country Azerbaijan Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... Derbent is built around a Sassanid fortress, the only one preserved in the world. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Turan (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


In the pre-Islamic period, Iranians distinguished two main regions in the territory they ruled, one Iran and the other Aniran. By Iran they meant all the regions inhabited by ancient Iranian peoples. That region was much vaster than it is today. This notion of Iran as a territory (opposed to Aniran) can be seen as the core of early Greater Iran. Later many changes occurred in the boundaries and areas where Iranians lived but the languages and culture remained the dominant medium in many parts of the Greater Iran. Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. They remain dominant throughout Classical Antiquity in Scythia and Persia. ...


As an example, the Persian language was the main literary language and the language of correspondence in Central Asia and Caucasus prior to the Russian occupation, Central Asia being the birthplace of modern Persian language. Furthermore, according to the British government, Persian language was also used in Iraqi Kurdistan, prior to the British Occupation and Mandate in 1918-1932 [3]. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


With Imperial Russia continuously advancing south in the course of two wars against Persia, and the treaties of Turkmenchay and Gulistan in the western frontiers, plus the unexpected death of Abbas Mirza in 1823, and the murdering of Persia's Grand Vizier (Mirza AbolQasem Qa'im Maqām), many Central Asian khanates began losing hope for any support from Persia against the Tsarist armies.[7] The Russian armies occupied the Aral coast in 1849, Tashkent in 1864, Bukhara in 1867, Samarkand in 1868, and Khiva and Amudarya in 1873. Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Russian: Туркманчайский договор; Persian: عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was a treaty negotiated in Turkmenchay by which the Persian Empire, more commonly known today as Iran, recognized Russian suzerainty over the Erivan khanate, Nakhchivan khanate and the remainder of the Talysh khanate, establishing the Aras... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Gulistan (Russian: Гюлистанский договор; Persian: عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia on October 24, 1813 in the village of Gulistan in Karabakh as a result of the first Russo-Persian War. ... Abbas Mirza (عباس میرزا in Persian) ‎(August 26, 1789 - October 25, 1833), was a crown prince of Persia, known because of his wars with Russia and the Ottoman empire, and his death before his father, the shah. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Former harbor area in downtown Aral Aral, also known as Aralsk or Aralsk, (Kazakh: Арал, Russian: Аральск) is a small city in south-western Kazakhstan, located in the oblast of Qyzylorda. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Khiva (alternative names include Khorasam, Khoresm, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Chiwa and Chorezm) is the former capital of Khwarezmia, which lies in the present-day Khorezm Province of Uzbekistan. ... The Amu Darya (also Amudarya, Amudarya, in Persian آمودریا; Darya means sea in Persian) is a river in Central Asia. ...


Again Patrick Clawson: Patrick Clawson is the Deputy Director for Research at the Zionist Washington Institute for Near East Policy. ...

"Iran today is just a rump of what it once was. At its height, Iranian rulers controlled Iraq, Afghanistan,Pakistan much of Central Asia, and the Caucasus. Many Iranians today consider these areas part of a greater Iranian sphere of influence."[8]
"Since the days of the Achaemenids, the Iranians had the protection of geography. But high mountains and vast emptiness of the Iranian plateau were no longer enough to shield Iran from the Russian army or British navy. Both literally, and figuratively, Iran shrank. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Azerbaijan, Armenia, much of Georgia, and Afghanistan were Iranian, but by the end of the century, all this territory had been lost as a result of European military action."[9]

Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts...

Treaties

The Treaty of Zuhab was an accord signed between Safavid Persia and the Ottoman Empire. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Gulistan (Russian: Гюлистанский договор; Persian: عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia on October 24, 1813 in the village of Gulistan in Karabakh as a result of the first Russo-Persian War. ... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Russian: Туркманчайский договор; Persian: عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was a treaty negotiated in Turkmenchay by which the Persian Empire, more commonly known today as Iran, recognized Russian suzerainty over the Erivan khanate, Nakhchivan khanate and the remainder of the Talysh khanate, establishing the Aras... Fath Ali Shah was the second Qajar King of Persia. ... Nasser-al-Din Shah Qajar (sometimes called Nassereddin) (died 1896) was the Shah of Persia from 1848 to 1896. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Akhal Treaty was a treaty signed by Persia and Imperial Russia on 21 September 1881. ... Nasser-al-Din Shah Qajar (sometimes called Nassereddin) (died 1896) was the Shah of Persia from 1848 to 1896. ... Merv (Russian: Мерв, from Persian: مرو, Merw, sometimes transliterated Marw or Mary; cf. ... Khwarezmia was a state centred on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as the eastern shores of the northern Caspian Sea. ... The Atrek (also Atrak) is a fast-moving river which begins in the mountains of Northeastern Iran (), and flows 563 km (350 miles) westward draining into the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The blue areas were to be Russian controlled, while the southeast pink region was to be British. ... The Greater and Lesser Tunbs, and Abu Musa Greater Tunb and Lesser Tunb (Arabic: طنب الكبرى Ùˆ طنب الصغرى ; Persian: ) are two small islands in the eastern Persian Gulf, close to the Strait of Hormuz. ... Abu Musa and its environs This is a geographical article. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...

Persianates and Provinces of Greater Iran

In the Middle Ages, the territory of Greater Iran was known to be composed of two portions: Persian Iraq (western portion) and Khorasan (eastern portion). The dividing region was mostly along with Gurgan and Damaghan cities. Especially the Ghaznavids, Seljuqs and Timurids divided their Empire to Iraqi and Khorasani regions. This point can be observed in many books such as "Tārīkhi Baïhaqī" of Abul Fazl Bayhqi, Faza'ilul al-anam min rasa'ili hujjat al-Islam (a collection of letters of Al-Ghazali) and other books. Transoxiana and Chorasmia were mostly included in the Khorasanian region. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Persian Iraq (or Iraq Ajami) is an obsolete term for the northwestern region of Iran. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, a city which is known as The Pearl of Khorasan Greater Khorasan is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Gorgan Gorgan (Persian: گرگان, Land of the Wolf) is the capital city of the Iranian province of Golestan. ... Damghan is a town of northern Iran, in Semnan Province, 216 mi. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... This article is about dynasty which ruled the political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids (Chaghatay/Persian: - TÄ«mÅ«rÄ«yān), self-designated GurkānÄ« (Persian: ), were a Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty whose empire included the whole of Central Asia, Iran and modern Afghanistan, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia and Caucasus. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... Abolfazl Beyhaghi (995-1077; Ibn Zeyd ibn Muhammad Abul-Fazl Mohammad ibn Hossein ibn Soleyman Ayyoub Ansari Evesi Khazimi BeyhaÄŸi Shafei), also known as ibn Fanduq, was a Persian historian and author. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Khwarezmid Empire (1190-1220) Khwarezm was a series of states centered on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as the eastern shores of the northern Caspian Sea. ...


Central Asia

Gerard Mercator's map of 1595 showing the Central Asian region.
Gerard Mercator's map of 1595 showing the Central Asian region.

"Khwarazm is one of the regions of Iran-zameen, and is the home of the ancient Iranians, Airyanem Vaejah, according to the ancient book of the Avesta."[10] Modern scholars believe Khwarazm to be what ancient Avestic texts refer to as "Ariyaneh Waeje" or "Iran vij".[11] These sources claim that Urgandj, which was the capital of ancient Khwarazm for many years, was actually "Ourva": the eighth land of Ahura Mazda mentioned in the Pahlavi text of Vendidad.[12] Michael Witzel, a researcher in early Indo-European history, believes that Iran vig was located in what is now Afghanistan [4], the northern areas of which were a part of Ancient Khwarezm and Greater Khorasan. Others such as University of Hawaii historian Elton L. Daniel believe Khwarazm to be the "most likely locale" corresponding to the original home of the Avestan people,[13] while Dehkhoda calls Khwarazm "the cradle of the Aryan tribe" (مهد قوم آریا). Today Khwarazm is split between several central Asian republics. Image File history File links Mercator_1595. ... Image File history File links Mercator_1595. ... The Airyanem Vaejah or Airyana Waejah (Aryan Expanse) was the legendary home of the Aryan (Indo-Iranian) people, as described in writings in the Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrians. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... The Airyanem Vaejah or Airyana Waejah (Aryan Expanse) was the legendary home of the Aryan (Indo-Iranian) people, as described in writings in the Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrians. ... Ruins of Muhammad IIs palace in Old Urgench. ... Ahura Mazda () is the Avestan language name for a divinity exalted by Zoroaster as the one uncreated Creator, hence God. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Faravahar, believed to be a depiction of a Farvashi, as mentioned in the Yasna, Yashts and Vendidad The Avesta is a collection of the sacred texts of the Mazdaist (Zoroastrian) religion. ... The Airyanem Vaejah or Airyana Waejah (Aryan Expanse) was the legendary home of the Aryan (Indo-Iranian) people, as described in writings in the Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrians. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, a city which is known as The Pearl of Khorasan Greater Khorasan is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia. ... This article is about the University of Hawaii system. ... Elton L. Daniel, Ph. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Ali Akbar Dekhoda (علی‌اکبر دهخدا in Persian; 1879–March 9, 1959) was a prominent Iranian linguist, and author of the most extensive dictionary of the Persian language ever published. ... Ä€rya is a Sanskrit (आर्य) and Avestan word used by Hindus, Jains, Zoroastrians, and Buddhists. ...


Superimposed on and overlapping with Chorasmia was Khorasan which roughly covered nearly the same geographical areas in Central Asia (starting from Semnan eastward through northern Afghanistan roughly until the foothills of Pamir). Current day provinces such as Sanjan in Turkmenia, Razavi Khorasan Province, Northern Khorasan Province, and Southern Khorasan Province in Iran are all remnants of the old Khorasan. Until the 13th century and the devastating Mongol invasion of the region, Khorasan was considered the cultural capital of Greater Iran.[14] Khwarezmid Empire (1190-1220) Khwarezm was a series of states centered on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as the eastern shores of the northern Caspian Sea. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, a city which is known as The Pearl of Khorasan Greater Khorasan is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia. ... Semnan may refer to: Semnan province Semnan (city) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Located in Central Asia, the Pamir Mountains are formed by the junction of the worlds greatest mountain ranges, a geologic structural knot from which the great Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush mountain systems radiate. ... Sanjan was an ancient city in Greater Khorasan, a realm in northeastern Iran, in the vicinity of the historically eminent city of Merv. ... Turkmenistan, once known as the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic is a country in Central Asia. ... Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان) is a province located in northeastern Iran. ... South Khorasan (Persian: خراسان جنوبی) is a province located in eastern Iran. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, a city which is known as The Pearl of Khorasan Greater Khorasan is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia. ...


Afghanistan

Afghanistani Tajiks (Persians, also called Khorasanis nowadays by Persian nationalists) take pride in being descendants of the Aryans, as understood in the sense of Avestan Airyanem Vaejah or Sanskrit Aryavarta, Land of the Aryans. Today, this Avestan expression is preserved in the name of the Afghanistan National Airline, Ariana Airlines. The term 'Ariana Afghanistan' is still popular amongst many people in the country, specially among the Persian ones. Aryan (/eərjən/ or /ɑːrjən/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Yasna 28. ... The Airyanem Vaejah or Airyana Waejah (Aryan Expanse) was the legendary home of the Aryan (Indo-Iranian) people, as described in writings in the Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrians. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Ariana Afghan Airlines is the national airline of Afghanistan. ...


Afghanistan was part of Greater Khorasan, and hence was recognized with the name Khorasan (along with regions centered around Merv and Neishabur), which in Pahlavi means "The Eastern Land" (خاور زمین in Persian).[15] Friday Mosque in Herat, a city which is known as The Pearl of Khorasan Greater Khorasan is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia. ...


Afghanistan is where Balkh is located, home of Rumi, Rabi'a Balkhi, Sanāī Ghaznawi, Jami, Khwaja Abdullah Ansari, and where many other notables in Persian literature came from. The Dari language of Afghanistan, is a nearly identical dialect of the Persian language. It is widely spoken in Afghanistan and was the official language of the Sassanids. Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Rabea Balkhi (Persian: ), also called as Rabiah bint Kaab Quzdari or Ghozdary (in Persian: رابعه قزداري) , or just as Rabeah was most likely the first poetess in the History of Persian Poetry. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Illustration from Jamis Rose Garden of the Pious, dated 1553. ... Abu Ismaïl Abdullah ibn Abi-Mansour Mohammad or Khwajah Abdullah Ansari (1006-1088) (Persian: خوجه عبدالله انصاری) was a famous Persian poet and Sufi. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... Dari is a term used to denote one of several closely related Persian dialects spoken in what used to be Greater Khorasan: The official name for the Persian language in Afghanistan; see Dari (Afghanistan) One name used by Zoroastrians (the others being Gabri and Yazdi) to refer to the Northwestern... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ...


At the latest, Nasereddin Shah lost control of Herat to the British in 1857. But still even today, Persian names are far abound across the towns and districts of the country: Gulistan District, Shuhada District, Badghis, Maymana, Qala i Naw, Murghab District, Puli Khumri, Mazari Sharif, Band-e Amir, Pusht-e-Koh, Fāryāb Province, Ajristan, Qara Bagh, Jowzjan Province, Safid River, Nuristan, Dih Bala, Hisarak, Nimruz Province, Nurestan Province, Panjshir Province, Parvan Province, Samangan Province, Sar-e Pol Province, Maidan Shahr, and Zabul Province among others. Nasser-al-Din Shah Qajar (sometimes called Nassereddin) (died 1896) was the Shah of Persia from 1848 to 1896. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Gulistan, also transliterated as Golestan (Persian: گلستان), is a district in Farah Province, Afghanistan. ... Shuhada is a district in Badakhshan Province. ... Badghis province is one of the thirty_four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Maymana or Maimana (Persian: میمنه) is the capital of Faryab province, northern Afghanistan, near the Uzbekistan border. ... Qala i Naw (also spelled Qalanou) may refer to: Qala i Naw (city), provincial capital of Badghis Province, Afghanistan Qala i Naw District, Badghis Province Category: ... Murghab (Persian: مرغاب) is a district in the north of Badghis Province, Afghanistan. ... Puli Khumri (or Pul-i-Kumri) (Persian: پل خمری) is a city in Afghanistan. ... Mazari Sharif, also known as Mazar-i Sharif or Mazār-e SharÄ«f (Persian: ‎ ), is the fourth largest city of Afghanistan, with population of 300,600 people (2006 official estimate). ... Band-e Amir refers to five lakes high in the Hindu Kush Mountains of Central Afghanistan near the famous Buddhas of Bamyan. ... Pusht-e-Koh (Persian: پشت کوه) is a district in Farah Province, Afghanistan. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Afghanistan ... Ajristan is a district in the west of Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. ... Qarabagh could refer to: Qarabagh District, Ghazni, in Ghazni Province, Afghanistan Qarabagh District, Kabul, in Kabul Province, Afghanistan Category: ... Jowzjan province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... The Safid River is the name of a river in Afghanistan, not to be confused with the Sefid Rud in Iran. ... Nurestan Province (also spelled Nuristan) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Dih Bala (Persian: ده بالا) is a district in the south of Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan, bordering on Pakistan. ... Hesarak or Hisarak may refer to: Hesarak, Karaj Hisarak, Afghanistan Category: ... Nimruz (Persian: نیمروز) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Nurestan (also spelled Nuristan or Nooristan) (Persian/Nuristani: نورستان) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Panjshir (literally Five Lions in Persian) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Parvan province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Samangan (Persian: سمنگان) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Sar-e Pol (Persian: سر پل) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Maidan (Maydan / Meydan / Meydan Shahr) is the capital of Vardak Province, Afghanistan. ... Zabul, Afghanistan is the only Afghan province in which the Taliban have named (in the post-U.S. invasion of Afghanistan era) their own governor and officials to rival those appointed by the government in Kabul. ...


ززابل به کابل رسید آن زمان
From Zabul he arrived to Kabul
گرازان و خندان و دل شادمان
Strutting, happy, and mirthful
---Ferdowsi in Shahnama Categories: Afghanistan geography stubs | Provinces of Afghanistan ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... Shahnameh Shahnameh Scenes from the Shahnameh carved into reliefs at Tus, where Ferdowsi is buried. ...


Tajikistan

The national anthem in Tajikistan, "Surudi Milli", attests to the Perso-Tajik identity, which has seen a large revival, after the breakup of the USSR. Their language is almost identical to that spoken in Afghanistan and Iran, and their cities have Persian names, e.g. Dushanbe, Isfara (Esfarayen), Rasht Valley, Garm, Murghab, Vahdat, Zar-afshan river, Shurab, and Kolyab ([5]). Surudi milli is the national anthem of Tajikistan, officially adopted in 1991. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... Location of Dushanbe in Tajikistan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Mahmadsaid Ubaydulloyev Area  - City 100 km²  (38. ... A sign welcoming travellers to Isfara. ... The Rasht Valley is an administrative and geographic unit of Tajikistan comprising the six districts of Jirgital, Garm, Ragoun, Tavildara, Tajikabad and Nurabad. ... Garm is a district in the Rasht Valley area of central Tajikistan. ... The Murghab River, transliterated from Russian Мургаб variously as Murgab, Murghob, or Murgob and also known in its upper reaches as the Aksu or Oksu, rises in extreme northeastern Afghanistan before flowing north and west into Tajikistan, which contains the bulk of its length. ... Kofarnihon (lit: place where unbelievers hide in Persian, کافر نهان) is a city in western Tajikistan, near Dushanbe. ... The Zeravshan or Zarafshan river, whilst smaller and less well-known than the two great rivers of Central Asia, the Oxus or Amu-Darya and the Jaxartes or Syr-Darya, is if anything more valuable as a source of irrigation in the region. ... Shurab is a town in Isfara district of the Sughd province, Tajikistan. ... Kulyab (also transliterated as Kuliab or Kuljab) is a city in Tajikistan. ...


Turkmenistan

Home of the Parthian Empire (Nysa). Merv is also where the half-Persian caliph al-Mamun moved his capital to, inorder to move the center of the caliphate away from Arab speaking lands. The city of Eshgh Abad is yet another Persian word meaning "city of love", and like Iran, Afghanistan, and Uzbekistan, it was once part of Airyanem Vaejah. Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Nisa (also Parthaunisa) was an ancient city, located near modern-day Bagir village, 18 km southwest of Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. ... Merv (Russian: Мерв, from Persian: مرو, Merw, sometimes transliterated Marw or Mary; cf. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (786 - 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ... AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: , UniPers: EÅ¡q-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... The Airyanem Vaejah or Airyana Waejah (Aryan Expanse) was the legendary home of the Aryan (Indo-Iranian) people, as described in writings in the Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrians. ...


Uzbekistan

The famous cities of Afrasiab, Bukhara, Samarkand, Shahrisabz, Andijan, Khiveh, Navā'i, Shirin, Termez, and Zar-afshan are located here. Many experts point to these cities as the birthplace of modern Persian language. The Samanids, who claimed inheritance to the Sassanids, had their capital built here. Afrasiab, near Samarkand, Uzbekistan is both a historical city and its legendary founder. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Shahrisabz or Shahr-e Sabz (from the Persian meaning green city), also known as Kesh, is a city in Uzbekistan approximately 50 mi. ... Andijan is the capital of the Andijon province, which includes the Ferghana Valley Andijan (Andijon in Uzbek; also Andizhan, Andizan, Андижан) is the fourth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and the capital of the Andijan Province. ... Khiva (alternative names include Khorasam, Khoresm, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Chiwa and Chorezm) is the former capital of Khwarezmia, which lies in the present-day Khorezm Province of Uzbekistan. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Shirin (? – 628) was the Christian wife of the Persian Shah, Khosrau II. In the revolution after the death of Khosraus father Hormizd IV, the General Bahram Chobin took power over the Persian empire. ... Termez (Termiz in Uzbek; Termes in German) is a city in southern Uzbekistan near the border with Afghanistan. ... The Zeravshan or Zarafshan river, whilst smaller and less well-known than the two great rivers of Central Asia, the Oxus or Amu-Darya and the Jaxartes or Syr-Darya, is if anything more valuable as a source of irrigation in the region. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...


ای بخارا شاد باش و دیر زی
Oh Bukhara! Joy to you and live long!
شاه زی تو میهمان آید همی
Your King comes to you in ceremony.
---Rudaki Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Rudaki depicted as a blind poet, here on this Iranian stamp. ...


Western China

See also: Iran-China relations and Tajiks in China

The Xinjiang regions of China harbored a Persian population and culture.[16] Chinese Turkistan & the territory of the Uyghur people was always counted as a part of the Iranian cultural & linguistic continent with Kashgar,Yarkand,Hotan& Turfan bound to the Iranian history.[17] Iran-China relations date back over many centuries. ... Tajiks in China (Chinese: 塔吉克族, Pinyin: ) are one of the 56 nationalities officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Location of Kashgar Kashgars Sunday market Kashgar (also spelled Cascar[1]) (Uyghur: /; Chinese: ; pinyin: , ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Yarkand, 1868, showing city walls and gallows Yarkand (modern Chinese name 莎車), pinyin: Shāchē also written Suōchē. Altitude about 1,189 m. ... Mosque in Hotan Hotan (Uyghur: خوتەن/; Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: , formerly: Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; also spelled Khotan)[1] is an oasis town in Khotan Prefecture and its capital as well, population 114,000 (2006). ... position in China Street of Turfan View of the Flaming mountains Emin minaret, Turfan Turfan (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: Tǔlǔfán; ) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Kurdish regions

This Sassanid relief is located near Salmas, in the Kurdish region of Iran, and is believed to depict either Ardashir I or Shapur I.
This Sassanid relief is located near Salmas, in the Kurdish region of Iran, and is believed to depict either Ardashir I or Shapur I.

The Kurdish regions together including those in Iraq, Turkey and Syria, in addition to Iran, constitute what is commonly referred to as the greater Kurdistan. The Kurdish regions in Iraq, Syria and Turkey are entwined with the culture and history of that of the rest of Greater Iran. The Kurds and Lurs of Iran are spread out through many provinces, and are thought to also be closely descended from the Aryan tribes of antiquity. Ardashir I of Persia was born from a Kurdish mother of the Shabankareh tribe of Fars Province. Kurdish ancestors are believed to have consisted of the ancient tribes descending from the Caucauses, such as Hurrian tribes, as well as the later Indo-Iranian speaking Medes. The Medes established the Median Empire in 728 BCE, before forming a union with the Persian tribes and creating the Iranian Empire. Image File history File links Salmas_relief. ... Image File history File links Salmas_relief. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... This Sassanid relief is located near Salmas, and is believed to depict either Ardashir I or Shapur I. Salmas or Salamas (Persian: سلماس) is a district in West Azarbaijan Province of Iran. ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... A coin of Shapur I Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. ... For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... Fars (Persian: فارس) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... Mede nobility. ... Mede nobility. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. ...


Pakistan

The western provinces of modern-day Pakistan, which comprise the North West Frontier Province and Baluchistan, are predominantly Iranian-speaking regions where Pashtuns and Baluchis comprise the vast majority of the local populations and remain an extension of Iranian civilization in the east. The Persian influence extends into Pakistan's eastern provinces of Panjab and Sindh which are thought to mark the eastern extent of Persian cultural lands globally. In addition, many remains of Persian architecture still remain in these areas (e.g. Wazir Khan Mosque, Gulistan-e-Jauhar, Kuhestan, Nuristan, Nasirabad District, Panjgur District, Muzaffarabad, Shahpur, Turbat, Khosh-ab district, Sadeq-abad, Shah Bandar, and Nazem Abad), and up to 2 million Persian speakers still exist with many sub-dialects of Persian languages found throughout Pakistan. Almost all of Pakistan's indigenous languages are sub-affiliated to Persian.[6] North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... The Baluch (alternative spelling Baloch) are an ethnic group of Iranian origin. ... The Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan, is famous for its extensive faience tile work. ... Gulistan-e-Jauhar (also Gulistan-e-Johar; Urdu: گلستانِ جوهر) is one of the major neighbourhoods of Gulshan Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan and comes under the jurisdiction of UC10 Pehlwan Goth and Faisal Cantonment. ... The word Kohistan in Persian literally means Country of the Hills. ... Nurestan Province (also spelled Nuristan) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Nasirabad is a district in the center west of Balochistan province of Pakistan. ... Panjgur (Urdu: پنجگور ) is a district in the west of Balochistan province of Pakistan. ... Muzaffarabad (Urdu: مظفرآباد, is the capital of the State of Azad Kashmir, located in the north of the state, which is the Pakistani-controlled part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Shahpur (or Shāhpur) is a city in the west Punjab, Pakistan. ... Kech or Turbat district is in the south west of Balochistan province of Pakistan. ... Khushab District (Urdu: خوشاب) is a rural district located in Punjab, Pakistan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shahbandar (Shahbunder, Shahbundar, Shāhbandar) (Urdu: شاہ بندر ) is located in Thatta District, Sindh, Pakistan. ... Nazimabad (Urdu: ناظم آباد) is a suburb of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ...


Parts of Pakistan east of the Indus river were traditionally thought of as Persianate and represented the limit extent or border region of greater Iran. In ancient times, Pakistan's Panjab province (persian for land of five rivers) and Sindh province where the richest satrapies of the Persian empire. Later in more modern times, several Persianized empires such as the Mughal empire have ruled large parts of the subcontinent and have used Persian as the official language. Urdu, the official language of Pakistan and parts of the modern Republic of India borrows heavily from Persian, while the Pakistan's national poet, Muhammad Iqbal wrote the majority of his poems in Persian. Pakistan's national anthem is also in Persian. Persian is holds the title of Pakistan's Cultural Language. Persianate societies are those whose linguistic, material, and artistic cultural activities derives from the Persian language and culture. ... Flag Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Agra, Delhi Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707... Urdu ( , , trans. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ...


The Lingua Franca of the lands which constitute the modern republic of Pakistan was Persian and/or Dari until being conquered by the colonial British just prior to the 1900's and the subsequent replacement by English and Urdu thereafter. The British effected policies to limit the traditional and historical influence of Persian culture in these newly acquired regions which they wanted to integrate with their vast expanding British Raj of India and inacted policies to alter the cultural, ethnic and linguistic legacy of Persia in Pakistan which has resulted in the current small remaining population of Persian speakers in the country today. Dari is a term used to denote one of several closely related Persian dialects spoken in what used to be Greater Khorasan: The official name for the Persian language in Afghanistan; see Dari (Afghanistan) One name used by Zoroastrians (the others being Gabri and Yazdi) to refer to the Northwestern...


There is a growing movement in the country for the re-imposition of Persian as the state language, or the Persianization of the current national language to re-orient the country back to towards the West with Iran.


The Caucasus region

See also: Russo-Persian Wars, Treaty of Gulistan, and Treaty of Turkmenchay

Sassanid remains can be seen up far north as "Darband", now in southern Russia (the words Daghestan, Baku, Ganja, Abseron, and Darband, among others, are both Persian). These parts were mostly annexed by Imperial Russia over the course of the 18th and 19th centuries (See . yet even today, most of these regions continue to retain their Greater Persian identity, as can be seen in their traditions and customs (e.g. Norouz). For a discussion see[18]. The Russo-Persian Wars were wars fought between the Russian Empire and Persia in 18-20th centuries. ... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Gulistan (Russian: Гюлистанский договор; Persian: عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia on October 24, 1813 in the village of Gulistan in Karabakh as a result of the first Russo-Persian War. ... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Russian: Туркманчайский договор; Persian: عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was a treaty negotiated in Turkmenchay by which the Persian Empire, more commonly known today as Iran, recognized Russian suzerainty over the Erivan khanate, Nakhchivan khanate and the remainder of the Talysh khanate, establishing the Aras... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Derbent is built around a Sassanid fortress, the only one preserved in the world. ... The Republic of Dagestan (Russian: Респу́блика Дагеста́н) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Coordinates: , Country Azerbaijan Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... For the city in Tajikistan, see Panj. ... Apsheron (Abseron Yasaqligi) is a peninsula and a Rayon in eastern Caucasus in the historical region of Arran. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Persepolis all nations stair case. ...


Southern Caucasus

Also by the Treaty of Gulistan, Iran had to cede all the Khanates of the South Caucasus, which included Baku khanate, Shirvan Khanate, Karabakh khanate, Ganja khanate, Shaki Khanate, Quba Khanate, and parts of the Talysh Khanate. Derbent (Darband) was also lost to Russia. These Khanates comprise what is today the Republic of Azerbaijan.By the treaty of Turkmanchay, Iran was forced to cede Nakhichevan khanate and the Mughan regions to Russia, as well as Erivan Khanate. These territories roughly constitute the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan and Republic of Armenia. South Caucasus: Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan South Caucasus (also referred sometimes as Transcaucasus) is a name to the transitional region between Europe and Asia extending from the Greater Caucasus to the Turkish and Iranian borders, between the Black and Caspian seas. ... Baku Khanate was independent principality on the territory of modern day Azerbaijan between 1747 and 1806. ... In 1742 Shemakha was taken and destroyed by Nadir Shah of Persia, who relocated inhabitants into a new town under the same name about 16 miles to the west (Agsu) , at the foot of the main chain of the Caucasus. ... The Karabakh khanate (Qarabağ xanlığı in Azeri) was a Persian ruled[1] feudal state that existed in 1748-1822 in the present-day Nagorno-Karabakh and adjacent lowland areas. ... Ganja khanate was an independent principality that existed in the territory of Azerbaijan in 1747-1805. ... Shaki khanate was a principalty on the territory of Azerbaijan between 1743 and 1819 with a capital in a town of Shaki. ... Quba Khanate was independent principality on the territory of modern day Azerbaijan between 1747 and 1806. ... Talysh khanate was an independent principality that existed on the territory of modern Azerbaijan Republic between 1747 and 1813. ... Derbent is built around a Sassanid fortress, the only one preserved in the world. ... Nakhichevan khanate (Naxçıvan xanlığı in Azerbaijani) was a feudal state that existed in the territory of the present-day Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. ... Erivan (Yerevan), Erwan (آرون) Khanate was a Muslim principality under the dominion of Persia that existed on the territory of modern Armenia and parts of Azerbaijan between 1747 and 1828. ...


Armenia ("Armanestan") ("Hayastan" In Armenian)

See also: Persian Armenia and Iranian Armenians

Armenia was a province of various Persian Empires since the Achaemenid period and was heavily influenced by Persian culture. Armenia however, has historically been largely populated by a distinct Indo-European-speaking people who merged with local Caucasian peoples, rather than being directly associated with the Iranian peoples. Ancient Armenian society was a combination of local cultures, Iranian social and political structures, and Hellenic/Christian traditions.[19] Due to centuries of independent indigenous development, conquests by western powers including the Romans and Russians, and its diverse diasporic population that has absorbed many cultural traits, especially those of Europe and Lebanon. [7] Persian Armenia, AD 387-591 Persian Armenia corresponds to the Armenian territory controlled by Persia throughout history. ... Armenian Iranians (Armenian: Իրանահայ translit. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... For the peoples actually from the Caucasus, see Peoples of the Caucasus. ... Hellenic may refer to: the Hellenic Republic (the modern Greek state) the Hellenes, itself a term for either ancient or modern Greeks anything related to Greece in general or Ancient Greece in particular. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Iran continues to have a sizeable Armenian minority that links Armenians to Iranian culture. Many Armenians such as Yeprem Khan were directly involved and remembered in the History of Iran. Armenian-Iranians, also known as Parska-Hye (meaning those that are from Iran) are one of the ethnic minorities living in Iran. ... Yeprem Khan was a revolutionary leader of Iran. ... edit See Also: Persian Empire History of Iran and Greater Iran (also referred to as the Iranian Cultural Continent by the Encyclopedia Iranica)—- consisting areas from Euphrates in the west to Indus River and Syr Darya in the east and from Caucasus, Caspian sea and Aral Sea in the north...


Nakhichevan

Early in antiquity, Narseh of Persia is known to have had fortifications built here. In later times, some of Persia's literary and intellectual figures from the Qajar period have hailed from this region. Also separated from Greater-Iran/Persia in the mid-1800s, by virtue of the Gulistan Treaty and Turkmenchay Treaty. Narseh (whose name is also sometimes written as Narses or Narseus) was a Sassanian King of Persia (292 - 303), and son of Shapur I. He rose as pretender to the throne against his grand-nephew Bahram III in AD 292, and soon became sole king. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Gulistan (Russian: Гюлистанский договор; Persian: عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia on October 24, 1813 in the village of Gulistan in Karabakh as a result of the first Russo-Persian War. ... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Russian: Туркманчайский договор; Persian: عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was a treaty negotiated in Turkmenchay by which the Persian Empire, more commonly known today as Iran, recognized Russian suzerainty over the Erivan khanate, Nakhchivan khanate and the remainder of the Talysh khanate, establishing the Aras...


که تا جایگه یافتی نخچوان
Oh Nakhchivan, respect you've attained,
بدین شاه شد بخت پیرت جوان
With this King in luck you'll remain.
---Nizami External links The Legend of Leyli and Majnun Nizami, Jamal al-Din Ilyas. ...


Georgia and Ossetia

Prince Muhammad-Beik of Georgia, 1620. Artist is Reza Abbasi. Painting is located at Berlin's Museum Für Islamische Kunst.

Georgia, or "Gorjestan" was a Persian Province during Sassanid times (particularly starting with Hormozd IV). During the Safavid era, Georgia became so culturally intertwined with Iran that they almost replaced the Qezelbash in the Safavid courts. Persian language was even the official administrative language of Georgia in the time of Shah Tahmasb, and Allah-verdi Khan, whom the famous landmark of 33 pol in Isfahan is named after, was among the Georgian elite that were involved in the Safavid government. And Amin al-Sultan, Prime Minister of Iran, was the son of a Georgian father.[20] Georgia was again a direct province of Persia from 1629 until 1762 when the Russian influence arrived. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (297x640, 145 KB)Image is by Me. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (297x640, 145 KB)Image is by Me. ... Reza Abbasi, in full Aqa Reza Reza-e abbasi, sometimes known as Reza (1565 - 1635) was the most renowned Persian painter and calligrapher of the Isfahan school, which flourished during the Safavid period under the patronage of Shah Abbas I. Princely Youth and Dervish by Reza Abbasi, ca. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... The Kizilbash (Turkish: Kızılbaş, Azerbaijani: Qizilbash, Persian: قزلباش Qezelbash) Red Heads are religious group of diverse ethnic backgrounds who helped found the Safavid Dynasty of Iran. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... 33 Pol outer view. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... As the result of an amendment to the Constitution of Iran in 1989, there is no longer a post titled Prime Minister of Iran, but Iran has had many prime ministers since the Qajar era, when the country was internationally known as Persia. ...


The aforementioned is especially true of "Eastern Georgia". Eastern Georgia historically was attached to the south for support, as opposed to Western Georgia, which looked for help to the North. The city of "Teflis" ( Tbilisi in Georgian) was Persianized for quite some time. The Qajarid heir to the throne prince Abbas Mirza spent much time there. Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Georgia Established c. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Abbas Mirza (عباس میرزا in Persian) ‎(August 26, 1789 - October 25, 1833), was a crown prince of Persia, known because of his wars with Russia and the Ottoman empire, and his death before his father, the shah. ...


In the end, Persia was unable to challenge Russia in Georgia, and officially gave up claim to Georgia according to the text of the Gulistan Treaty and Turkmenchay Treaty. Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Gulistan (Russian: Гюлистанский договор; Persian: عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia on October 24, 1813 in the village of Gulistan in Karabakh as a result of the first Russo-Persian War. ... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Russian: Туркманчайский договор; Persian: عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was a treaty negotiated in Turkmenchay by which the Persian Empire, more commonly known today as Iran, recognized Russian suzerainty over the Erivan khanate, Nakhchivan khanate and the remainder of the Talysh khanate, establishing the Aras...


Due to the Treaty of Gulistan, Iran was forced to cede to Russia all the cities, towns, and villages of Georgia, including regions on the Black Sea coast, such as Megrelia, Abkhazia, Imeretia, and Guria. Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Gulistan (Russian: Гюлистанский договор; Persian: عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia on October 24, 1813 in the village of Gulistan in Karabakh as a result of the first Russo-Persian War. ... The historic region of Samegrelo in Georgia. ... Capital Sokhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Government  -  Chairman, Cabinet of Ministers  -  Chairman, Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia Autonomous republic of Georgia  -  Georgian independence Declared Recognised 9 April 1991 25 December 1991  Currency Georgian lari (GEL) Anthem Aiaaira Capital Sukhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Russian1 Government  -  President Sergei Bagapsh  -  Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab... Imereti is a historic province in Western Georgia, situated along the middle and upper reaches of the Rioni river. ... Guria is a region in Georgia (Caucasus), in the western part of the country, bordered by the eastern end of the Black Sea. ...


For a lengthy discussion, see Gorjestan.


Modern-day Iraq

This is what used to be the western part of Greater Iran. At times, it also included what is today eastern Iraq, as it is where the Sassanid capital was located (Ctesiphon). There are still cities and provinces in contemporary Iraq where the Persian names of the city are still retained. e.g. al-Anbar or Baghdad. Other cities of Iraq with originally Persian names include Nokard (نوكرد) --> al-Haditha, Budh-Aadashir --> Mausil, Suristan (سورستان) --> Kufa, Shahrban (شهربان) --> Miqdadiya, Anbar (انبار) --> Falluja, Arvandrud (اروندرود)--> Shatt al-Arab, and Asheb (آشب) --> Imadiyya.[21] Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... Al Anbar (Arabic: ‎ ) is an overwhelmingly Sunni Arab province of Iraq. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Brahmastra is an arrow created by Brahma. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... Muqdadiyah (also transliterated Al-Muqdadiyah, Muqdadia, Miqdadiyah) is a major city in the Diyala Governorate of Iraq. ... Fallujah (Arabic: فلوجة; sometimes transliterated as Falluja and less commonly Fallouja, Falloujah, Faloojah, Faloojeh) is a city of about 350,000 inhabitants in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly 69km (43 miles) west of Baghdad on the Euphrates. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب, Stream of the Arabs) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrÅ«d in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al...


Patrick Clawson verifies this: Patrick Clawson is the Deputy Director for Research at the Zionist Washington Institute for Near East Policy. ...

"Arab nationalists may seek retroactively to extend the present into the past, but this skews reality. Iranian domains once extended well into what is now Iraq. The first Sassanian capital was at Ctesiphon, 21 miles southeast of Baghdad."[22]

Even after Iraq was Arabized during the Islamic conquests of the 7th century, the Persian presence was still quite recognizeable and dominant at times, as many famous Persian Shia clerics are buried in Najaf and Karbala. At the latest, the Safavids lost control of these areas to the Ottoman Empire Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Najaf (Arabic: ‎; BGN: An Najaf) is a city in Iraq about 160 km south of Baghdad. ... // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ...


Asia Minor(Anatolia, modern-day Turkey)

Map gallery

References

  1. ^ www.college.columbia.edu/cct/nov03/features5.php
  2. ^ Patrick Clawson. Eternal Iran. Palgrave Macmillan. 2005 ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.23
  3. ^ Frye, Richard Nelson, Greater Iran, ISBN 1-56859-177-2 p.xi
  4. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. III: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods, Ehsan Yarshater, Review author[s]: Richard N. Frye, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 21, No. 3. (Aug., 1989), pp.415. Link: [1]
  5. ^ Patrick Clawson. Eternal Iran. Palgrave. 2005. Coauthored with Michael Rubin. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.9,10
  6. ^ Dehkhoda Dictionary, Dehkhoda, see under entry "Turan"
  7. ^ Homayoun, N. T., Kharazm: What do I know about Iran?. 2004. ISBN 964-379-023-1, p.78
  8. ^ Patrick Clawson. Eternal Iran. Palgrave. 2005. Coauthored with Michael Rubin. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.30
  9. ^ Patrick Clawson. Eternal Iran. Palgrave. 2005. Coauthored with Michael Rubin. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.31-32
  10. ^ Homayoun, N.T., Kharazm: What do I know about Iran?. 2004. ISBN 964-379-023-1, p.111
  11. ^ Farahvoshi, Bahram. Iranovich, Tehran University Press. 1991, p.8
  12. ^ Javan, Musa. Tarikh-i Ijtima'i Iran-i Bastan (The social history of ancient Iran), 1961, p24
  13. ^ Daniel, E., The History of Iran. 2001. ISBN 0-313-30731-8, p.28
  14. ^ Lorentz, J. Historical Dictionary of Iran. 1995. ISBN 0-8108-2994-0
  15. ^ Dehkhoda, Dehkhoda dictionary, Tehran University Press, p.8457
  16. ^ See:
    • Encyclopedia Iranica, p.443 for Persian settlements in southwestern China
    • Iran-China relations for more links on the historical ties.
  17. ^ "Persian language in Xinjiang" (زبان فارسی در سین کیانگ). Zamir Sa'dollah Zadeh (دکتر ضمیر سعدالله زاده). Nameh-i Iran (نامه ایران) V.1. Editor: Hamid Yazdan Parast (حمید یزدان پرست). ISBN 964-423-572-X Perry-Castañeda Library collection under DS 266 N336 2005.
  18. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica: "Caucasus Iran" article, p.84-96.
  19. ^ See:
  20. ^ Patrick Clawson. Eternal Iran. Palgrave. 2005. Coauthored with Michael Rubin. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.168
  21. ^ See: محمدی ملایری، محمد: فرهنگ ایران در دوران انتقال از عصر ساسانی به عصر اسلامی، جلد دوم: دل ایرانشهر، تهران، انتشارات توس 1375.: Mohammadi Malayeri, M.: Del-e Iranshahr, vol. II, Tehran 1375 Hs.
  22. ^ Patrick Clawson. Eternal Iran. Palgrave Macmillan. 2005. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6,

Patrick Clawson is the Deputy Director for Research at the Zionist Washington Institute for Near East Policy. ... Richard Nelson Frye (c. ... Ehsan Yarshater, of Columbia University, is one of the worlds leading Iranologists. ... Richard Nelson Frye (c. ... The International Journal of Middle East Studies is a scholarly journal published by the Middle East Studies Association of North America. ... Patrick Clawson is the Deputy Director for Research at the Zionist Washington Institute for Near East Policy. ... Michael Rubin. ... Dehkhoda Dictionary is the largest ever lexical compilation of the Persian language. ... Ali Akbar Dekhoda (علی‌اکبر دهخدا in Persian; 1879–March 9, 1959) was a prominent Iranian linguist, and author of the most extensive dictionary of the Persian language ever published. ... Nasser Takmil Homayoun is an Iranian historian. ... Patrick Clawson is the Deputy Director for Research at the Zionist Washington Institute for Near East Policy. ... Michael Rubin. ... Patrick Clawson is the Deputy Director for Research at the Zionist Washington Institute for Near East Policy. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Nasser Takmil Homayoun is an Iranian historian. ... The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران in Persian), also known as Tehran University, is the oldest and largest university of Iran. ... Elton L. Daniel, Ph. ... Ali Akbar Dekhoda (علی‌اکبر دهخدا in Persian; 1879–March 9, 1959) was a prominent Iranian linguist, and author of the most extensive dictionary of the Persian language ever published. ... Dehkhoda Dictionary is the largest ever lexical compilation of the Persian language. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ... Iran-China relations date back over many centuries. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... The Perry-Castañeda Library (PCL) is the main central library of The University of Texas library system in Austin, Texas. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ... Patrick Clawson is the Deputy Director for Research at the Zionist Washington Institute for Near East Policy. ...

Further reading

Richard Nelson Frye (c. ...

See also

Persianization or Persianisation is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Persian (or Iranian) is made to become Persian (or Iranian) It is commonly used in connection with Kurds, Arabs, as well as various Turkic peoples. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... YumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumvYum, Iranians were not only open to other cultures, but freely adopted all they found useful for them. ... edit See Also: Persian Empire History of Iran and Greater Iran (also referred to as the Iranian Cultural Continent by the Encyclopedia Iranica)—- consisting areas from Euphrates in the west to Indus River and Syr Darya in the east and from Caucasus, Caspian sea and Aral Sea in the north... “Farsi” redirects here. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts... Iranology is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the study of Iranian cultural continent. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, a city which is known as The Pearl of Khorasan Greater Khorasan is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia. ... Excavation of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree, the University of Pennsylvania, the Smithsonian Institute and others suggests that early humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, and that farming communities in Afghanistan were among the earliest in the world. ... A relief map of Pakistan showing historic sites. ... Persianate societies are those whose linguistic, material, and artistic cultural activities derives from the Persian language and culture. ... This article is about the group of peoples who speak Iranian languages. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... // Persian culture and history Persian architecture Persian art Persian Bayan Persian calendar Persian Canadians Persian carpet Persian Christians Persian column Persian Corridor Persian cuisine Persian dance Persian deities Persian handicrafts Persian Jewels Persian Jews Persian garden Persian grammar Persian Gulf Service Command Persian Hat Persian appel dessert Persian Constitutional Revolution... Irredentist disputes Not all territorial disputes are irredentist, although they are often couched in irredentist rhetoric to justify and legitimize such claims both internationally and within the country. ... edit The following is a comprehensive list of kings of Persia, which includes all of the Persian Empires and their rulers. ... Numerous cities served as the capital of Persia (Iran) during the course of history: Persepolis, ancient capital of Persia Hamedan Baghdad Tabriz Bukhara Neishapur Esfahan Shiraz (1750–79) Tehran (1779-now) Capitals of China Category: ...

Other cultural continents

Dark blue: the Indian subcontinent, Light Blue: Other countries culturally linked to India, notably Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia and Malaysia, Purple: Regions not included in Indosphere, but with significant current or historical Indian cultural influence, notably Afghanistan, Tibet, and Yunnan province of China. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

External links

In English

In Persian


  Results from FactBites:
 
iranian.com: Nima Kasraie, Greater Iran (1199 words)
While western Iran and Fars were enduring the wave of Arabization, the people of this region were preserving our language.
Iran can be a most loyal friend for a well intentioned United States.
It is our duty to defend the memory of Greater Iran from her enemies, and try hard to preserve the cultural glue that solidifies the peoples of this great land, whether Persian, Turkic, Afghani, Turkomen, or whatever, in spite of religion and creed, even if Iran herself doesn't.
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