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Encyclopedia > Great ape language

Research into non-human great ape language has involved teaching gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans to communicate with human beings and with each other using sign language, physical tokens, and lexigrams; see Yerkish. Primatologists argue that the primates' use of these tools indicates their ability to use language, although this is disputed by some linguists, including Noam Chomsky.[citation needed] Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ... Type species Simia pygmaeus Linnaeus, 1760 Orangutan distribution Species Pongo pygmaeus Pongo abelii The orangutans are two species of great apes known for their intelligence and their long arms and reddish-brown hair. ... Two sign language Intepreters working as a team for a school. ... A lexigram is a symbol that represents a word but is not necessarily indicative of the word by itself. ... Yerkish is a language developed for use by primates at the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew :אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) , Ph. ...

Contents

Questions in animal language research

Animal language research attempts to answer the following questions: Animal language is the modeling of human language in non human animal systems. ...

  • What problems can animals solve without language, and can they solve them better after they have had language training?
  • Can the lessons learned in teaching animals be applied to human children?
  • How, and how much, do animals' abilities to learn language differ from those of humans?
  • Are the abilities that underlie language general or highly specialized?

Apes that demonstrate understanding

A production is a stream of lexemes with semantic content. A language is grammar and a set of lexemes. A sentence (or statement) is a stream of lexemes which obeys a grammar, with a beginning and an end. Non-human animals have been recorded to have produced behaviors which are consistent with meanings accorded to human sentence productions. (That is, some animals in the following species can be said to "understand" (receive), and some can "apply" (produce) consistent, appropriate, grammatical streams of communication.) David Premack and Jacques Vauclair have cited language research for the following animals: Butchers Creek, Omeo, Victoria A stream, brook, beck, burn or creek, is a body of water with a detectable current, confined within a bed and banks. ... Definition A lexeme is an abstract unit of morphological analysis in linguistics, that roughly corresponds to a set of words that are the same in basic meaning. ... In general, semantics (from the Greek semantikos, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ... Look up content in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the topic in theoretical computer science, see Formal grammar Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of language. ... In linguistics, a sentence is a unit of language, characterized in most languages by the presence of a finite verb. ... The term statement can have several meanings: In programming, a statement is an instruction to execute something that will not return a value. ...

Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Type species Simia pygmaeus Linnaeus, 1760 Orangutan distribution Species Pongo pygmaeus Pongo abelii The orangutans are two species of great apes known for their intelligence and their long arms and reddish-brown hair. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ...

Primate use of sign language

Sign language and computer keyboards are used in primate language research because non-human primates lack vocal cords and other human speech organs. However, primates do possess the manual dexterity required for keyboard operation. Laryngoscopic view of the vocal folds. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Many researchers into animal language have presented the results of the studies described below as evidence of linguistic abilities in animals. However, it is important to note that many of their conclusions have been disputed [1].


Kanzi

Kanzi, a Bonobo (Pygmy Chimpanzee, Pan paniscus), is believed to understand more human language than any other nonhuman animal in the world. Kanzi apparently learned by eavesdropping on the keyboard lessons researcher Sue Savage-Rumbaugh was giving to his adoptive mother. One day, Rumbaugh used the computer to say to Kanzi, "Can you make the dog bite the snake?" It is believed Kanzi had never heard this sentence before. In answering the question, Kanzi searched among the objects present until he found a toy dog and a toy snake, put the snake in the dog's mouth, and used his thumb and finger to close the dog's mouth over the snake. In further testing beginning when he was 7 ½ years old, Kanzi was asked more than 600 complex questions, responding correctly over 74% of the time. Kanzi has been observed verbalizing a meaningful noun to his sister[11]. Kanzi (born October 23, 1980), a bonobo, is one of the most most famous and accomplished linguistic apes, in research led by E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... Sue Savage-Rumbaugh is most famous for her work with two bonobos, Kanzi and Panbanisha, investigating their use of language using lexigrams and computer-based keyboards. ... Kanzi (born October 23, 1980), a bonobo, is one of the most most famous and accomplished linguistic apes, in research led by E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh. ...


Washoe

Washoe, a Common Chimpanzee, was caught in the wild in 1966. When she was about ten months old, she was received by the husband-and-wife research team of Beatrix T. Gardner and R. Allen Gardner [2]. Chimpanzees are completely dependent until two years of age and semi-dependent until the age of four. Full adult growth is reached between 12 and 16 years of age. So the Gardners received her at a good age for research into language development. The Gardners tried to make Washoe's environment as similar as possible to what a human infant with deaf parents would experience. There was always a researcher or assistant in attendance during Washoe's waking hours. Every researcher communicated with Washoe by using American Sign Language, minimizing the use of the spoken voice. The researchers acted as friends and companions to Washoe, using various games to make the learning as exciting as possible. Washoe Washoe is a chimpanzee, currently living at the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute (CHCI) at Central Washington University in Ellensburg, Washington. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... The word deaf can have very different meanings depending on the background of the person speaking or the context in which the word is used. ... It has been suggested that ASL Grammar be merged into this article or section. ...


The Gardners used many different training methods:

  • Imitation: After Washoe had learned a couple of words, she started, like chimpanzees usually do, to imitate naturally. For example, when she entered the Gardners' bathroom, she spontaneously made the sign for "toothbrush," simply because she saw one.
  • Babbling: In this case, "babbling" does not mean vocal babbling. Instead, Washoe used untaught signs to express a desire. She used a begging gesture, which was not much different from the ASL signs "give me" and "come." (Human infants who are learning sign language often babble with their hands.)
  • Instrumental Conditioning: The researchers used instrumental conditioning strategies with Washoe. For example, they taught the word "more" by using tickling as a reward. This technique was later applied to a variety of relevant situations.

The results of the Gardners' efforts were as follows:

  • Vocabulary: When a sign was reported by three independent observers, it was added to a checklist. The sign had to occur in an appropriate context and without prompting. The checklist was used to record the frequency of a sign. A sign had to be used at least once a day for 15 consecutive days before it was deemed to have been acquired. Alternatively, a sign had to be used at least 15 days out of 30 consecutive days. By the end of the 22nd month of the project, thirty-four signs had been learned.
  • Differentiation: Washoe used the sign "more" in many different situations until a more specific sign had been learned. At one point, she used the sign for "flower" to express the idea of "smell." After additional training, Washoe was eventually able to differentiate between "smell" and "flower."
  • Transfer: Although the same object was presented for each learning trial (a specific hat, for example), Washoe was able to use the sign for other similar objects (e.g. other hats).
  • Combinations: Washoe was able to combine two or three signs in an original way. For example, "open food drink" meant "open the fridge" and "please open hurry" meant "please open it quickly."

Nim Chimpsky

Linguistic critics challenged the animal trainers to demonstrate that Washoe was actually using language and not symbols. The null hypothesis was that the Gardners were using conditioning to teach the chimpanzee to use hand formations in certain contexts to create desirable outcomes, and that they had not learned the same linguistic rules that humans innately learn. In statistics, a null hypothesis is a hypothesis set up to be nullified or refuted in order to support an alternative hypothesis. ...


In response to this challenge, the chimpanzee Nim Chimpsky was taught to communicate using sign language in studies led by Herbert S. Terrace. In 44 months Nim Chimpsky learned 125 signs.[12] However, linguistic analysis of Nim's communications demonstrated that Nim's use was symbolic, and lacked grammar, or rules, of the kind that humans use in communicating via language. The average college-educated English speaker has a vocabulary of greater than 100,000 words, which means humans learn roughly 14 words per day between ages 2 and 22, compared to the chimpanzee vocabulary learning rate of roughly 0.1 words per day.[13] Nim Chimpsky (November 21, 1973 – March 10, 2000) was a chimpanzee who was the subject of an extended study of animal language acquisition (codenamed 6. ...


Plastic tokens

Sarah and two other chimpanzees, Elizabeth and Peony, in the research programs of David Premack, demonstrated the ability to produce streams of token selections. The selections came from a vocabulary of several dozen plastic tokens; it took each of the chimpanzees hundreds of trials to reliably associate a token with a referent, such as an apple or banana. The tokens were chosen to be completely different in appearance from the referents. After learning these protocols, Sarah was then able to associate other tokens with consistent behaviors, such as negation, name-of, and if-then. The plastic tokens were placed on a magnetic slate, within a rectangular frame in a line. The tokens had to be selected and placed in a consistent order (a grammar) in order for the trainers to reward the chimpanzees. Sarah (chimpanzee) is a research primate whose productions are documented in The Mind of an Ape, by David Premack and Ann James Premack (1983). ... David Premack is currently emeritus professor of psychology at the University of Pennsylvania. ... For the topic in theoretical computer science, see Formal grammar Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of language. ...


One other chimpanzee, Gussie, was trained along with Sarah but failed to learn a single word. Other chimpanzees in the projects were not trained in the use of the tokens.


Lexigrams

Lexigrams are images on flat "keyboards", arranged in rectangular arrays. [3] A lexigram is a symbol that represents a word but is not necessarily indicative of the word by itself. ...


Criticisms of primate language research

Many scientists, including MIT linguist Noam Chomsky and cognitive scientist Steven Pinker, are skeptical about claims made for great ape language research. Among the reasons for skepticism are the differences in ease with which human beings and apes can learn language, questions as to the whether there is a clear beginning and end to the signed gestures, and whether the apes actually understand language or are simply doing a clever trick for a reward. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew :אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) , Ph. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Steven Pinker Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a prominent Canadian-born American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and popular science writer known for his spirited and wide-ranging advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind. ... Look up trick in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


While vocabulary words from American Sign Language are used to train the apes, native users of ASL note that mere knowledge of ASL's vocabulary does not equate to ASL, but more closely reflects Pidgin Signed English which is not a full-fledged language. In the research involving Washoe, all researchers returned lists of signs Washoe used, with the exception of the one deaf native ASL user who reported no signs but many gestures. Native users of ASL make clear distinctions about what handshapes, palm orientations and places of articulation signs must have to constitute linguistic activity. Signs must also be used combinatorially and in the correct grammatical sequence. Thus apes are seen as attempting to approximate these complex rules but are considered to be failing because of such malformations in the production of ASL signs. (However, proponents argue that such limitations might indicate instead that great ape ASL use more closely approximates a rudimentary stage of a young child's language development, or an early stage of an adult second language learner.) A pidgin, or contact language, is the name given to any language created, usually spontaneously, out of two or more languages as a means of communication between speakers of different tongues, and usually a simplified form of one of the languages. ...


See also

Researchers This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal. ... Animal language is the modeling of human language in non human animal systems. ... Animal training is a method to teach animals to perform specific acts in response to conditions or stimuli. ... The Great Ape Project, founded by Italian philosopher Paola Cavalieri and Australian philosopher Peter Singer, is campaigning to have the United Nations endorse a Declaration on Great Apes. ... The logo of The Great Ape Project, which aims to expand moral equality to great apes, and to foster greater understanding of them by humans. ... Operant conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. ... For the academic journal, see Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics Language acquisition is the process by which the language capability develops in a human. ... In the field of animal cognition, the premise of David Premacks and Ann James Premacks 1983 book, The Mind of an Ape ISBN 0-393-01581-5 is that It is possible to teach language to an ape. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... The phrase theory of mind (often abbreviated as ToM) is used in several related ways: general categories of theories of mind - theories about the nature of mind, and its structure and processes; theories of mind related to individual minds; in recent years, the phrase theory of mind has more commonly... Yerkish is a language developed for use by primates at the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center in Atlanta, Georgia. ...

Animals Image:Steven best. ... Roger Fouts (born June 8, 1943) is an American primate researcher. ... Louis Herman is a researcher in of dolphin sensory abilities, dolphin cognition, and humpback whales. ... David Premack is currently emeritus professor of psychology at the University of Pennsylvania. ... Tom Regan (born November 28, 1938 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American philosopher and animal-rights activist. ... Richard D. Ryder (born 1940) is a British psychologist who, after performing psychology experiments on animals, began to speak out against the practice, and became one of the pioneers of the modern animal liberation and animal rights movements. ... Sue Savage-Rumbaugh is most famous for her work with two bonobos, Kanzi and Panbanisha, investigating their use of language using lexigrams and computer-based keyboards. ... For other persons named Peter Singer, see Peter Singer (disambiguation). ... Dr. Francine Neago is a primatologist and conservationist who lectured in primatology at UCLA between 1978 and 1989. ... The Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) is the trade organization for the consumer electronics industry in the United States. ...

Ai (born in 1976) is a female chimpanzee currently living at the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University (acronym KUPRI). ... Alex is an African grey parrot whose use of language has been studied intensively for over 30 years by animal psychologist Irene Pepperberg, initially at the University of Arizona and currently at Brandeis University. ... Chantek Chantek (born December 17, 1977, at the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center in Atlanta, Georgia) is a male orangutan who has mastered the use of a number of intellectual skills, including sign language, taught by anthropologist Dr. Lyn Miles. ... Kanzi (born October 23, 1980), a bonobo, is one of the most most famous and accomplished linguistic apes, in research led by E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh. ... Lana (born 1970) is a female chimpanzee, the first to be used in language research using lexigrams. ... Koko (born July 4, 1971, in San Francisco, California) is the name of a captive, acculturated gorilla trained by Dr. Francine Penny Patterson and other scientists at Stanford University to allegedly communicate with more than 1,000 signs based on American Sign Language, and understand approximately 2,000 words of... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Nim Chimpsky (November 21, 1973 – March 10, 2000) was a chimpanzee who was the subject of an extended study of animal language acquisition (codenamed 6. ... This article is about a parrot. ... Panzee and Panbanisha are two apes with whom research is being carried out in the United States. ... Washoe Washoe is a chimpanzee, currently living at the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute (CHCI) at Central Washington University in Ellensburg, Washington. ...

References

  • David Premack. Intelligence in Ape and Men.
  • Hillix, W.A. and Duane Rumbaugh. Animal Bodies, Human Minds.
  • Jacques Vauclair, Animal Cognition:an introduction to Modern Comparative Psychology. ISBN 0-674-03703-0
  • R. Allen Gardner, Beatrix T. Gardner, & Thomas E. Van Cantfort (Eds.) Teaching Sign Language to Chimpanzees. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-88706-966-5

David Premack is currently emeritus professor of psychology at the University of Pennsylvania. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Plooij, F.X. (1978) "Some basic traits of language in wild chimpanzees?" in A. Lock (ed.) Action, Gesture and Symbol New York: Academic Press.
  2. ^ Nishida, T. (1968) "The social group of wild chimpanzees in the Mahali Mountains". Primates 9, 167-224
  3. ^ Premack, D. (1985) "'Gavagai!' or the future of the animal language controversy". Cognition 19, 207-296
  4. ^ Gardner, R.A. and Gardner, B.T. (1969), "Teaching Sign Language to a Chimpanzee", Science 165, 664-672.
  5. ^ Gardner, R.A., Gardner, B.T., and Van Cantfort, T.E. (1989), Teaching Sign Language to Chimpanzees, Albany: SUNY Press.
  6. ^ Terrace, H.S. (1979). Nim: A chimpanzee who learned Sign Language New York: Knopf.
  7. ^ a b Savage-Rumbaugh, E.S, Rumbaugh, D.M., McDonald, K. (1985). "Language learning in two species of apes". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 9, 653-665.
  8. ^ Patterson, F.G. and Linden E. (1981), The education of Koko, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston
  9. ^ Miles, H.L. (1990) "The cognitive foundations for reference in a signing orangutan" in S.T. Parker and K.R. Gibson (eds.) "Language" and intelligence in monkeys and apes: Comparative Developmental Perspectives. Cambridge Univ. Press. pp.511-539.
  10. ^ Savage-Rumbaugh, E.S., McDonald, K, Sevcik, R.A., Hopkins, W.D., and Rupert E. (1986). "Spontaneous symbol acquisition and communicative use by pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus)". Journal of Experimental Psychology:General 115, 211-235.
  11. ^ Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, Smithsonian magazine, November 2006
  12. ^ Terrace, H. S. (1979). Nim. New York: Knopf. 
  13. ^ in ed. Dale Purves: Neuroscience, 2nd Edition, 591. 

Sue Savage-Rumbaugh is most famous for her work with two bonobos, Kanzi and Panbanisha, investigating their use of language using lexigrams and computer-based keyboards. ...

External links

  • ApeNet.org - 'Language-Using Great Ape Ambassadors: Chantek (Orangutan), Koko (gorilla), Kanzi (bonobo)'
  • FriendsOfWashoe.org - 'Meet Washoe', Friends of Washoe
  • GaTech.edu - 'Animal Communication' (from the book: Language Files, Sixth Edition), editors: Stefanie Jannedy, Robert Poletto, Tracey L. Weldon, Department of Linguistics Ohio State University (1994)
  • OrionSociety.org - 'Does an Orangutan find Freedom in the Gift of Words? Do We?', Susanne Antonetta (March, 2005)
  • Great Ape Trust-'Use of Human Languages By Captive Great Apes' from the book World Atlas of Great Apes and Their Conservation By Duane Rumbaugh, Sue Savage-Rumbaugh and William Fields (2005)
  • Thailand tree apes use song as warning

Chantek Chantek (born December 17, 1977, at the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center in Atlanta, Georgia) is a male orangutan who has mastered the use of a number of intellectual skills, including sign language, taught by anthropologist Dr. Lyn Miles. ... Koko (born July 4, 1971, in San Francisco, California) is the name of a captive, acculturated gorilla trained by Dr. Francine Penny Patterson and other scientists at Stanford University to allegedly communicate with more than 1,000 signs based on American Sign Language, and understand approximately 2,000 words of... Kanzi (born October 23, 1980), a bonobo, is one of the most most famous and accomplished linguistic apes, in research led by E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh. ... Ohio State University (OSU) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Ohio. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Sue Savage-Rumbaugh is most famous for her work with two bonobos, Kanzi and Panbanisha, investigating their use of language using lexigrams and computer-based keyboards. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... Type species Simia pygmaeus Linnaeus, 1760 Orangutan distribution Species Pongo pygmaeus Pongo abelii The orangutans are two species of great apes known for their intelligence and their long arms and reddish-brown hair. ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 537 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1466 × 1636 pixel, file size: 307 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original caption: Skelett des Menschen (1) und des Gorillas (2), unnatürlich gestreckt. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Binomial name Pongo pygmaeus (Linnaeus, 1760) The Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) is a species of orangutan native to the island of Borneo. ... Binomial name Lesson, 1827 The Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo abelii) is the rarer of the two species of orangutans. ... Binomial name Gorilla gorilla Savage, 1847 Subspecies G. g. ... Binomial name Gorilla beringei Matschie, 1903 Subspecies G. b. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Great Ape Trust is a 200-acre ape sanctuary and language study in Des Moines, Iowa that houses orangutans and bonobos. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Chimpanzee Genome Project is an effort to determine the DNA sequence of the genome of the closest living human relatives. ... // The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a project to de-code (i. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Advocates of Great Ape personhood consider common chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans (the hominid apes) to be persons. ... A Great Ape research ban, or severe restrictions on the use of non-human great apes in research, is currently in place in the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and Japan, and has been proposed in Austria. ... The Great Ape Project, founded by Italian philosopher Paola Cavalieri and Australian philosopher Peter Singer, is campaigning to have the United Nations endorse a Declaration on Great Apes. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The logo of The Great Ape Project, which aims to expand moral equality to great apes, and to foster greater understanding of them by humans. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ape extinction, particularly great ape extinction, is one of the most widely held biodiversity concerns. ... This is a list of apes of encyclopedic interest. ... // For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal. ... Animal training is a method to teach animals to perform specific acts in response to conditions or stimuli. ... Animal language is the modeling of human language in non human animal systems. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bioacoustics is a cross-disciplinary science, which investigates sound production and reception in animals, including man, the biological acoustically-borne information transfer and its propagation in elastic media. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Evolutionary linguistics is the scientific study of the origins and development of language. ... FOXP2 (forkhead box P2) is a gene that is implicated in the development of language skills,[1] including grammatical competence. ... The origin of language (glottogony) is a topic that has attracted considerable speculation throughout human history. ... An absolute proto-language, as defined by linguist Derek Bickerton, is a primitive form of communication lacking: a fully-developed syntax tense, aspect, auxiliary verbs, etc. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Blackbird (Turdus merula), singing male. ... Talking birds are birds who can imitate human speech. ... Yerkish is a language developed for use by primates at the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center in Atlanta, Georgia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


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