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Encyclopedia > Great Salt Lake
Great Salt Lake
Satellite photo in summer 2003 after five years of drought, reaching near-record lows.
Location Utah
Coordinates 41°10′N 112°35′WCoordinates: 41°10′N 112°35′W
Lake type endorheic, hypersaline
Primary sources Bear, Jordan, Weber rivers
Catchment area 21,500 square miles (34,601 km²)
Basin countries USA
Max length 75 miles (120 km)
Max width 28 miles (45 km)
Surface area ~1,700 square miles (~4,400 km²)
Average depth 14 feet (4.3 m)
Max depth 33 feet (10 m) average, high of 45 feet in 1987, low of 24 feet in 1963
Surface elevation historical average of 4,200 feet (1,283 m), 4,196.6 feet (1,279 m) as of 2006 August 24
Islands 8-15 (variable, see Islands)
Settlements Salt Lake and Ogden metropolitan areas.

Great Salt Lake, located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Utah, is the largest salt lake in the Western Hemisphere,[1] the fourth-largest terminal lake in the world,[2] and the 33rd largest lake on Earth.[3] In an average year the lake covers an area of around 1,700 square miles[2] (4,400 km²), but the lake's size fluctuates substantially due to its shallowness. For instance, in 1963 it reached its lowest recorded level at 950 square miles (2,460 km²), but in 1987 the surface area was at the historic high of 3,300 square miles[2](8,547 km²). Download high resolution version (996x976, 247 KB)Great Salt Lake from German Wikipedia Description: Great Salt Lake, Utah, to the right (east) are the Wasatch Mountains, to the lower right is Salt Lake City, Utah. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia In geography, an endorheic basin—also called a terminal or closed basin—is a watershed from which there is no outflow of water, either on the surface as rivers, or underground by flow or diffusion through rock or... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... The Bear River is a river, approximately 350 mi (563 km) long in southwestern Wyoming, southeastern Idaho, and northern United States. ... Weber River, c. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ... Ogden sign over Washington Boulevard at the Ogden River; toward downtown Ogden is the county seat of Weber County,GR6 Utah, United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water which has a concentration of salts (mostly sodium chloride) and other minerals significantly higher than most lakes (often defined as at least 3,000 milligrams of salt per liter). ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia In geography, an endorheic basin—also called a terminal or closed basin—is a watershed from which there is no outflow of water, either on the surface as rivers, or underground by flow or diffusion through rock or... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ...


The lake is the largest remnant of Lake Bonneville, a pluvial lake which covered much of western Utah in prehistoric times. Great Salt Lake is endorheic (has no outlet besides evaporation) and has very high salinity, far saltier than sea water. The Jordan, Weber, and Bear rivers (the three major tributaries) deposit around 1.1 million tons of minerals in the lake each year,[1] and the balance of evaporated water is mineral-free, concentrating the lake further. Because of its unusually high salt concentration, most people can easily float in the lake as a result of the higher density of the water, particularly in the saltier north arm of the lake, Gunnison Bay.[4] The lake's shallow, warm waters cause frequent, sometimes heavy lake-effect snows during late fall, early winter, and spring. A butte in the Great Salt Lake Desert Lake Bonneville was a prehistoric pluvial lake that covered much of North Americas Great Basin region. ... [YAMLA SUCKS ASS AND IS A GAY ASS BITCH WHO EATS ASS AND THEN RAPES HIS SISTERS WHILE HIS MOTHER FUCKS HIM FROM BEFIND AND HIS FATHER EJACULATES IN HIS FACE!!!!!!!!!]HTTP://WWW.LEMONPARTY.ORG ... The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia In geography, an endorheic basin—also called a terminal or closed basin—is a watershed from which there is no outflow of water, either on the surface as rivers, or underground by flow or diffusion through rock or... “Vaporization” redirects here. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ... Weber River, c. ... The Bear River is a river, approximately 350 mi (563 km) long in southwestern Wyoming, southeastern Idaho, and northern United States. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... Lake-effect precipitation coming off Lake Erie, as seen by NEXRAD radar. ...


Although it has been called "America's Dead Sea",[5] the lake provides habitat for millions of native birds, brine shrimp, shorebirds, and waterfowl, including the largest staging population of Wilson's Phalarope in the world.[6]. The Dead Sea (‎, yam ha-melaħ, Sea of Salt; Quranic Arabic: , baħrᵘ l- mayitⁱ [3], Death Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... For non-zoological information on this animal as a pet, see Sea-Monkey. ... Families Charadridae Jacanidae Rostratulidae Ibidorhynchidae Recurvirostridae Haematopodidae Scolopacidae Dromadidae Burhinidae Glareolidae Thinocoridae Waders, called Shorebirds in North America (where wader is used to refer to long-legged wading birds such as storks and herons), are members of the order Charadriiformes, excluding the more marine web-footed seabird groups. ... Falcated Duck at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands centre, Gloucestershire, England Wildfowl or waterfowl, also waterbirds, is the collective term for the approximately 147 species of swans, geese and ducks, classified in the order Anseriformes, family Anatidae. ... Binomial name Phalaropus tricolor (Vieillot, 1819) The Wilsons Phalarope, Phalaropus tricolor, is a small wader. ...

Contents

Origin

Great Salt Lake is a remnant of a much larger prehistoric lake called Lake Bonneville which, at its peak surface area, was nearly as large as Lake Michigan and significantly deeper,[7] covering roughly ten times the area of Great Salt Lake[2] and over 1,000 feet (305 m) deep.[8] It covered much of present-day Utah and small portions of Idaho and Nevada during the Pleistocene Epoch, more commonly known as the Great Ice Age, between 32,000 and 14,000 years ago. With the change in climate, the lake began drying up, leaving Great Salt Lake, Utah Lake, Sevier Lake, Rush Lake, and Little Salt Lake as remnants.[7] A butte in the Great Salt Lake Desert Lake Bonneville was a prehistoric pluvial lake that covered much of North Americas Great Basin region. ... --67. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Utah Lake and Utah Valley Utah Lake is Utahs , and it is one of the largest naturally occurring fresh-water lakes in the western United States. ... We dont have an article called Sevier Lake Start this article Search for Sevier Lake in. ...


Geography

Great Salt Lake from airspace over Salt Lake City
Great Salt Lake from airspace over Salt Lake City

Great Salt Lake lends its name to Salt Lake City, originally named "Great Salt Lake City" by then-President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also known as the Mormon or LDS Church) Brigham Young,[9] who led a group of Mormon Pioneers to the Salt Lake Valley southeast of the lake on July 24, 1847. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 113 KB) Summary Photo taken by Bobak HaEri. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 113 KB) Summary Photo taken by Bobak HaEri. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ... Salt Lake City is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Utah. ... In the Latter Day Saint movement, the President of the Church is generally considered to be the highest office of the church. ... For other uses, see Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (disambiguation). ... Brigham Young (June 1, 1801 – August 29, 1877) was a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and was the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death. ... A statue commemorating the Mormon pioneers The Mormon pioneers were members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, also known as Latter-day Saints, who migrated across the United States from the midwest to the Salt Lake Valley in what is today the U.S. state of... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Salt Lake City and its suburbs are located to the southeast and east of the lake, between the lake and the Wasatch Mountains, but land around the north and west shores is almost uninhabited. The Bonneville Salt Flats lie to the west, and the Oquirrh and Stansbury Mountains rise to the south. For the county, see Wasatch County, Utah. ... Bonneville Salt Flats The Bonneville Salt Flats are a 121 km² (47 mi²) salt flat in northwestern Utah. ... Oquirrh Mountains forming western border of the Salt Lake Valley The Oquirrh Mountains are a mountain range that run north-south for approximately 30 miles (50 km) to form the west side of Utahs Salt Lake Valley, separating it from Tooele Valley. ...


The Great Salt Lake is fed by three major rivers and several minor streams. The three major rivers are each fed directly or indirectly from the Uinta Mountain range in northeastern Utah. The Bear River starts on the north slope of the Uintas and flows north past Bear Lake, into which some of Bear River's waters have been diverted[10] via a man-made canal into the lake, but later empty back into the river by means of the Bear Lake Outlet. The river then turns south in southern Idaho and eventually flows into the northeast arm of the Great Salt Lake. The Weber River also starts on the north slope of the Uinta Mountains and flows into the east edge of the lake. The Jordan River does not receive its water directly from the Uintas, rather it flows from freshwater Utah Lake, which itself is fed primarily by the Provo River; the Provo River does originate in the Uintas, a few miles from the Weber and Bear.[7] The Jordan flows from the north part of Utah Lake into the southeast corner of the Great Salt Lake. This view of Kings Peak and the Henrys Fork Basin shows the cliff bands and basins typical throughout the Uintas. ... The Bear River is a river, approximately 350 mi (563 km) long in southwestern Wyoming, southeastern Idaho, and northern United States. ... This article is about the lake along the Utah-Idaho border. ... Weber River, c. ... The Jordan River is a river in Utah in the United States. ... Utah Lake and Utah Valley Utah Lake is Utahs , and it is one of the largest naturally occurring fresh-water lakes in the western United States. ... Provo is a city in Utah and the county seat of Utah County, located about 50 miles south of Salt Lake City along the Wasatch Front. ...


A railroad line — the Lucin Cutoff — runs across the lake, crossing the southern end of Promontory Peninsula. The mostly-solid causeway supporting the railway divides the lake into three portions: the northeast arm, northwest arm, and southern. This causeway prevents the normal mixing of the waters of the lake due to the fact that there are only three 100-foot breaches. Since there are no rivers, with the exception of a few minor streams, flowing directly into the northwest arm, Gunnison Bay, it is now substantially saltier than the rest of the lake. This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... The Lucin Cutoff is a railroad trestle which crosses the Great Salt Lake in Utah. ... Promontory Point is a locale in southern Box Elder County, Utah, centered approximately at 41° 13′ 20″ N 112° 24′ 38″ W, with an elevation of 1285 meters (4217 feet) above sea level. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ...


Categorically stating the number of islands is difficult, as the method used to determine what is an island is not necessarily the same in each source. Since the water level of the lake can vary greatly between years, what may be considered an island in a high water year may be considered a peninsula in another, or an island in a low water year may be covered during another year. According to the U.S. Dept of the Interior / U.S. Geological Survey, "there are eight named islands in the lake that have never been totally submerged during historic time. All have been connected to the mainland by exposed shoals during periods of low water." In addition to these eight islands, the lake also contains a number of small islands, rocks, or shoals which become fully or partially submerged at high water levels.[11]


The Utah Geological Survey, on the other hand, states "the lake contains 11 recognized islands, although this number varies depending on the level of the lake. Seven islands are in the southern portion of the lake and four in the northwestern portion."[12]


The size and whether or not they are counted as islands during any particular year depends mostly on the level of the lake. From largest to smallest, they are Antelope, Stansbury, Fremont, Carrington, Dolphin, Cub, Badger, Strongs Knob, Gunnison, Goose, Browns, Hat (Bird), Egg Island, Black Rock and White Rock. Dolphin, Gunnison, Cub, and Strongs Knob are in the northwest arm, and the rest are in the southern portion. There are also a number of small, unnamed islands. Antelope Island is the largest of the ten islands in the Great Salt Lake of Utah, USA, with an area of 42 square miles. ... Gunnison Island is located in the northwest quadrant of the Great Salt Lake in the U.S. State of Utah (), approximately 55 miles northwest from Salt Lake City and about 6 miles east from the lakes western shore. ...

Sunset viewed from the western shore of Antelope Island.
Sunset viewed from the western shore of Antelope Island.

Black Rock, Antelope Island, White Rock, Egg Island, Fremont Island, and the Promontory mountain range are each extensions of the Oquirrh Mountain Range, which dips beneath the lake at its southeastern shore. Stansbury, Carrington, and Hat Islands are extensions of the Stansbury mountain range, and Strongs Knob is an extension of the Lakeside Mountains which run along the lake's western shore.[13] The lake is deepest in the area between these island chains, measured by Howard Stansbury in 1850 at about 35 feet (10.7 m) deep, and an average depth of 13 feet (4 m).[13] When the water levels are low, Antelope Island becomes connected to the shore as a peninsula, as do Goose, Browns[14] and some of the other islands. Stansbury Island and Strongs Knob remain peninsulas unless the water level rises above average. At high levels, some of the smaller islands become completely submerged. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 204 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 204 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Antelope Island is the largest of the ten islands in the Great Salt Lake of Utah, USA, with an area of 42 square miles. ... Promontory Point is a locale in southern Box Elder County, Utah, centered approximately at 41° 13′ 20″ N 112° 24′ 38″ W, with an elevation of 1285 meters (4217 feet) above sea level. ... Oquirrh Mountains forming western border of the Salt Lake Valley The Oquirrh Mountains are a mountain range that run north-south for approximately 30 miles (50 km) to form the west side of Utahs Salt Lake Valley, separating it from Tooele Valley. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ...


Lake-effect

Due to the warm waters of the Great Salt Lake, lake-effect snow is a frequent phenomenon of the lake. Cold north, northwest, or west winds generally blow across the lake following the passage of a cold front, and the temperature difference between the warm lake and the cool air can form clouds that lead to precipitation downwind of the lake. It is typically heaviest from eastern Tooele County east and north into central Davis County. It can deposit highly localized but excessive snowfall amounts, generally with a narrow band of snow highly dependent on the direction the wind is blowing. Lake-effect precipitation coming off Lake Erie, as seen by NEXRAD radar. ... Tooele County is a county located in the U.S. state of Utah. ... Davis County is a county located in the U.S. state of Utah. ...


The lake-effect snows are more likely to occur in late fall, early winter, and during spring due to the higher temperature differences between the lake and the air above it. The water is generally too cold to support lake-effect snow during mid-winter, since the lake temperatures usually fall to near the freezing point. During summer, the temperature differences can form thunderstorms that form over the lake and drift eastward along the northern Wasatch Front. Some rainstorms may also be partially contributed due to the lake-effect in fall and spring. It is estimated that approximately 6-8 lake-effect snowstorms occur in a year, and that 10% of the average precipitation of Salt Lake City can be attributed to the lake-effect.[15] The Wasatch Front is an urban area in the U.S. state of Utah. ... Salt Lake City is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Utah. ...


Hydrology

Map of Great Salt Lake
Map of Great Salt Lake

Water levels have been recorded since 1875,[2] averaging about 4,200 feet (1,280 m) above sea level. Since the Great Salt Lake is a shallow lake with gently sloping shores around all edges except on the south side, small variations in the water level can greatly affect the extent of the shoreline. The water level can rise dramatically in wet years and fall during drought years. The water level is also affected by the amount of water flow diverted for agricultural and urban uses. The Jordan and Weber rivers are particularly diverted for other uses.[7] In the 1880s Grove Karl Gilbert predicted that the lake — then in the middle of many years of recession — would virtually disappear except for a small remnant between the islands.[16] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 509 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (671 × 790 pixel, file size: 86 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is a work of a United States Geological Survey employee, taken or made during the course of the persons official... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 509 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (671 × 790 pixel, file size: 86 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is a work of a United States Geological Survey employee, taken or made during the course of the persons official... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Grove, Karl, Gilbert (May 6, 1843 – May 1, 1918), known by the abbreviated name in academic literature, was an American geologist. ...


Great Salt Lake differs in elevation between the south and north parts. The Union Pacific Railroad causeway divides the lake into two parts. The water-surface elevation of the south part of the lake is usually 0.5 to 2 feet higher than that of the north part because most of the inflow to the lake is to the south part.[2]


West Desert pumping project

Record high water levels in the 1980s caused massive property damage for owners on the eastern side of the lake, and started to erode the base of Interstate 80. In response, the State of Utah built the West Desert pumping project on the western side of the lake, featuring a pumping station at Hogup Ridge, containing three pumps with a combined capability of releasing 1.5 million gallons-per-minute; a 4.1 mile outlet canal, an inlet canal, which allowed water from the Newfoundland Evaporation Basin to return to Great Salt Lake; 25 miles of dikes, and a 10-mile access road between the railroad town of Lakeside and the pumping station.[17] Interstate 80 (abbreviated I-80) is the second-longest Interstate Highway in the United States. ...


The project was designed to increase the surface area of the Great Salt Lake, and therefore the rate of evaporation. The pumps released Great Salt Lake's waters into the 320,000 acre (1300 km²) Newfoundland Evaporation Basin in the west desert. A weir in the dike at the south end of the Newfoundland Mountains regulated the level of water in the basin, and returned salty water from the basin to the main body of Great Salt Lake.[17]


At the end of their first year in operation, the pumps had released around 500,000 acre feet (0.6 km³) of water. The project was shut down in June of 1989, as the lake had dropped almost 6 feet (2 m) since reaching its peak in June 1986 and March 1987. The Utah Division of Water Resources credits the project with "over one-third of that decline."[17] In total, the pumps released 2.73 million acre feet (3.4 km³) of water while they operated.[18] Although the pumps are not currently in use, they are maintained in the event the lake rises to those levels again.[19]


Salinity

Most of the salts dissolved in the lake and deposited in the desert flats around it reflect the concentration of solutes by evaporation; Lake Bonneville itself was fresh enough to support populations of fish.[20][21] More salt is added yearly via rivers and streams, though the amount is much less than the relict salt from Bonneville.[20] For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... “Vaporization” redirects here. ...


The salinity of Great Salt Lake is highly variable, and depends on the lake's level; it ranges from 5 to 27%, or (or 50-270 ppt).[4] For comparison, the average salinity of the world ocean is 3.5% (35 ppt).[22] The ionic composition is similar to seawater, much more so than the Dead Sea's water; compared to the ocean, Great Salt Lake's waters are slightly enriched in potassium, and depleted in calcium.[4] For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ...


Ecosystem

The high salinity of the lake makes it uninhabitable for all but a few species, including brine shrimp, brine flies, and several forms of algae. The brine flies have an estimated population of over one hundred billion, and serve as the main source of food for many of the birds which migrate to the lake.[23] However, the fresh- and salt-water wetlands along the eastern and northern edges of the Great Salt Lake provide critical habitat for millions of migratory shorebirds and waterfowl in western North America. These marshes account for approximately 75% of the wetlands in Utah.[24] Some of the birds that depend on these marshes include:[25] Wilson's phalarope, red-necked phalarope, American avocet, black-necked stilt, marbled godwit, snowy plover, western sandpiper, long-billed dowitcher, tundra swan, American white pelican, white-faced ibis, California gull, eared grebe, peregrine falcon, bald eagle, plus large populations of various ducks and geese. For non-zoological information on this animal as a pet, see Sea-Monkey. ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... Families Charadridae Jacanidae Rostratulidae Ibidorhynchidae Recurvirostridae Haematopodidae Scolopacidae Dromadidae Burhinidae Glareolidae Thinocoridae Waders, called Shorebirds in North America (where wader is used to refer to long-legged wading birds such as storks and herons), are members of the order Charadriiformes, excluding the more marine web-footed seabird groups. ... Falcated Duck at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands centre, Gloucestershire, England Wildfowl or waterfowl, also waterbirds, is the collective term for the approximately 147 species of swans, geese and ducks, classified in the order Anseriformes, family Anatidae. ... Binomial name Phalaropus tricolor (Vieillot, 1819) The Wilsons Phalarope, Phalaropus tricolor, is a small wader. ... Binomial name Phalaropus lobatus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red-necked Phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus, is a small wader. ... Binomial name Recurvirostra americana Gmelin, 1789 The American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana) is a large wader in the avocet and stilt family, Recurvirostridae. ... Binomial name Himantopus mexicanus Müller, 1776 The Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) is a locally abundant resident of American wetlands and coastlines, from the coastal areas of California, much of the interior western United States and along the Gulf of Mexico as far east as Florida,[1] then south... Binomial name Limosa fedoa (Linnaeus, 1758) The Marbled Godwit, Limosa fedoa, is a large shorebird. ... Binomial name Charadrius alexandrinus Linnaeus, 1758 The Kentish Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus, is a small wader in the plover bird family. ... Binomial name Calidris mauri (Cabanis, 1857) The Western Sandpiper, Calidris mauri, is a very small shorebird. ... Binomial name Limnodromus scolopaceus (Say, 1823) The Long-billed Dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus, is a medium-sized shorebird. ... Binomial name Cygnus columbianus (Ord, 1815) The Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus) is a small Northern Hemisphere swan. ... Binomial name Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin, 1789 The American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) is a very large (50–70) white bird with black wing tips and an enormous orange bill. ... Binomial name Plegadis chihi (Vieillot, 1817) Synonyms Plegadis falcinellus chihi The White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi) is a wading bird in the ibis family Threskiornithidae. ... Binomial name Larus californicus (Lawrence, 1854) Subspecies Lawrence, 1854 Great Basin California Gull Jehl, 1987 Great Plains Galifornia Gull The California Gull, Larus californicus, is a medium-sized gull, smaller than the Herring Gull but larger than the Ring-billed Gull. ... Binomial name Podiceps nigricollis Brehm, 1831 The Black-necked Grebe, Podiceps nigricollis †, is a member of the grebe family of water birds. ... Binomial name Tunstall, 1771 Global range (shaded green, dark dots on islands) The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), occasionally known in North America as the Duck Hawk, is a medium-sized falcon about the size of a large crow: 380–530 millimetres (15–21 in) long. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) Bald Eagle range  Resident, breeding Summer visitor, breeding Winter visitor On migration only Star: accidental records Subspecies (Linnaeus, 1766) Southern Bald Eagle (Audubon, 1827) Northern Bald Eagle Synonyms Falco leucocephalus Linnaeus, 1766 The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a bird of prey found in North America... The word duck was also used as slang for the WWII amphibious vehicle called a DUKW. It is also a cricketing term denoting a batsman being dismissed with a score of zero; see golden duck. ... Other uses: Goose (disambiguation) Genera Anser Branta Chen Cereopsis † see also: Swan, Duck Anatidae Goose (plural geese) is the general English name for a considerable number of birds, belonging to the family Anatidae. ...

There are twenty-seven private duck clubs, seven state waterfowl management areas, and a large federal bird refuge on Great Salt Lake's shores.[26] Wetland/wildlife management areas include the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge; Gillmor Sanctuary; Great Salt Lake Shorelands Preserve; Salt Creek, Public Shooting Grounds, Harold Crane, Locomotive Springs, Ogden Bay, Timpie Springs and Farmington Bay Waterfowl Management Areas. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x746, 313 KB) American Avocets at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, Great Salt Lake, Utah Obtained from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services public domain image database. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x746, 313 KB) American Avocets at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, Great Salt Lake, Utah Obtained from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services public domain image database. ... Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge is a 74,000 acre National Wildlife Refuge in Utah, established in 1928. ... Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge is a 74,000 acre National Wildlife Refuge in Utah, established in 1928. ...


Several small islands in the lake provide critical nesting areas for various birds. Access to Hat, Gunnison and Cub islands is strictly limited by the State of Utah in an effort to protect nesting colonies of American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos).[27] Binomial name Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin, 1789 The American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) is a very large (50–70) white bird with black wing tips and an enormous orange bill. ...


There are no fish in the Great Salt Lake because of the high salinity. The only aquatic animals able to live in the lake are tiny brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana). Their tiny, hard-walled eggs or cysts (diameter of about 200 micrometers)[28] are harvested in quantity during the fall and early winter. They are fed to prawns in Asia,[23] sold as novelty "Sea-Monkeys," sold either live or dehydrated in pet stores as a fish food, and used in testing of toxins, drugs, and other chemicals.[6] There are also two species of salt flies[29] and some bacteria and algae. For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... For non-zoological information on this animal as a pet, see Sea-Monkey. ... Superfamilies Penaeoidea Aristeidae Benthesicymidae Penaeidae Sicyoniidae Solenoceridae Sergestoidea Luciferidae Sergestidae Prawns are shrimp-like crustaceans, belonging to the sub-order Dendrobranchiata [1]. Prawns are distinguished from the superficially similar shrimp by the gill structure which is branching in prawns (hence the name, dendro=tree; branchia=gill), but is lamellar in... External link The Official Sea Monkey Website What are they? Categories: Animal stubs ... A whole potato, sliced pieces (right), and dried sliced pieces (left) Drying is a method of food preservation that works by removing water from the food, which prevents the growth of microorganisms and decay. ...


Salinity differences between the sections of the lake separated by the railroad causeway result in significantly different biota. A phytoplankton community dominated by blue-green or green algae tint the water south of the causeway a greenish color. North of the causeway, the lake is dominated by Dunaliella salina, a species of algae which releases beta-carotene, and the bacteria-like haloarchaea[30] which together give the water an unusual reddish or purplish color.[29] These color differences are especially noticeable in satellite photographs. Although brine shrimp can be found in the arm of the lake north of the causeway, studies conducted by the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources indicate that these are likely transient.[30] Populations of brine shrimp are mostly restricted to the lake's south arm. Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... Pink-colored Dunaliella salina within sea salt. ... Beta-carotene is a form of carotene with β-rings at both ends. ... Haloarchaea are a member of the halophile community, in that they require high salt concentrations to grow. ...


Pink Floyd the flamingo

A solitary Chilean flamingo named Pink Floyd wintered at the Great Salt Lake. He escaped from Salt Lake City's Tracy Aviary in 1987 and lives in the wild, eating brine shrimp and socializing with gulls and swans. (Pink Floyd is often referred to as a "he", although the bird's gender is not actually known.)[31] A group of Utah residents suggested petitioning the state to release more flamingos in an effort to keep Floyd company and as a possible tourist attraction. Wildlife biologists resisted these efforts, saying that deliberate introduction of a non-native species would be ecologically unsound and might have detrimental consequences.[32] Pink Floyd was last seen in Idaho (where he was known to migrate to) in 2005. He has not been seen since that time and is presumed to not have survived the winter of 2005-2006.[33][34] Binomial name Phoenicopterus chilensis Molina, 1782 The Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) is a large species (110-130 cm) closely related to Caribbean Flamingo and Greater Flamingo, with which it is sometimes considered conspecific. ... For non-zoological information on this animal as a pet, see Sea-Monkey. ...


Elevated mercury levels

U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Fish & Wildlife researchers, originally studying selenium levels in the lake, discovered some of the highest levels of methyl-mercury they have ever seen, at 25 nanograms per liter of water. For comparison, a fish consumption advisory was issued at the Florida Everglades after water there was found to contain 1 nanogram per liter.[35] For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ...


This prompted further studies[36] and a health advisory warning hunters not to eat Common Goldeneye or Northern Shoveler, two species of duck found in the lake. It has been stated that this does not pose a risk to other recreational users of the lake.[37] Binomial name Bucephala clangula (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies (Eurasian Goldeneye) (American Goldeneye) The Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) is a medium sized sea duck of the genus Bucephala, the goldeneyes. ... Binomial name Anas clypeata Linnaeus, 1758 The Shoveler or Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata) is a common and widespread duck which breeds in the northern areas of Europe and Asia and across most of North America. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ...


After later studies were conducted with a larger number of birds, the advisories were revised and another was added for cinnamon teal. Seven other species of duck were studied and found to have levels of mercury below EPA guidelines, thus being determined safe to eat.[38] Binomial name Anas cyanoptera Vieillot, 1816 TheCinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera, is a small dabbling duck. ...


Commerce

Solar evaporation ponds at Great Salt Lake's northeast end.

The lake's north arm contains deposits of oil, but it is of poor quality and not economically feasible to extract and purify.[9] As of 1993, around 3,000 barrels of crude oil had been produced from shallow wells along the shore.[39] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 1000 pixel, file size: 659 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Great Salt Lake... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 1000 pixel, file size: 659 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Great Salt Lake... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ...


Solar evaporation ponds at the edges of the lake produce salts and brine (water with high salt quantity). Minerals extracted from the lake include: sodium chloride (common salt), used in water softeners, salt lick blocks for livestock, and to melt ice on local roadways; potassium sulfate (potash), used as a commercial fertilizer; magnesium-chloride brine, used in the production of magnesium metal, chlorine gas, and as a dust suppressant. Food-grade salt is not produced from the lake, as it would require further costly processing to ensure its purity. Mineral-extraction companies operating on the lake pay royalties on their products to the State of Utah, which owns the lake.[40] For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... A water softener reduces the calcium or magnesium ion concentration in hard water. ... A salt lick is a salt deposit that animals regularly lick. ... Potassium sulfate (K2SO4) (also known as potash of sulfur) is a non-flammable white crystalline salt which is soluble in water. ... Magnesium chloride is composed of magnesium and chlorine and is a typical ionic halide, being highly polar and soluble in water. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Series halogens Group, Period, Block 17 (VIIA), 3, p Density, Hardness 3. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The harvest of brine shrimp cysts during fall and early winter has developed into a significant local industry, with cysts selling for as high as $35 a pound.[41] Brine shrimp were first harvested during the 1950s and sold as commercial fish food. In the 1970s the focus changed to their eggs, known as cysts, which were sold primarily outside of the United States to be used as food for shrimp, prawns, and some fish.[28] Today, these are mostly sold in the Orient and South America.[42] The amount of cysts and the quality are affected by several factors, but salinity is most important. The cysts will hatch at 2 to 3% salinity, but the greatest productivity is at salinities above about 10%. If the salinity drops near 5 to 6%, the cysts will lose buoyancy and sink, making them more difficult to harvest.[28] The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


A large resort called Saltair has been operated on the southern shore of the lake off and on for many years. Rising and lowering water levels have affected Saltair, and it has burned down twice. Currently it serves as a concert venue.[43] The new resort built in 1981 after large fires completely destroyed the second and largest in the 1960s, is but a skeleton of the resort's former grandeur. Saltair is the name which has been given to several resorts located on the southern shore of the Great Salt Lake in Utah, about fifteen miles from Salt Lake City. ...


Dramatically fluctuating lake levels have inhibited the creation and success of tourist-related developments. There is a problem with pollution of the lake by industrial and urban effluent. Also, especially when the waters are low, decay of insects and other wildlife give the shore of the lake a distinctive odor, which may keep some tourists from coming near the lake. Despite these issues, the lake remains one of Utah's largest tourist attractions.[44] Antelope Island State Park is a popular tourist destination that offers panoramic views of the lake, hiking and biking trails, wildlife viewing and access to beaches. Antelope Island is the largest of the ten islands in the Great Salt Lake of Utah, USA, with an area of 42 square miles. ...


Miscellaneous

The northwest arm of the lake, near Rozel Point, is the location for Robert Smithson's work of land art, Spiral Jetty (1970), which is only visible when the level of Great Salt Lake drops below 4,197.8 feet (1,280.2 m) above sea level.[45] Smithsons Spiral Jetty set in Great Salt Lake, Utah. ... The Spiral Jetty from atop Rozel Point, in mid-April 2005. ... Spiral Jetty, as seen from Rozel Point Spiral Jetty, considered to be the masterpiece of American sculptor Robert Smithson, is the name of an earthwork sculpture built in 1970. ...


In mid-1877, J.H. McNeil was with many other Barnes and Co. Salt Works employees on the lake’s north shore in the evening. They claimed to have seen a large monster with a body like a crocodile and a horse’s head in the lake. They claimed this monster attacked the men, who quickly ran away and hid until morning. This creature is regarded by some to have simply been a buffalo in the lake. Thirty years prior, "Brother Bainbridge" claimed to have sighted a creature that looked like a dolphin in the lake near Antelope Island. This monster is called by some the North Shore Monster.[9] Genera Mecistops Crocodylus Osteolaemus See full taxonomy. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... Genera See article below. ... The North Shore Monster is a cryptid believed to live is Utahs Great Salt Lake. ...


The lake and its shores contain oolitic sand, which are small, rounded, or spherical grains of sand made up of a nucleus (generally a fecal pellet or a small mineral grain) and concentric layers of calcium carbonate (lime) and look similar to very small pearls.[46] For other uses, see Oolite (disambiguation). ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ...


See also

Lakes with a surface area of more than 4,000 km², listed by area. ... This article is about Pyramid Lake in Nevada. ... Mono Lake is an alkaline and hypersaline lake in California, United States that is a critical nesting habitat for several bird species and is one of the most productive ecosystems in North America[citation needed]. // Satellite photo of Mono Lake Mono Craters to the right of the image are rhyolitic... For the film, see The Salton Sea. ... The Great Salt Lake effect is a small but detectable influence on the local climate and weather around the Great Salt Lake in Utah, United States. ...

References

The University of Utah (also The U or the U of U or the UU), located in Salt Lake City, is the flagship public research university in the state of Utah, and one of 10 institutions that make up the Utah System of Higher Education. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... CNN or Cable News Network is a cable television network that was founded in 1980 by Ted Turner & Reese Schonfeld [1]. It is a division of the Turner Broadcasting System, owned by Time Warner. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Great Salt Lake. Encyclopedia Britannica Online
  2. ^ a b c d e f Great Salt Lake, Utah. U.S. Geological Survey.
  3. ^ Large Lakes of the World. Factmonster.com.
  4. ^ a b c Can I float in Great Salt Lake?. Utah Geological Survey.
  5. ^ Great Salt Lake — a lively recreational jewel. Lynn Arave, Deseret News.
  6. ^ a b Birds and Great Salt Lake. U.S. Geological Survey.
  7. ^ a b c d Morgan, p. 22
  8. ^ Where was Lake Bonneville, how large was it, and when did it exist?. Utah Geological Survey.
  9. ^ a b c Great tales surrounding the Great Salt Lake. Lynn Arave, Deseret News.
  10. ^ Bear Lake by the Utah Division of Water Quality (PDF format)
  11. ^ Hassible & Keck, pp. 11-12
  12. ^ Commonly Asked Questions About Utah's Great Salt Lake and Ancient Lake Bonneville, pg 05. Utah Geological Survey.
  13. ^ a b Morgan, pp 18-19
  14. ^ Utah Islands
  15. ^ - Lake has great impact on storms, weather. Joe Bauman, Deseret Morning News.
  16. ^ Morgan (1947) p.23
  17. ^ a b c Hassible & Keck, p. 22
  18. ^ Fact Sheet: West Desert Pumping Project. Utah Division of Water Resources.
  19. ^ Great Salt Lake Pumping Project. Utah Division of Water Resources.
  20. ^ a b Commonly Asked Questions About Utah's Great Salt Lake and Ancient Lake Bonneville, pg 03
  21. ^ Commonly Asked Questions About Utah's Great Salt Lake and Ancient Lake Bonneville, pg 02
  22. ^ "Ocean Water: Salinity" Accessed 7/31/07. http://www.onr.navy.mil/Focus/ocean/water/salinity1.htm
  23. ^ a b Great Salt Lake Facts. Utah.com.
  24. ^ Utah Wetlands Interpretive Network.
  25. ^ Great Salt Lake, UT - What Shorebird Species Use This Site?. Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences.
  26. ^ Utah's Great Salt Lake: An Undervalued Resource. FRIENDS of Great Salt Lake.
  27. ^ R657-15—Closure of Gunnison, Cub and Hat Islands. Utah Division of Wildlife Resources.
  28. ^ a b c Brine Shrimp and Ecology of Great Salt Lake. U.S. Geological Survey.
  29. ^ a b Life in the Great Salt Lake. Weber State University Department of Botany.
  30. ^ a b North Arm (Gunnison Bay). Utah Division of Wildlife Resources.
  31. ^ Could Pink Floyd Be Sick. KSL.com.
  32. ^ A Flamingo Flies the Coop to Fame. The Christian Science Monitor.
  33. ^ Feeling Blue About Pink Floyd. The Deseret News.
  34. ^ Reader Tips. Roadside America.
  35. ^ Toxic mercury lurking in Great Salt Lake. Salt Lake Tribune.
  36. ^ Utah Waterfowl Advisory. Utah Office Of Epidemiology.
  37. ^ High mercury levels found in two duck species. Utah Division of Wildlife Resources.
  38. ^ Duck mercury advisories revised. Utah Division of Wildlife Resources.
  39. ^ Hassible & Keck, p. 20
  40. ^ What minerals are produced from Great Salt Lake?. Utah Geological Survey.
  41. ^ Salt Lake Valley’s Leap of Faith Lisa Moore LaRoe, National Geographic.
  42. ^ South Arm (Gilbert Bay). Utah Division of Wildlife Resources.
  43. ^ Saltair Resort. Utah City Guide.
  44. ^ Great Salt Lake. Utah.com
  45. ^ Pink Water, White Salt Crystals, Black Boulders, and the Return of Spiral Jetty!. William F. Case, Utah Geological Survey.
  46. ^ What are the round, white sand grains that make up the beaches?. Utah Geological Survey.

The Utah Division of Water Quality is an organization dedicated to preserving Utahs surface and underground water from certain hazards. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Weber State University is a public university located in the city of Ogden in Weber County, Utah, USA. There is also a Davis County satellite campus located in Layton. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Great Salt Lake - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2101 words)
Salt Lake City and its suburbs are located to the southeast and east of the lake, between the lake and the Wasatch Mountains, but land around the north and west shores is almost uninhabited.
The Bonneville Salt Flats lie to the west, and the Oquirrh Mountains rise to the south.
The salinity of Great Salt Lake is highly variable, and depends on the lake's level; it ranges from 5 to 27% (or 50-270 ppt).
Great Salt Lake | Utah.com (868 words)
It is the largest lake between the Great Lakes and the Pacific Ocean, and is the largest saltwater lake in the Western Hemisphere.
Early explorers thought the lake was an inland extension of the Pacific Ocean, or that a river connected the lake to the ocean.
Wildlife is abundant on Antelope Island and in the lake's shoreline marshes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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