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Encyclopedia > Great White Shark
Great white shark

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Subclass: Elasmobranchii
Order: Lamniformes
Family: Lamnidae
Genus: Carcharodon
Smith, 1838
Species: C. carcharias
Binomial name
Carcharodon carcharias
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Range (in blue)
Range (in blue)
Sharks Portal

The great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, also known as white pointer, white shark, or white death, is an exceptionally large lamniform shark found in coastal surface waters in all major oceans. Reaching lengths of about 6 metres (20 ft) and weighing up to 2,250 kilograms (5,000 lb), the great white shark is the world's largest known predatory fish. It is the only surviving species of its genus, Carcharodon. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (967x676, 426 KB) Photo by Terry Goss, copyright 2006. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses and Orders See text. ... Superorders Batoidea (rays and skates) Selachimorpha (sharks) Elasmobranchii is the subclass of cartilaginous fish that includes skates, rays (batoidea) and sharks (selachii). ... Families Odontaspididae (sand tigers) Mitsukurinidae (goblin shark) Pseudocarchariidae (crocodile shark) Megachasmidae (megamouth shark) Alopiidae (thresher sharks) Cetorhinidae (basking shark) Lamnidae (mackerel sharks) Great Lamniformes is an order of sharks commonly known as the mackerel sharks. ... Lamnidae is a family of sharks. ... Dr. Sir Andrew Smith (1797 - 1872) was a Scottish surgeon and zoologist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Greyreefsharksmall2. ... Great White may refer to the following: Great white shark species of shark Great White (film), an Italian ripoff of the film Jaws Great White (comics) Great White Brotherhood Great White (band) Great White Egret, a species of egret Great White Fleet Great White Games Great White Heron Great White... Families Odontaspididae (sand tigers) Mitsukurinidae (goblin shark) Pseudocarchariidae (crocodile shark) Megachasmidae (megamouth shark) Alopiidae (thresher sharks) Cetorhinidae (basking shark) Lamnidae (mackerel sharks) Great Lamniformes is an order of sharks commonly known as the mackerel sharks. ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet) is a non-SI unit of distance or length, measuring around a third of a metre. ... Kg redirects here. ... The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, , lbm, or sometimes in the United States: #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including the imperial and US and older English systems. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Taxonomy

Carolus Linnaeus gave the great white shark its first scientific name, Squalus carcharias in 1758. Sir Andrew Smith gave it the generic name Carcharodon in 1833, and in 1873 the generic name was identified with Linnaeus specific name and the current scientific name Carcharodon carcharias was finalised. Carcharodon comes from the Greek words karcharos, which means sharp or jagged, and odous, which means tooth.[1] Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Dr. Sir Andrew Smith (1797 - 1872) was a Scottish surgeon and zoologist. ...


Related species

The great white is classified as a mackerel (Lamnidae) shark. There are four other living species in this family, two mako and two Lamna sharks. Lamnidae is a family of sharks. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Binomial name Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810 The Shortfin Mako Shark (Isurus oxyrinchus), commonly called Mako Shark, is a large shark of the Lamnidae family with a full-grown size of 2. ... Species Lamna ditropis Lamna nasus Mackerel sharks (Lamna) are a genus of shark. ...

Megalodon tooth with two great white shark teeth and a U.S. quarter for size comparison
Megalodon tooth with two great white shark teeth and a U.S. quarter for size comparison

Dental features and the extreme size of both the great white and the prehistoric Megalodon lead many scientists to believe they were closely related, and the name Carcharodon megalodon was applied to the latter. At present there is considerable doubt about this hypothesis, and other scientists would place the megalodon and white shark as distant relatives - sharing the family Lamnidae but no closer relationship. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 515 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 1932 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 515 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 1932 pixel, file size: 3. ... For the film, see Shark Attack 3: Megalodon. ... A quarter is a coin worth one-quarter of a United States dollar, or 25 cents. ... For the film, see Shark Attack 3: Megalodon. ...


Megalodon is only known from its teeth and from a few cartilage remains, and probably reached sizes of 12 m (39 ft) or more, considerably larger than even the largest great white sharks. From time to time it is suggested that megalodon might still exist. Megalodon teeth have supposedly been found from as recently as 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, but these results appear to be based on misinterpretation of the evidence.[2] However, while megalodon fossils are widespread and plentiful, no evidence has surfaced that the species is anything but extinct. For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ...


Other evidence suggests that the great white shark is more closely related to the mako shark than to the megalodon.[3] According to this theory, Carcharodon orientalis[verification needed] and the broad tooth mako Isurus hastalis are fossil sharks that are considered ancestral to the great white. The Carcharocles and Otodus obliquus sharks are in this case considered the ancient representatives of the extinct megalodon lineage; indeed, Carcharocles megalodon is a popular alternative classification of the megalodon. Binomial name Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810 The Shortfin Mako Shark (Isurus oxyrinchus), commonly called Mako Shark, is a large shark of the Lamnidae family with a full-grown size of 2. ... Binomial name Otodus obliquus Agassiz, 1843 Otodus obliquus was a large prehistoric Makerel Shark which lived during the Paleocene- Eocene epochs, approximately 45-55 million years ago. ...


Distribution and habitat

White shark at Isla Guadalupe, Mexico

Great white sharks live in almost all coastal and offshore waters which have a water temperature of between 12 and 24° C (54° to 75° F), with greater concentrations off the southern coasts of Australia, off South Africa, California, Mexico's Isla Guadalupe and to a degree in the Central Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. One of the densest known populations is found around Dyer Island, South Africa where much research on the shark is conducted. It can be also found in tropical waters like those of the Caribbean and has been recorded off Mauritius.[4] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 557 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 835 pixel, file size: 655 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Removal of distracting elements from Image:Whiteshark-TGoss5b. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 557 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 835 pixel, file size: 655 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Removal of distracting elements from Image:Whiteshark-TGoss5b. ... Southeast coast of Guadalupe Island For the French Caribbean island, see Guadeloupe. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Southeast coast of Guadalupe Island For the French Caribbean island, see Guadeloupe. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... Gansbaai is located in the Overberg District (blue) of the Western Cape (dark gray) in South Africa (light gray). ... West Indies redirects here. ...


It is a pelagic fish, but recorded or observed mostly in coastal waters in the presence of rich game like fur seals, sea lions, cetaceans, other sharks and large bony fish species. It is considered an open-ocean dweller and is recorded from the surface down to depths of 1,280 m (4,199 ft), but is most often found close to the surface. Scale diagram of the layers of the pelagic zone. ... Genera Callorhinus Arctocephalus Fur seals, or Arctocephalinae make up one of the two distinct groups of marine mammals called seals. Fur seals are usually smaller than sea lions and have a coat of dense fur intermixed with guard hairs. ... For other uses, see Sea Lion (disambiguation). ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti (see text) The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ...


In a recent study great white sharks from California were shown to migrate to an area between Baja California and Hawaii, where they spend at least 100 days of the year before they migrate back to Baja. On the journey out, they swim slowly and dive down to around 900 m (2,953 ft). After they arrive, they change behaviour and do short dives to about 300 m (984 ft) for up to 10 minutes. It is still unknown why they migrate and what they do there; it might be seasonal feeding or possibly a mating area.[5] The Shark Café is a mid-Pacific Ocean area located about halfway between Baja California and Hawaii. ... Location within Mexico Municipalities of Baja California Country Capital Municipalities 5 Largest City Tijuana Government  - Governor José Guadalupe Osuna Millán (PAN)  - Federal Deputies PAN: 8  - Federal Senators Alejandro González (PAN) Rafael Díaz (PAN) Fernando Castro (PRI) Area Ranked 12th  - Total 69,921 km² (26,996. ...


In a similar study a great white shark from South Africa was tracked swimming to the northwestern coast of Australia and back to the same location in South Africa, a journey of 20,000 km (12,428 mi) in under 9 months.[6]


Anatomy and appearance

Carcharodon carcharias
Carcharodon carcharias

The great white shark has a robust large conical-shaped snout. It has almost the same size upper and lower lobes on the tail fin (like most mackerel sharks, but unlike most other sharks). Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... A snout is the protruding portion of an animals face, consisting of its nose, mouth, and jaw. ... In telecommunication, the term lobe has the following meanings: An identifiable segment of an antenna radiation pattern. ... Families Odontaspididae (sand tigers) Mitsukurinidae (goblin shark) Pseudocarchariidae (crocodile shark) Megachasmidae (megamouth shark) Alopiidae (thresher sharks) Cetorhinidae (basking shark) Lamnidae (mackerel sharks) Lamniformes is an order of sharks. ...


Great white sharks display countershading, having a white underside and a grey dorsal area (sometimes in a brownish or bluish shade) that gives an overall "mottled" appearance. The colouration makes it difficult for prey to spot the shark because it breaks up the shark's outline when seen from a lateral perspective. When viewed from above the darker shade blends in with the sea and when seen from below casts a minimal silloutte against the sunlight. Countershading employed by the grey reef shark. ...


Great white sharks, like many other sharks, have rows of teeth behind the main ones, allowing any that break off to be rapidly replaced. A great white shark's teeth are serrated and when the shark bites it will shake its head side to side and the teeth will act as a saw and tear off large chunks of flesh. Great white sharks often swallow their own broken off teeth along with chunks of their prey's flesh. A mans visible teeth. ...


Size

A typical adult great white shark measures 4 to 4.8 m (13 to 16 ft) with a typical weight of 680 to 1,100 kg (1,500 to 2,450 lb), females generally being larger than males. The maximum size of the great white shark has been subject to much debate, conjecture, and misinformation. Richard Ellis and John E. McCosker, both academic shark experts, devote a full chapter in their book, The Great White Shark (1991), to analysing various accounts of extreme size. This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet; symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Kg redirects here. ... The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, , lbm, or sometimes in the United States: #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including the imperial and US and older English systems. ... Richard Ellis is a marine biologist. ...


Today, most experts contend that the great white shark's "normal" maximum size is about 6 m (20 ft), with a "normal" maximum weight of about 1,900 kg (4,189 lb).


For several decades, many ichthyological works, as well as the Guinness Book of World Records, listed two great white sharks as the largest individuals caught: an 11 m (36 ft) great white captured in South Australian waters near Port Fairy in the 1870s, and an 11.3 m (37 ft) shark trapped in a herring weir in New Brunswick, Canada in the 1930s. While this was the commonly accepted maximum size, reports of 7.5 to 10 metre (25 to 33.3 ft) great white sharks were common and often deemed credible. The Guinness Book of Records (or in recent editions Guinness World Records, and in previous US editions Guinness Book of World Records) is a book published annually, containing an internationally recognized collection of superlatives: both in terms of human achievement and the extrema of the natural world. ... Port Fairy is a coastal town in Victoria, Australia, located on the Princes Highway, 28 kilometres west of the Warrnambool, 290 kilometres west of Melbourne, in the Moyne Shire. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...

Great white shark caught off Hualien County, Taiwan on May 14, 1997. Reportedly[citation needed] almost 7 metres in length and weighing 2500 kg, .
Great white shark caught off Hualien County, Taiwan on May 14, 1997. Reportedly[citation needed] almost 7 metres in length and weighing 2500 kg, .

Some researchers questioned the reliability of both measurements, noting they were much larger than any other accurately-reported great white shark. The New Brunswick shark may have been a misidentified basking shark, as both sharks have similar body shapes. The question of the Port Fairy shark was settled in the 1970s, when J.E. Reynolds examined the shark's jaws and "found that the Port Fairy shark was of the order of 5 m (17 feet) in length and suggested that a mistake had been made in the original record, in 1870, of the shark's length.[7] Image File history File linksMetadata Great_white_shark_caught_in_Seven_Star_Lake_in_1997. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Great_white_shark_caught_in_Seven_Star_Lake_in_1997. ... Hualien County (Traditional Chinese: 花蓮縣; Hanyu Pinyin: Hūalián Xiàn; Tongyong Pinyin: Hualián Siàn; Wade-Giles: Hua-lien Hsien; POJ: Hoa-liân-kōan) is the largest county in Taiwan. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Binomial name (Gunnerus, 1765) Range (in blue) The basking shark, Cetorhinus maximus, is the second largest fish, after the whale shark. ...


Ellis and McCosker write that "the largest White Sharks accurately measured range between 19 and 21 ft [about 5.8 to 6.4 m], and there are some questionable 23-footers [about 7 m] in the popular — but not the scientific — literature". Furthermore, they add that "these giants seem to disappear when a responsible observer approaches with a tape measure." (For more about legendary exaggerated shark measurements, see the submarine). The Submarine is the name given to a particularly large and aggressive Great White Shark that was supposed to have dwelled in False Bay, near Cape Town, South Africa. ...


The largest specimen Ellis and McCosker endorse as reliably measured was 6.4 m (21 ft) long, caught in Cuban waters in 1945; though confident in their opinion, Ellis and McCosker note other experts have argued this individual might have been a few feet shorter. There have since been claims of larger great white sharks, but, as Ellis and McCosker note, verification is often lacking and these extraordinarily large great white sharks have, upon examination, all proved under the 20-21 ft limit. For example, a much-publicized female great white said to be 7.13 m (23 ft) was fished in Malta in 1987 by Alfredo Cutajar. In their book, Ellis and McCosker agree this shark seemed to be larger than average, but they did not endorse the 7.13 metres measurement. In the years since, experts eventually found reason to doubt the claim, due in no small part to conflicting accounts offered by Cutajar and others. A BBC photo analyst concluded that even "allowing for error ... the shark is concluded to be in the 18.3 ft [5.5 m] range and in no way approaches the 23 ft [7 m] reported by Abela." (as in original) [8] For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


According to the Canadian Shark Research Centre, the largest accurately measured great white shark was a female caught in August 1988 at Prince Edward Island off the Canadian (North Atlantic) coast and measured 6.1 m (20 ft). The shark was caught by David McKendrick, a local resident from Alberton, West Prince[citation needed]. This article is about the Canadian province. ...


The question of maximum weight is complicated by an unresolved question: when weighing a great white shark, does one account for the weight of the shark's recent meals? With a single bite, a great white can take in up to 14 kg (31 lb) of flesh, and can gorge on several hundred kilograms or pounds of food.


Ellis and McCosker write in regards to modern great white sharks that "it is likely that [Great White] sharks can weigh as much as 2 tons", but also note that the largest recent scientifically measured examples weigh in at about 2 tonnes (1.75 short tons). This article is about the metric tonne. ... The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ...


The largest great white shark recognized by the International Game Fish Association (IGFA) is one landed by Alf Dean in south Australian waters in 1959, weighing 1,208 kg (2,663 lb). Several larger great white sharks caught by anglers have since been verified, but were later disallowed from formal recognition by IGFA monitors for rules violations. The International Game Fish Association (IGFA) is the leading authority on angling pursuits and the keeper of the most current World Record fishing catches by fish categories. ...


Adaptations

A great white shark going after a buoy
A great white shark going after a buoy

Great white sharks, like all other sharks, have an extra sense given by the Ampullae of Lorenzini, which enables them to detect the electromagnetic field emitted by the movement of living animals. Every time a living creature moves it generates an electrical field and great whites are so sensitive they can detect half a billionth of a volt. Most fish have a less developed but similar ability in the horizontal line along their body. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 7. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 7. ... The ampullae of Lorenzini are special sensing organs, forming a network of jelly-filled canals found on elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) and Chimaera. ... Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ...


To more successfully hunt fast moving and agile prey such as sea lions, the poikilothermic great white shark has developed adaptations that allow it to maintain a body temperature warmer than the surrounding water. One of these adaptations is a "rete mirabile" (Latin for "wonderful net"). This close web-like structure of veins and arteries, located along each lateral side of the shark, conserves heat by warming the cooler arterial blood with the venous blood that has been warmed by the working muscles. This keeps certain parts of the body (particularly the brain) at temperatures up to 14°C[9] above the surrounding water, while the heart and gills remain at sea-temperature. When conserving energy (a great white shark can go weeks between meals), the core body temperature can drop to match the surroundings. A great white shark's success in raising its core temperature is an example of gigantothermy. Therefore, the great white shark can be considered an endothermic poikilotherm, because its body temperature is not constant but is internally regulated. Cold-blooded organisms, more technically known as poikilothermic, are animals that have no internal metabolic mechanism for regulating their body temperatures. ... A rete mirabile (Latin for wonderful net) is a complex of arteries and veins lying very close to each other, found in a number of vertebrates, and serving different purposes. ... Gigantothermy is a phenomenon with significance in biology and paleontology, whereby large, bulky ectothermic animals are more easily able to maintain a constant, relatively high body temperature that smaller animals by virtue of their greater volume to surface area ratio. ... In thermodynamics, the word endothermic describes a process or reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat. ... Cold-blooded is an archaic term used to define organisms that maintaining their body temperatures in ways different from mammals and birds. ...


Diet and hunting

A carcass of a whale with typical sharks bites
A carcass of a whale with typical sharks bites

Great white sharks are carnivorous, and primarily eat fish (including rays, tuna, and smaller sharks), dolphins, porpoises, whale carcasses and pinnipeds such as seals and sea lions. Sea otters and sea turtles are also taken at times. Great whites have also been known to eat objects that they are unable to digest. In great white sharks above 3.41 metres (11 ft, 2 in) a diet consisting of a higher proportion of mammals has been observed.[10] These sharks prefer prey with high contents of energy-rich fat. Shark expert Peter Klimley used a rod-and-reel rig and trolled carcasses of a seal, a pig, and a sheep to his boat in the South Farallons. The sharks attacked all three baits but rejected the lower fat content sheep carcass.[11] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 6. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 6. ... This article deals with meat-eating animals. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Orders Rajiformes - common rays and skates Pristiformes - sawfishes Torpediniformes - electric rays See text for families. ... For other uses, see Tuna (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dolphin (disambiguation). ... Genera Neophocaena Phocoena - Harbor porpoise Phocoenoides - Dalls porpoise The porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae; they are related to whales and dolphins. ... This article is about the animal. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... // Look up seal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Sea Lion (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) is a large otter native to the North Pacific, from northern Japan and Kamchatka west across the Aleutian Islands south to California. ... Genera Family Cheloniidae (Oppel, 1811) Caretta Chelonia Eretmochelys Lepidochelys Natator Family Dermochelyidae Dermochelys Family Protostegidae (extinct) Family Toxochelyidae (extinct) Family Thalassemyidae (extinct) Sea turtles (Superfamily Chelonioidea) are turtles found in all the worlds oceans except the Arctic Ocean . ... Farallon Islands, with border of Farallon Islands National Wildlife Refuge Southeast Farallon Islands (from nautical chart of 1957) View of research station at Marine Terrace, with Farallon Island Light above The Farallon Islands are a group of islands and rocks found in the Gulf of the Farallones, off the coast...


The great white is regarded as an apex predator with its only real threats from humans and, in at least one incident, the orca.[12] Although their diets overlap greatly, there are few reports of encounters between orcas and great whites, and they don't seem to directly compete with each other. Great whites are also sometimes preyed on by larger specimens. Apex predators (also alpha predators, superpredators, or top-level predators) are predators that, as adults, are not normally preyed upon in the wild in significant parts of their ranges. ... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The Orca or Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) is the largest species of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ...

Surfacing great white
Surfacing great white

A great white shark primarily uses its extra senses (i.e, electrosense and mechanosense) to locate prey from far off. Then, the shark uses smell and hearing to further verify that its target is food. At close range, the shark utilizes sight for the attack. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 5. ...


Great white sharks' reputation as ferocious predators is well-earned, yet they are not (as was once believed) indiscriminate "eating machines". They typically hunt using an "ambush" technique, taking their prey by surprise from below. Near the now-famous Seal Island, in South Africa's False Bay; studies have shown that the shark attacks most often occur in the morning, within 2 hours after sunrise. The reason for this is that it is hard to see a shark close to the bottom at this time. The success rate of attacks is 55% in the first 2 hours, it falls to 40% in late morning and after that the sharks stop hunting.[13] Aerial view of Seal Island in False Bay. ...


The hunting technique of the white shark varies with the species it hunts. When hunting Cape fur seals off Seal Island, South Africa; the shark will ambush it from below at high speeds and hit the seal at mid-body. They go so fast that they actually breach out of the water. They have also been observed chasing their prey after a missed attack. The prey is usually attacked at the surface.[14] Binomial name (Schreber, 1775) Distribution of the Cape Fur Seal, dark blue: breeding colonies; light blue: non-breeding individuals The Cape Fur Seal (also known as the South African Fur Seal and the Australian Fur Seal) is a species of fur seal. ...


When hunting Northern elephant seals off California, the shark immobilizes the prey with a large bite to the hindquarters (which is the main source of the seal's mobility) and waits for the seal to bleed to death. This technique is especially used on adults which are large and dangerous. Prey is normally attacked sub-surface. Harbour seals are simply grabbed from the surface and pulled down until they stop struggling. They are then eaten near the bottom. California sea lions are ambushed from below and struck in mid-body before being dragged and eaten.[15] Binomial name Mirounga angustirostris (Gill, 1866) The Northern Elephant Seal (Mirounga angustirostris) is one of two species of elephant seal (the other is the Southern Elephant Seal). ... Binomial name Phoca vitulina Linnaeus, 1758 Common or Harbour Seals (Phoca vitulina) are true seals of the Northern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name (Lesson, 1828) The California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) is a coastal sea lion of the northern Pacific Ocean. ...


When hunting dolphins and porpoises, white sharks attack them from above, behind or below to avoid being detected by their echolocation.[16] Echolocation, also called Biosonar, is the biological sonar used by several mammals such as bats (although not all species), dolphins and whales (though not baleen whales). ...


A new study from the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia, is using CT scans of a shark's skull and complex computer models to measure the maximum bite force of the great white. The study will reveal what forces and behaviours the carnivore's skull is adapted to handle and will help resolve competing theories about its feeding behaviour.[17]


Behaviour

Great white shark lunging towards tuna bait while on its back
Great white shark lunging towards tuna bait while on its back

The behaviour and social structure of the white shark is not well understood but recent research shows that white sharks are more social than previously thought. In South Africa, white sharks seem to have a pecking order depending on size, sex and squatter's rights. Females dominate over males, larger sharks dominate smaller sharks, and residents dominate new comers. When hunting the white sharks tend to space out between each other and resolve conflicts with rituals and displays.[13] White sharks rarely resort to combat although some individuals have been found with bite marks that match that of other white sharks. This suggests that when their personal space is intruded upon, a white shark will give the intruder a warning bite. Another possibility is that white sharks may softly bite other individuals as a way of showing their dominance. Also, as noted above, white sharks can be cannibalistic. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 549 pixelsFull resolution (3724 × 2557 pixel, file size: 6. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 549 pixelsFull resolution (3724 × 2557 pixel, file size: 6. ... Three Mormon crickets eating a fourth Mormon cricket In zoology, cannibalism is a common ecological interaction in the animal kingdom and has been recorded for more than 1500 species (this estimate is from 1981, and likely a gross underestimation). ...


The great white shark is one of only a few sharks known to regularly lift its head above the sea surface to gaze at other objects such as prey; this is known as "spy-hopping". This behaviour has also been seen in at least one group of blacktip reef sharks, but this might be a behaviour learned from interaction with humans (it is theorized that the shark may also be able to smell better this way, because smells travel through air faster than through water). They are very curious animals, and can display a high degree of intelligence and personality when conditions permit (such as in the clear waters off of Isla Guadalupe, Mexico). Whales exhibit various types of behaviour when they surface. ... Not to be confused with blacktip shark. ... Southeast coast of Guadalupe Island For the French Caribbean island, see Guadeloupe. ...


Reproduction

There is still a great deal that is unknown about great white shark behaviour, such as their mating habits. Birth has never been observed, but several pregnant females have been examined. Great white sharks are ovoviviparous, the eggs developing in the female's uterus, hatching there and continuing to develop until they are born, at which point they are perfectly capable predators. The embryos can feed off unfecundated eggs. The delivery takes place in the period transitioning spring and summer. When giving birth, the female has to fast to prevent herself from eating her young after they are born. IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ... Ovoviviparous animals develop within eggs that remain within the mothers body up until they hatch or are about to hatch. ...


The young, which number 8 or 9 (with a maximum of perhaps 14) for a single delivery, are about 1.5 metres (5 ft) long when born. Their teeth are provided with small side cusps. They grow rapidly, reaching 2 metres of length in the first year of life. Almost nothing, however, is known about how and where the great white mates. There is some evidence that points to the near-soporific effect resulting from a large feast (such as a whale carcass) possibly inducing mating.


Great white sharks can also mate when a male is twelve-years old and a female is around fourteen. A great white's lifespan has not been definitively established, though many sources estimate that great whites live 30 to 40 years. It would not be unreasonable to expect such a slow maturing animal to live longer however.[18]


Relationship with humans

Shark attacks

Main article: Shark attack
The great white shark is unique in the fact it is one of the few sharks that can spyhop above water.

More than any documented attack, Steven Spielberg's 1975 film Jaws provided the great white shark with the image of a "man eater" in the public mind. While great white sharks have been responsible for fatalities in humans, they typically do not target humans as prey: for example, in the Mediterranean Sea there were 31 confirmed attacks against humans in the last two centuries, only a small number of them deadly. Many incidents seem to be caused by the animals "test-biting" out of curiosity. Great white sharks are known to perform test-biting with buoys, flotsam, and other unfamiliar objects as well, and might grab a human or a surfboard with their mouth in order to determine what kind of object it might be. For the film, see Shark Attack (film). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 328 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 328 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... Jaws is a 1975 thriller film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on Peter Benchleys best-selling novel inspired by the Jersey Shore shark attacks of 1916. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... A sea lion on navigational buoy #14 in San Diego Harbor Green can #11 near the mouth of the Saugatuck river. ... Categories: Stub ... A surfer carries a surfboard along the beach. ...


Other incidents seem to be cases of mistaken identity, in which a shark ambushes a bather or surfer, usually from below, believing the silhouette it sees on the surface is a seal. Many attacks occur in waters with low visibility, or other situations in which the shark's senses are impaired. It has been speculated that the species typically does not like the taste of humans, or at least that the taste is unfamiliar.[19]


However some researchers have hypothesized that the reason the proportion of fatalities is low is not because sharks do not like human flesh, but because humans are often able to get out of the water after the shark's first bite. In the 1980s John McCosker noted that divers who dived solo and were attacked by great whites were generally at least partially consumed, while divers who followed the buddy system were normally pulled out of the water by their colleagues before the shark could finish its attack. Tricas and McCosker suggest that a standard attack modus operandi for great whites is to make an initial devastating attack on its prey, and then wait for the prey to weaken before going in to consume the wounded animal. A human's ability to get to land (or onto a boat) with the help of others is unusual for a great white's prey, and thus the attack is foiled.[20]


Humans, in any case, are not healthy for great white sharks to eat because the sharks' digestion is too slow to cope with the human body's high ratio of bone to muscle and fat. Accordingly, in most recorded attacks, great whites have broken off contact after the first bite. Fatalities are usually caused by loss of blood from the initial limb injury rather than from critical organ loss or from whole consumption.


Biologist Douglas Long and Tyler B. write that the great white shark's "role as a menace is exaggerated; more people are killed in the U.S. each year by dogs than have been killed by great white sharks in the last 100 years."[21] However, such comments should be taken in context; interaction between humans and canines takes place far more regularly and in greater numbers than it does between humans and sharks.


Many "shark repellents" have been tested, some using scent, others using protective clothing, but to date the most effective is an electronic beacon (POD) worn by the diver/surfer that creates an electric field which disturbs the shark's sensitive electro-receptive sense organs, the ampullae of Lorenzini. Dr. Graeme Charter and Norman Starkey developed the “POD” (or Protective Oceanic Device), which is the first successful electronic shark repellent for scuba divers. ... The ampullae of Lorenzini are special sensing organs, forming a network of jelly-filled canals found on elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) and Chimaera. ...


Attacks on boats

Great white sharks infrequently attack and sometimes even sink boats, in a few cases they have attacked boats up to 10 meters in length. They have bumped or knocked people overboard, usually 'attacking' the boat from the stern. In one case (in 1936), a large shark leapt completely into the South African fishing boat Lucky Jim, knocking a crewman into the sea.[citation needed]


Great white sharks in captivity

Great white shark in the Monterey Bay Aquarium in September, 2006
Great white shark in the Monterey Bay Aquarium in September, 2006

All attempts to keep a great white shark in captivity prior to August 1981 lasted 11 days or less. However, that month a great white broke previous records by lasting 16 days in captivity at SeaWorld San Diego before being released into the wild.[22] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 1296 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 1296 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Monterey Bay Aquarium, which is located in a former sardine cannery on Cannery Row in Monterey, California, is one of the largest and most respected aquariums in the world. ... For the unrelated theme park with a similar name in Australia, see Sea World. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin...


In 1984, shortly before opening day, the Monterey Bay Aquarium in Monterey, California housed its first great white shark, which died after 10 days. In July 2003, Monterey researchers captured a small female and kept it in a large, netted pen off Malibu for five days, where they had the rare success of getting the shark to feed in captivity before it was released.[23] It was not until September 2004 that the aquarium was the first to place a great white on long-term exhibit. The young female, who was caught off the coast of Ventura, was kept in the aquarium's massive 1 million-gallon (3,800,000 litres) Outer Bay exhibit for 198 days before her successful release back to the wild in March 2005. She was tracked for 30 days after her early morning release.[24] On the evening of August 31, 2006 the aquarium introduced a second shark to the Outer Bay exhibit. The juvenile male, caught outside Santa Monica Bay on August 17 [25], had its first official meal in captivity (a large salmon steak) on September 8, 2006 and as of that date, the shark was estimated to be 1.72 metres (5 ft 8 in) and to weigh approximately 47 kilograms (104 lb). He was released on January 16, 2007 after 137 days in captivity. The Monterey Bay Aquarium, which is located in a former sardine cannery on Cannery Row in Monterey, California, is one of the largest and most respected aquariums in the world. ... For other uses, see Monterey (disambiguation). ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Santa Monica Bay is an arm of the Pacific Ocean in southern California. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Probably the most famous great white shark to be kept in captivity was a female named "Sandy", which in August 1980 became the first and only great white shark to be housed at the Steinhart Aquarium in San Francisco, California. She was returned to the wild because she would not eat anything given to her and constantly bumped against the walls.[26] The California Academy of Sciences is one of the ten largest natural history museums in the world. ... San Francisco redirects here. ...


Shark tourism and cage diving

Putting chum in the water
Putting chum in the water

Shark cage-diving is when a group of tourists, or those who wish to study the sharks up close are lowered into the water beside a boat, protected by a steel cage. From this view point it is easier to view the sharks up close without the dangers of being bitten. Cage diving is most common off the coasts of Australia, South Africa, and Guadalupe Island off the coast of Baja California as these are places where great white sharks are most likely to be seen. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 786 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 1172 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 786 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 1172 pixel, file size: 1. ... Southeast coast of Guadalupe Island For the French Caribbean island, see Guadeloupe. ...


Viewing sharks from the safety of a cage gives tourists an adrenaline rush and has become a booming industry. A common practice is to chum the water to draw in sharks for the tourists to view. These practices have raised the fear that sharks may be becoming more accustomed to people in their environment and beginning to associate human activity with food - a potentially dangerous situation. It is claimed that certain methods of chumming, such as when bait on a wire is drawn towards the divers in the cage, which may result in the shark striking the cage, exacerbate this problem. Other operators purposefully draw the bait away from the cage causing the shark to swim past the divers. Epinephrine (INN) or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ... Look up chum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Companies respond that they are being made the scapegoats, as people try to find someone to blame for shark attacks on humans. Most point out that lightning tends to strike humans more often than sharks bite humans.[27] Their position is that further research needs to be done before banning practices such as chumming which are said to alter sharks' natural behaviour.[28]


It has been advised that all dive boats should only use chum in areas in which Whites are known to actively patrol anyway, and these should be far enough away from human leisure areas so as not to draw the sharks towards them. Also, responsible dive operators will not feed the sharks; only sharks that are willing to scavenge will follow the chum trail, and if they find no food at the end then the shark will soon swim off and not associate chum with a meal. It has been suggested that government licensing strategies may help enforce these suggested advisories.


The shark tourist industry has some financial leverage in conserving this animal. For a fisherman with limited income, a single set of White jaws can fetch up to £20,000, a very substantial amount of money for a day's fishing. However, the value of the dead animal is a fraction of the value of viewing a live shark, which can become a more viable and sustainable economic activity to the local community. For example, the dive industry in Gaansbai South Africa, consists of about six boat operators with each boat taking around 30 people out to sea a day; if each person pays anywhere between £50 to £150, then in a single day a solitary live shark that visits each boat can create anywhere between £9,000 to £27,000 of revenue daily.


Conservation status

It is unclear how much a concurrent increase in fishing for great white sharks had to do with the decline of great white shark population from the 1970s to the present. No accurate numbers on population are available, but populations have clearly declined to a point at which the great white shark is now considered endangered. Their reproduction is slow, with sexual maturity occurring at about nine years of age, the population, therefore, can take a long time to rise.


The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (C.I.T.E.S.) has put the great white shark on its 'Appendix II' list of endangered species. The shark is targeted by fishermen for its jaws, teeth, and fins, and as a game fish. The great white shark, however, is rarely an object of commercial fishing, although its flesh is considered valuable. If casually captured (it happens for example in some tonnare in the Mediterranean), it is sold as smooth-hound shark. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between Governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Species 20 species: see text. ...


From April 2007 great white sharks are fully protected within 200 nautical miles of New Zealand and additionally from fishing by New Zealand-flagged boats outside this range.[29] A nautical mile is a unit of distance, or, as physical scientists like to call it, length. ...


References

  1. ^ "The Great White Shark". "The Enviro Facts Project". Retrieved on 2007-07-09.
  2. ^ See Megalodon article for details
  3. ^ Great White Related to Mako Shark. Live Science (2005-04-26). Retrieved on 2006-11-18.
  4. ^ "Proposal to include Carcharodon carcharias (Great White Shark) on Appendix I of the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)". "CITES". Retrieved on 2007-04-22.
  5. ^ "The Great White Way". "Los Angeles Times". Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
  6. ^ "South Africa - Australia - South Africa ". "White Shark Trust". Retrieved on 2006-10-25.
  7. ^ Size and age of the white pointer shark, Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus). Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  8. ^ Maltese '7 metre' great white shark was not a world record. Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  9. ^ Body Temperature of the Great White and Other Lamnoid Sharks
  10. ^ "James A. Estrada, Aaron N. Rice, Lisa J. Natanson, and Gregory B. Skomal". Use of isotopic analysis of vertebrae in reconstructing ontogentic feeding ecology in white sharks. "Ecological Society of America". Retrieved on 2006-10-20.
  11. ^ Catch as Catch Can
  12. ^ Clash of the titans: Whale vs. Shark CNN October 8, 1997.
  13. ^ a b "R. Aidan Martin and Anne Martin". Sociable Killers. "Natural History Magazine, Inc". Retrieved on 2006-09-30.
  14. ^ White Shark Predatory Behavior at Seal Island
  15. ^ Predatory Behavior of Pacific Coast White Sharks
  16. ^ Long, D. J; Jones, R. E (1996) White shark predation and scavenging on cetaceans in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean.
  17. ^ "Measuring the great white's bite", Cosmos Magazine, 27 July 2007. 
  18. ^ Natural History of the White Shark
  19. ^ http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/biology/b103/f00/web1/mccabe.html
  20. ^ Tricas, T.C.; John McCosker (1984). "Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences". Predatory behavior of the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, and notes on its biology 43 (14): 221-238. 
  21. ^ The Great White Shark. Retrieved on 2003-09-27.
  22. ^ Great white shark sets record at California aquarium. USA Today (2004-10-02). Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  23. ^ Great white shark puts jaws on display in aquarium tank. San Francisco Chronicle (2004-09-16). Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  24. ^ White Shark Research Project. Monterey Bay Aquarium. Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  25. ^ Great white shark introduced at Monterey Bay Aquarium. San Francisco Chronicle (2003-09-01). Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  26. ^ Electroreception. Elasmo-research. Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  27. ^ Shark Attacks Compared to Lightning. Florida Museum of Natural History (2003-07-18). Retrieved on 2006-11-07.
  28. ^ SA shark attacks blamed on tourism. BBC (2004-04-15). Retrieved on 2006-10-24.
  29. ^ Great white sharks to be protected. New Zealand Herald (2006-11-30). Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
General references

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the film, see Shark Attack 3: Megalodon. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The California Academy of Sciences is one of the ten largest natural history museums in the world. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Monterey Bay Aquarium, which is located in a former sardine cannery on Cannery Row in Monterey, California, is one of the largest and most respected aquariums in the world. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Florida Museum of Natural History is located at the University of Florida campus in Gainesville, Florida. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Zealand Herald is a daily broadsheet newspaper published in Auckland, New Zealand. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... FishBase is a comprehensive database of information about fish. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ...

Videos

  • Spectacular video of cage diving with Great White Sharks in Guadalupe, Mexico
  • Great white shark gets stuck in cage/ shark tourism issues
  • Slow motion sequence of great white shark attacking seals from Planet Earth (TV series)

Planet Earth is a BBC nature documentary series narrated by David Attenborough and produced by Alastair Fothergill. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
GREAT WHITE SHARK - Enchanted Learning Software (1019 words)
Great white sharks are found near shore along most of the temperate (not very hot and not very cold) coastlines around the world.
Great white sharks reproduce via aplacental viviparity; they give birth to 2-14 fully-formed pups that are up to 5 feet (1.5 m) long.
Great whites are decreasing in numbers and are rare due to years of being hunted by man. They are a protected species along the coasts of California, USA, Australia, and South Africa.
Great White Shark (1238 words)
The great white shark has long had a reputation as a fiersome 'man-eater' and is probably the most feared of all animals that live in the oceans.
The great white shark is constantly on the move, swimming slowly and continously, beating its tail from side to side.
In temperate seas the great white seems to migrate either northwards or southwards, depending on the hemisphere, as the sea warms in the summer, In winter, when the water is cooler, the shark migrates back again.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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