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Encyclopedia > Great Pyramid of Giza
Great Pyramid of Giza
Great Pyramid of Giza was the world's tallest building from c. 2570 BC to c. 1300 AD.*
Preceded by Red Pyramid of Sneferu, Egypt
Surpassed by Lincoln Cathedral
Information
Location Giza, Egypt
Status Complete
Constructed c. 2570 BC
Height
Roof 138.8 m, 455.2 ft
(Originally: 146.6 m, 480.9 ft)

*Fully habitable, self-supported, from main entrance to highest structural or architectural top; see world's tallest buildings and structures for other listings.

The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World. It is believed to have been built as a tomb for Fourth dynasty Egyptian pharaoh Khufu (hellenized as Χεωψ, Cheops) and constructed over a 20 year period concluding around 2560 BC.[1] . It is sometimes called Khufu's Pyramid or the Pyramid of Khufu.[2] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1066, 260 KB) Category:Kheops - w:en:Kheops Date: March - 2005 Kheops pyramid © 2005 Nina Aldin Thune - Nina File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Great Pyramid of... BC may stand for: Before Christ (see Anno Domini) : an abbreviation used to refer to a year before the beginning of the year count that starts with the supposed year of the birth of Jesus. ... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Red Pyramid Detail of the massive corbel-vaulted ceiling of the main burial chamber The Red Pyramid, named for the light crimson hue of its exposed granite surface, is the largest of the three major pyramids located at the Dahshur necropolis, and the third largest Egyptian pyramid, after those... Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ... Pyramids of Giza in 1960s Egypt: Site of Giza or Al Jizah (top center). ... The CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario is the worlds tallest freestanding structure on land at 553. ... All Giza Pyramids Map of Giza pyramid complex. ... The Giza pyramid field, viewed from the southwest. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World (from left to right, top to bottom): Great Pyramid of Giza, Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Temple of Artemis, Statue of Zeus at Olympia, Mausoleum of Maussollos, Colossus of Rhodes and the Lighthouse of Alexandria as depicted by 16th-century Dutch artist Marten Heemskerk... The Fourth dynasty of Egypt was the second of the four dynasties considered forming the Old Kingdom. ... Khufu Protected by Khnum[1] Horus name Medjedu Nebty name Nebty-r-medjed Golden Horus Bikwy-nub Consort(s) Meritates, Henutsen, plus two other queens whose names are not known[2] Issues Djedefra, Kawab, Khafre, Djedefhor, Banefre, Khufukaef, Hetepheres II, Meresankh II, Khamerernebty[2] Father Sneferu Mother Hetepheres I Died... BC may stand for: Before Christ (see Anno Domini) : an abbreviation used to refer to a year before the beginning of the year count that starts with the supposed year of the birth of Jesus. ...

Contents

Historical context

Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
Great Pyramid of Giza
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Statue of Zeus at Olympia
Temple of Artemis
Mausoleum of Maussollos
Colossus of Rhodes
Lighthouse of Alexandria
The famous pyramids located in Giza, Egypt. They are depicted here in an engraving by 16th-century Dutch artist Maarten van Heemskerck.

The Great Pyramid of Giza is the main part of a complex setting of buildings that included two mortuary temples in honor of Khufu (one close to the pyramid and one near the Nile), three smaller pyramids for Khufu's wives, an even smaller "satellite" pyramid, a raised causeway connecting the two temples, and small mastaba tombs surrounding the pyramid for nobles. One of the small pyramids contains the tomb of queen Hetepheres (discovered in 1925), sister and wife of Sneferu and the mother of Khufu. There was a town for the workers of Giza, including a cemetery, bakeries, a beer factory and a copper smelting complex. More buildings and complexes are being discovered by The Giza Mapping Project. The Seven Wonders of the World (from left to right, top to bottom): Great Pyramid of Giza, Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Temple of Artemis, Statue of Zeus at Olympia, Mausoleum of Maussollos, Colossus of Rhodes and the Lighthouse of Alexandria. ... Gardens of Semiramis, 20th century interpretation Hanging Garden, Assyrian interpretation The Hanging Gardens of Babylon (also known as Hanging Gardens of Semiramis) and the walls of Babylon (near present-day Al Hillah in Iraq) are considered one of the original Seven Wonders of the World. ... A fanciful reconstruction of Phidias statue of Zeus, in an engraving made by Philippe Galle in 1572, from a drawing by Maarten van Heemskerck. ... The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Turkey. ... A fanciful interpretation of the Mausoleum of Maussollos, from a 1572 engraving by Martin Heemskerck (1498–1574), who based his reconstruction on descriptions The Tomb of Maussollos, Mausoleum of Maussollos, or Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (Ancient Greek: ), was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus (present Bodrum, Turkey... The Colossus of Rhodes was a huge statue of the Greek god Helios, erected on the Greek island of Rhodes by Chares of Lindos, a student of Lysippos, between 292 and 280 BC. It was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. ... Graphic reconstruction of the lighthouse according to a comprehensive study of 2006. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A mastaba was a flat-roofed, mud brick, rectangular building with sloping sides that marked the burial site of many eminent Egyptians of Egypts ancient period. ... Hetepheres II must have been one of the longest living members of the royal family of the Fourth dynasty of Egypt. ...


A few hundred metres south-west of the Great Pyramid lies the slightly smaller Pyramid of Khafre, one of Khufu's successors who is also commonly considered the builder of the Great Sphinx, and a few hundred metres further south-west is the Pyramid of Menkaure, Khafre's successor, which is about half as tall. The Pyramid of Khafre and the Great Sphinx of Giza Khafres Pyramid (29° 58′ 32″ N 31° 07′ 52″ E), is the second largest of the Pyramids of Giza and the tomb of the Fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khafre. ... , The Great Sphinx at Giza, Egypt The Great Sphinx of Giza is a large half-human, half-lion Sphinx statue in Egypt, on the Giza Plateau at the west bank of the Nile River, near modern-day Cairo. ... The Pyramid of Menkaure Menkaures Pyramid is the smallest of the three Pyramids of Giza and the tomb of the Fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Menkaure. ...


The generally accepted estimated date of its completion is c. 2560 BC.[3]Although this date contradicts radiocarbon dating evidence, it is loosely supported by a lack of archaeological findings for the existence prior to the fourth dynasty of a civilization with sufficient population or technical ability in the area. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World. ...


Khufu's vizier, Hemon, or Hemiunu, is believed by some to be the architect of the Great Pyramid.[4] The Ancient Egyptian adminstrator (tjaty) is often translated as Vizier. ... Hemiunu (2570 BC–2570 BC) is believed to be the architect of the Great Pyramid of Giza, Egypt [1][2]. He was the son of Nefermaat [3], a relative of Khufu, the Old Kingdom pharaoh whose pyramid it is. ... Hemiunu (fl. ...


Construction theories

Further information: Egyptian pyramid construction techniques

Two major theories surround the construction of the pyramids of Egypt. ...

Materials and workforce

RJ or RL-shaped supports possibly used to raise several-ton stone blocks.

Many varied estimates have been made regarding the workforce needed to construct the Great Pyramid. Herodotus, the Greek historian in the 5th century BC, estimated that construction may have required 100,000 workers for 20 years. Recent evidence has been found that suggests the workforce was in fact paid [citation needed], which would require accounting and bureaucratic skills of a high order. Polish architect Wieslaw Kozinski believed that it took as many as 20 men to transport a 1.5-ton stone block. Based on this, he estimated the workforce to be 300,000 men on the construction site, with an additional 60,000 off-site. 19th century Egyptologist William Flinders Petrie proposed that the workforce was largely composed not of slaves but of the rural Egyptian population, working during periods when the Nile river was flooded and agricultural activity suspended. Egyptologist Miroslav Verner posited that the labor was organized into a hierarchy, consisting of two gangs of 100,000 men, divided into five zaa or phyle of 20,000 men each, which may have been further divided according to the skills of the workers.[5] Some research suggests alternate estimates to the accepted workforce size. For instance, mathematician Kurt Mendelssohn calculated that the workforce may have been 50,000 men at most, while Ludwig Borchardt and Louis Croon placed the number at 36,000. According to Verner, a workforce of no more than 30,000 was needed in the Great Pyramid's construction. personally created image myself using MS Paint File links The following pages link to this file: Great Pyramid of Giza ... personally created image myself using MS Paint File links The following pages link to this file: Great Pyramid of Giza ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect is a person who is involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ... Egyptologist Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (3 June 1853 - 28 July 1942) was a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafres Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex. ... Miroslav Verner is a Czech Egyptologist, who wrote the book The Pyramids - Their Archaeology and History, which is considered one of the leading books in its field. ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is subordinate to a single other element. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Kurt Mendelssohn is a German-born British medical physicist and a Fellow of the Royal Society. ... Ludwig Borchardt (5 October 1863 — 12 August 1938) was a German Egyptologist who was born in Berlin. ...


A construction management study (testing) carried out by the firm Daniel, Mann, Johnson, & Mendenhall in association with Mark Lehner and other Egyptologists, estimates that the total project required an average workforce of 14,567 people and a peak workforce of 40,000. Without the use of pulleys, wheels, or iron tools, they surmise the Great Pyramid was completed from start to finish in approximately 10 years.[6] Their critical path analysis study reveals estimates that the number of blocks used in construction was between 2-2.8 million (an average of 2.4 million), but settles on a reduced finished total of 2 million after subtracting the estimated area of the hollow spaces of the chambers and galleries.[6] Most sources agree on this number of blocks somewhere above 2.3 million.[7] The Egyptologists' calculations suggest the workforce could have sustained a rate of 180 blocks per hour (3 blocks/minute) with ten hour work days for putting each individual block in place. They derived these estimates from construction projects that did not use modern machinery.[6] This study fails to take into account however, especially when compared to modern third world construction projects, the logistics and craftsmanship time inherent in constructing a building of nearly unparalleled magnitude with such precision, or among other things, the use of up to 60-80 ton stones being quarried and transported a distance of over 500 miles. Dr. Mark Lehner is an American archaeologist with over thirty years experience excavating in Egypt. ... In project management, path analysis (also known as critical path analysis) is a technique to analyse events. ...

Some of the blocks used to build the Great Pyramid are estimated to weigh up to 80 tons.
Some of the blocks used to build the Great Pyramid are estimated to weigh up to 80 tons.

In contrast, a Great Pyramid feasibility study relating to the quarrying of the stone was performed in 1978 by Technical Director Merle Booker of the Indiana Limestone Institute of America. Consisting of 33 quarries, the Institute is considered by many architects to be one of the world’s leading authorities on limestone. Using modern equipment, the study concludes: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 2968 KB) Great Pyramid of Giza Image taken by User:Mgiganteus1 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 2968 KB) Great Pyramid of Giza Image taken by User:Mgiganteus1 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ...

“Utilizing the entire Indiana Limestone industry’s facilities as they now stand [for 33 quarries], and figuring on tripling present average production, it would take approximately 27 years to quarry, fabricate and ship the total requirements.”

Booker points out the time study assumes sufficient quantities of railroad cars would be available without delay or downtime during this 27 year period and does not factor in the increasing costs of completing the work.[8]


The entire Giza Plateau is believed to have been constructed over the reign of five pharaohs in less than a hundred years. In the hundred years prior to Giza, beginning with Djoser who ruled from 2687-2667 BC, three other massive pyramids were built - the Step pyramid of Saqqara (believed to be the first Egyptian pyramid), the Bent Pyramid, and the Red Pyramid. Also during this period (between 2686 and 2498 BC) the Wadi Al-Garawi dam which used an estimated 100,000 cubic meters of rock and rubble was built.[9] The Giza pyramid field, viewed from the southwest. ... Netjerikhet Consort(s) Inetkawes, Hetephernebti Unknown Father Khasekhemwy? Mother Nimaethap? Major Monuments Pyramid of Djoser Netjerikhet Djoser (Turin King List Dsr-it; Manetho Tosarthros) is the best-known pharaoh of the Third dynasty of Egypt, for commissioning the official Imhotep to build his Step Pyramid at Saqqara. ... The Pyramid of the Moon, Teotihuacan, is one example of an enormous step pyramid. ... Image:Pyramid of sneferu bent 01. ... Detail of the massive corbel-vaulted ceiling of the main burial chamber The south face of the Red Pyramid This article is about the pyramid. ...


The accepted values by Egyptologists bear out the following result: 2,400,000 stones used ÷ 20 years ÷ 365 days per year ÷ 10 work hours per day ÷ 60 minutes per hour = 0.55 stones laid per minute.


Thus no matter how many workers were used or in what configuration, 1.1 blocks on average would have to be put in place every 2 minutes, ten hours a day, 365 days a year for twenty years to complete the Great Pyramid within this time frame. This equation, however, does not take into account among other things the designing, planning, surveying, and leveling the 13 acre site the Great Pyramid sits on.


As Egyptologist Dr. I.E.S. Edwards, former Keeper of Antiquities in the British Museum, said in his book The Pyramids of Egypt; " Cheops, who may have been a megalomaniac, could never, during a reign of about twenty-three years, have erected a building of the size and durability of the Great Pyramid, if technical advances had not enabled his masons to handle stones of very considerable weight and dimensions" [10]


Layout

Map of Giza pyramid complex.
Map of Giza pyramid complex.

Papyrus documents [citation needed] and existing cubit measuring rods give us the units of measure used to specify the plan of the pyramid and so it is thought that, at construction, the Great Pyramid was 280 Egyptian royal cubits tall (146.6 meters or 480.9 feet), but with erosion and the theft of its topmost stone (the pyramidion) its current height is 138.8 m. Each base side was 440 royal cubits, with each royal cubit measuring 0.524 m (20.6 inches).[11] Thus, the base was originally almost 231 m on a side and covered approximately 53,000 square metres with a slope angle of 51°50'40" (seked = 5½). Image File history File links Giza_pyramid_complex_(map). ... Image File history File links Giza_pyramid_complex_(map). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... metre or meter, see meter (disambiguation) The metre is the basic unit of length in the International System of Units. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. For erosion as an operation of Mathematical morphology, see Erosion (morphology) Erosion is displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of ocean currents, wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement... In archaeological parlance, a pyramidion is the uppermost piece, or capstone, of an Egyptian pyramid. ... Cubit is the name for any one of many units of measure used by various ancient peoples. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different areas, areas between 1 hectare (10,000 m²) and 10 hectares (0. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...


Today each side of the pyramid has an approximate length of about 230.4 meters (755.8 feet). The reduction in size and area of the structure into its current rough-hewn appearance is due to the absence of its original polished casing stones, some of which measured up to two and a half metres thick and weighed more than 15 tonnes.


In the 14th century (1301 AD), a massive earthquake loosened many of the outer casing stones, which were then carted away by Bahri Sultan An-Nasir Nasir-ad-Din al-Hasan in 1356 in order to build mosques and fortresses in nearby Cairo; the stones can still be seen as parts of these structures to this day. Later explorers reported massive piles of rubble at the base of the pyramids left over from the continuing collapse of the casing stones which were subsequently cleared away during continuing excavations of the site. Nevertheless, many of the casing stones around the base of the Great Pyramid can be seen to this day in situ displaying the same workmanship and precision as has been reported for centuries. Regarding this uncanny workmanship, Sir Flinders Petrie remarked; "Merely to place such stones in exact contact would be careful work, but to do so with cement in the joints seems almost impossible: it is to be compared with the finest opticians' work on a scale of acres" [12] The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Sultanate المماليك البحرية was a Mamluk dynasty of Kipchak Turk origin that ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1382 when they were succeeded by the Burji dynasty, another group of Mamluks. ... Events January 20 - Edward Balliol surrenders title as King of Scotland to Edward III of England April 16 — the King of the Serbian Kingdom of RaÅ¡ka Stefan DuÅ¡an is proclaimed Tsar (Emperor) of all Serbs, Arbanasses and Greeks in Skopje by the Serbian Orthodox Christian Patriarch of a... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (3 June 1853 – 28 July 1942) was an English Egyptologist and a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology. ...


The first precision measurements of the pyramid were done by Sir Flinders Petrie in 1880–82 and published as "The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh".[13] Almost all reports are based on his measurements. Petrie found the pyramid is oriented 4' west of North and the second pyramid is similarly oriented. Petrie also found a different orientation in the core and in the casing (193 cm ± 25 cm ( – 5 ft 16 in ± 10")). Petrie suggested a redetermination of north was made after the construction of the core, but a mistake was made, and the casing was built with a different orientation. This deviation from the north in the core, corresponding to the position of the stars b-Ursae Minoris and z-Ursae Majoris about 3,000 years ago, takes into account the precession of the axis of the Earth. A study by egyptologist Kate Spence shows how the changes in orientation of 8 pyramids corresponds with changes of position of those stars through time. This would date the start of the construction of the pyramid at 2467 BC.[14] Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (3 June 1853 – 28 July 1942) was an English Egyptologist and a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology. ...


For four millennia it was the world's tallest building, unsurpassed until the 160 metre tall spire of Lincoln Cathedral was completed c. 1300. The accuracy of the pyramid's workmanship is such that the four sides of the base have a mean error of only 58 mm in length, and 1 minute in angle from a perfect square. The base is horizontal and flat to within 15 mm. The sides of the square are closely aligned to the four cardinal compass points to within 3 minutes of arc and is based not on magnetic north, but true north. The design dimensions, as confirmed by Petrie's survey and all those following this, are assumed to have been 280 cubits in height by 4x440 cubits around originally, and as these proportions equate to 2 x Pi to an accuracy of better than 0.05%, this was and is considered to have been the deliberate design proportion, by Professors Flinders Petrie, I.E.S Edwards and Verner[15] amongst many other Egyptologists. Other proportions of the King's Chamber supported this conclusion, and discussion continues as to the probable methods of implementation, in light of information regarding 'seked' slope angle techniques and geometrical problems concerning pyramids from the Rhind Papyrus.[16][17]. These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. ... For many millennia the record holder for worlds tallest structure was clearly defined (see table below. ... Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ... A minute of arc, arcminute, or MOA is a unit of angular measurement, equal to one sixtieth (1/60) of one degree. ... ∠, the angle symbol. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is about the geographic meaning of North Pole. ... True Pizza is a navigational term referring to the direction of the North Pole relative to the navigators position. ...


The pyramid was constructed of cut and dressed blocks of limestone, basalt or granite. The core was made mainly of rough blocks of low quality limestone taken from a quarry at the south of Khufu’s Great Pyramid. These blocks weighed from two to four tonnes on average, with the heaviest used at the base of the pyramid. An estimated 2.4 million blocks were used in the construction. High quality limestone was used for the outer casing, with some of the blocks weighing up to 15 tonnes. This limestone came from Tura, about 14 km away on the other side of the Nile. Granite quarried nearly 800 km away in Aswan with blocks weighing as much as 60-80 tonnes, was used for the King's Chamber and relieving chambers.-1... Basalt Basalt (IPA: ) is a common gray to black extrusive volcanic rock. ... Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park, valley of the Merced River Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ...


The total mass of the pyramid is estimated at 5.9 million tonnes with a volume (including an internal hillock) believed to be 2,600,000 cubic metres. The pyramid is the largest in Egypt and the tallest in the world. It is surpassed only by the Great Pyramid of Cholula in Puebla, Mexico, which, although much lower in height, occupies a greater volume. To help compare different orders of magnitudes this page lists volumes between 1 million and 10 million ( to ) cubic metres. ... The Great Pyramid of Cholula, the worlds largest monument and largest Pre-Columbian pyramid by volume, is a huge complex located in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico. ... The Mexican state of Puebla is located in the center of the country, to the east of Mexico City. ...


At completion, the Great Pyramid was surfaced by white 'casing stones' – slant-faced, but flat-topped, blocks of highly polished white limestone. These caused the monument to shine brightly in the sun, making it visible from a considerable distance. Visibly all that remains is the underlying step-pyramid core structure seen today, but several of the casing stones can still be found around the base. The casing stones of the Great Pyramid and Khafre's Pyramid (constructed directly beside it) were cut to such optical precision as to be off true plane over their entire surface area by only 0.5 mm. They were fitted together so perfectly that the tip of a knife cannot be inserted between the joints even to this day. The Pyramid of Khafre and the Great Sphinx of Giza Khafres Pyramid, is the second largest of the ancient Egyptian Pyramids of Giza and the tomb of the fourth-dynasty pharaoh Khafre (Chephren). ...


The passages inside the pyramid are all extremely straight and precise, such that the longest of them, referred to as the descending passage, which is 107 m long, deviates from being truly straight by less than 6 mm, while one of the shorter passages with a length of just over 15 m deviates from being truly straight by a mere 0.5 mm.

Great Pyramid of Giza from a 19th century stereopticon card photo.
Great Pyramid of Giza from a 19th century stereopticon card photo.

The Great Pyramid differs in its internal arrangement from the other pyramids in the area. The greater number of passages and chambers, the high finish of parts of the work, and the accuracy of construction all distinguish it. The walls throughout the pyramid are totally bare and uninscribed, but there are inscriptions — or to be more precise, graffiti — believed to have been made by the workers on the stones before they were assembled. All the five relieving chambers are inscribed. The most famous inscription is one of the few that mentions the name of Khufu; it says "year 17 of Khufu's reign". Although alternative theorists have suggested otherwise, given its precarious location it is hard to believe it could have been inscribed after construction; even Graham Hancock accepted this, after Dr. Hawass let him examine the inscription[18]. Another inscription refers to "the friends of Khufu", and probably was the name of one of the gangs of workers.[19] Though this doesn't offer indisputable proof Khufu originated the construction of the Great Pyramid or when building began, it does appear however to clear any doubt he at least took part in some phase of its construction (or later repairs to an existing building) during his reign. Great Pyramid of Giza from a 19th century stereopticon card photo This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Great Pyramid of Giza from a 19th century stereopticon card photo This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Stereoscopy, stereoscopic imaging or 3-D (three-dimensional) imaging is a technique to create the illusion of depth in a photograph, movie, or other two-dimensional image, by presenting a slightly different image to each eye. ... A photograph (often just called a photo) is an image (or a representation of that on e. ... Dr. Zahi Hawass signs an autograph (Aug. ...


There are three known chambers inside the Great Pyramid. These are arranged centrally, on the vertical axis of the pyramid. The lowest chamber (the "unfinished chamber") is cut into the bedrock upon which the pyramid was built. This chamber is the largest of the three, but totally unfinished, only rough-cut into the rock.


The middle chamber, or Queen's Chamber, is the smallest, measuring approximately 5.74 by 5.23 metres, and 4.57 metres in height. Its eastern wall has a large angular doorway or niche, and two narrow shafts, about 20 cm wide, extending from the chamber towards the outer surface of the pyramid. These shafts were explored using a robot, Upuaut 2, created by the German engineer Rudolf Gantenbrink. Upuaut 2 discovered that these shafts were blocked by limestone "doors" with eroded copper "handles". During Pyramids Live: Secret Chambers Revealed, National Geographic filmed the drilling of a small hole in the southern door only to find another larger door behind it. The northern passage (which was harder to navigate due to twists and turns) was also found to have a door. Egyptologist Mark Lehner believes that the Queen's chamber was intended as a serdab—a structure found in several other Egyptian pyramids—and that the niche would have contained a statue of the interred. The Ancient Egyptians believed that the statue would serve as a "back up" vessel for the Ka of the Pharaoh, should the original mummified body be destroyed. The true purpose of the chamber, however, remains uncertain. The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... The Upuaut Project was a scientific exploration of the so-called air shafts of the Great Pyramid of Cheops. ... Dr. Mark Lehner is an American archaeologist with over thirty years experience excavating in Egypt. ... In Egyptian mythology, the human soul is made up of seven parts: the Ren, Sekhem, the Akh, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, and the Sekhu. ...

Lithographic print from the 1840s depicting the Great Pyramid and neighbouring Khafre's Pyramid.
Lithographic print from the 1840s depicting the Great Pyramid and neighbouring Khafre's Pyramid.

At the end of the lengthy series of entrance ways leading into the pyramid interior is the structure's main chamber, the King's Chamber. This chamber was originally 10 x 20 x 11.2 cubits, or about 5.25 m x 10.5 m x 6 m, comprising a double 10x10 cubit square, and a height equal to half the double square's diagonal. This is consistent with then-available geometric methods for determining the Golden Ratio phi, which can be derived from other dimensions of the pyramid, such that if phi had been the design objective, then pi automatically follows to 'square the circle'. [4] Given that pre-hellenistic Egyptians did not have a similar geometric way to determine pi as accurately, it is unlikely that it was preferred over phi as a design objective, especially as phi has been found in other pre-hellenistic Egyptian monuments. (Alexander Badawi. Ancient Egyptian Architectural Design. Berkeley: 1965) Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1214x854, 88 KB) Haghe, Louis, (* 1806, † 1885) lithographer. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1214x854, 88 KB) Haghe, Louis, (* 1806, † 1885) lithographer. ... The golden section is a line segment sectioned into two according to the golden ratio. ...


The other main features of the Great Pyramid consist of the Grand Gallery, the sarcophagus found in the King's Chamber, both ascending and descending passages, and the lowest part of the structure mentioned above, what is dubbed the "unfinished chamber".


The Grand Gallery (49 m x 3 m x 11 m) features an ingenious corbel halloed design and several cut "sockets" spaced at regular intervals along the length of each side of its raised base with a "trench" running along its center length at floor level. What purpose these sockets served is unknown. The Red Pyramid of Dashur also exhibits grand galleries of similar design.

The Giza pyramid complex at night.
The Giza pyramid complex at night.

The sarcophagus of the King's chamber was hollowed out of a single piece of Red Aswan granite and has been found to be too large to fit through the passageway leading to the King's chamber. Whether the sarcophagus was ever intended to house a body is unknown, but it is too short to accommodate a medium height individual without the bending of the knees (a technique not practised in Egyptian burial) and no lid was ever found. Image File history File links PyramidsofGiza_at_night. ... Image File history File links PyramidsofGiza_at_night. ...


The "unfinished chamber" lies 90 ft below ground level and is rough-hewn, lacking the precision of the other chambers. This chamber is dismissed by Egyptologists as being nothing more than a simple change in plans in that it was intended to be the original burial chamber but later King Khufu changed his mind wanting it to be higher up in the pyramid.[20]


Two French amateur Egyptologists, Gilles Dormion and Jean-Yves Verd'hurt, claimed in August 2004 that they had discovered a previously unknown chamber inside the pyramid underneath the Queen's Chamber using ground-penetrating radar and architectural analysis. They believe the chamber to be unviolated and could contain the king's remains. They believe the King's Chamber, the chamber generally assumed to be Khufu's original resting place, was not constructed to be a burial chamber.


The King's Chamber contains two "air shafts" that ascend out of the Pyramid and point directly to the star Thuban, and the star Alnitak, in the Orion constellation. The "Queen's" chamber has two air shafts which align to stars as well. These air shafts were supposedly used for ventilation, but given the fact all four were found to be closed off at both ends and only discovered by accident, this idea was eventually abandoned leaving Egyptologists to now conclude they were instead used for ceremonial purposes allowing the Pharaoh's spirit to rise up and out into the stars. Each of these air shafts are about 13 cm in diameter.


Dating evidence

Traditionally, the evidence for dating the Great Pyramid by Egyptologists has been based primarily on fragmented summaries of early Christian writings gleaned from the work of the Hellinistic Period Egyptian priest Manethô who compiled the now lost revisionist Egyptian history Aegyptika. These works, and to a lesser degree earlier Egyptian sources, mainly the "Turin Canon" and "Table of Abydos" among others, combine to form the main body of historical reference for Egyptologists giving a timeline by popular consensus of rulers known as the "King's List", found in the reference archive; the Cambridge Ancient History.[21][22] As a result, being Egyptologists have ascribed the pyramid to Khufu, establishing the time he reigned by default subsequently dates the monument as well as the confines for its completion of construction.


The Edgar Cayce Foundation, researching claims that the pyramids were at least 10,000 years old, funded the "David H. Koch Pyramids Radiocarbon Project" in 1984. The project took samples of organic material (such as ash and charcoal deposits) from several locations within the Great Pyramid, and other pyramids and monuments from the Old Kingdom period (ca. 3rd millennium BC). These samples were subjected to radiocarbon dating to produce calibrated date-equivalent estimates of their age. This yielded results averaging 374 years earlier than the estimated historical date accepted by Egyptologists (2589 – 2504 BC) but still more recent than 10,000 years ago.[23] An astronomical study by Kate Spence suggests the pyramid dates to 2467 BC.[14] Edgar Cayce (March 18, 1877 – January 3, 1945) (pronounced or like Casey) was an American who claimed psychic abilities. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization complexity and achievement – this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley (the... The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years[1]. Raw, i. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ...


A second dating in 1995 with new but similar material obtained dates ranging between 100-400 years earlier than those indicated by the historic record. This raised questions concerning the origin and date of the wood. Massive quantities of wood were used and burned, so to reconcile the earlier dates the authors of the study theorized that possibly "old wood" was used, assuming that wood was harvested from any source available, including old construction material from all over Egypt. It is also known, given the poor quality and relative scarcity of native Egyptian woods, that King Sneferu (and later Egyptian pharohs) imported fine woods from Lebanon and other countries such as Nubia for the creation of decorative furniture, royal boats (as found buried around the Giza Plateau), or other luxuries generally reserved for royalty. But as Mark Lehner points out such efforts were not without "great cost".[24] It is unknown, given the expense, effort, and value of such woods, if they were ever imported as an expendable source of industrial fuel, especially on such a large scale.


Project scientists based their conclusions on the evidence that some of the material in the 3rd Dynasty pyramid of Pharaoh Djoser and other monuments had been recycled, concluding that the construction of the pyramids marked a major depletion of Egypt's exploitable wood. Dating of more short-lived material around the pyramid (cloth, small fires, etc) yielded dates nearer to those indicated by historical records. As of yet the full data of the study has yet to be released[25] in which the authors insist more evidence is needed to settle this issue. In the absence of the "old wood" theory, the study admits "The 1984 results left us with too little data to conclude that the historical chronology of the Old Kingdom was in error by nearly 400 years, but we considered this at least a possibility."[23]


In his book Voyages of the Pyramid Builders,[25] Boston University geology professor Robert Schoch details key anomalies in both radiocarbon studies; most notably that samples taken in 1984 from the upper courses of the Great Pyramid gave upper dates of 3809 B.C. (± 160yrs), nearly 1400yrs before the time of Khufu, while the lower courses provided dates ranging from 3090-2723 B.C (± 100-400yrs) which correspond much more closely to the time Khufu is believed to have reigned. Given that the data imply the pyramid was built (impossibly) from the top down, Dr. Schoch argues that if the information provided by the study is correct, it makes sense if it is assumed the pyramid was built and rebuilt in several stages suggesting later Pharaohs such as Khufu were only inheritors of an existing monument, not the original builders, and merely rebuilt or repaired previously constructed sections. For similarly-named academic institutions, see Boston (disambiguation). ... Robert M. Schoch is an American geologist and academic with an especial interest in pyramid monuments around the world. ...


Alternative theories

In common with many other monumental structures from antiquity, the Great Pyramid has over time been the subject of a great number of speculative or alternative theories, which put forward a variety of explanations about its origins, dating, construction and purpose. In support of these claims such accounts either rely upon novel reinterpretations of the available data from fields such as archaeology, history and astronomy, or appeal to biblical, mythological, mystical, numerological, astrological and other esoteric sources of knowledge, or some combination of these. The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Numerology is any of many systems, traditions or beliefs in a mystical or esoteric relationship between numbers and physical objects or living things. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Such ideas have been part of popular culture since at least the turn of the 20th century and can be traced back among others to such figures as the early-twentieth century American psychic Edgar Cayce, whose 'psychic channeling' of 'Ra Ta' purports to have conveyed that the pyramids were built by refugees from Atlantis, and even to his predecessor Ignatius L. Donnelly. In recent years, some of the more widely-publicized writers of alternative theories include Graham Hancock, Robert Bauval, John Anthony West, and Boston University geology professor Robert M. Schoch. Psychic is a term relating to or denoting paranormal extra-sensory abilities or phenomena that are apparently inexplicable by known natural laws, since they transcend the confines of our current understanding of what a human being is capable of. ... Edgar Cayce (March 18, 1877 – January 3, 1945) (pronounced or like Casey) was an American who claimed psychic abilities. ... Picture of Platos description of Atlantis Atlantis (Greek: , Island of Atlas) is the name of a legendary island first mentioned in Platos dialogues Timaeus and Critias. ... Ignatius Loyola Donnelly (November 3, 1831 – January 1, 1901) was a U.S. Congressman, populist, and writer, known primarily today for his theories on the history of Atlantis and Shakespearean authorship. ... Graham Hancock Graham Hancock (born 1951) is a British writer and journalist. ... Robert Bauval was born on 5 March 1948 in Alexandria, Egypt to parents of Belgian origin. ... Robert M. Schoch is an American geologist and academic with an especial interest in pyramid monuments around the world. ...


A theme found in some of the alternative theories put forward concerning the Giza pyramids and many other megalithic sites around the world, is the suggestion that these are not the products of the civilizations and cultures known to conventional history, but are instead the much older remnants of some hitherto unknown advanced ancient culture. This progenitor civilization is supposed to have been destroyed in antiquity by some devastating catastrophe brought about by the end of the last ice age, according to most of these accounts sometime around 10,000 BC. For the Great Pyramid of Giza in particular, it is maintained (depending on the theorist) that either it was ordained and built by this now-vanished civilization, or else that its construction was somehow influenced by knowledge (now lost) acquired from this civilization. The latter point of view is more common among recent theorists such as Hancock and Bauval, who believe that the Great Pyramid incorporates star shafts 'locked in' to Orion's Belt and Sirius at around 2450 BC, though they argue the Giza ground-plan was laid out in 10,450 BC.[26]


The a priori existence of such a civilization is postulated by such theorists who believe this is the only reasonable explanation for how the most advanced of ancient cultures, such as Egypt and Sumer, were able to reach such high levels of unequaled technological advancement with what they claim is little or no precedent. This precedent they argue exists in the form of megalithic ruins found all over the globe discovered at the beginnings of history but too complex, they argue, to have been constructed by the cultures they are ascribed to by the mainstream. As another of these theorists John Anthony West writes in reference to Egypt in particular: "How does a complex civilization spring full blown into being? Look at a 1905 automobile and compare it to a modern one. There is no mistaking the process of 'development'. But in Egypt there are no parallels. Everything is right there from the start."[27] The terms a priori and a posteriori are used in philosophy to distinguish between two different types of propositional knowledge. ...


A religious alternative theory commonly known today as "pyramidology", first put forward by John Taylor in 1859 with the book The Great Pyramid: Why Was It Built and Who Built It? [28] and championed by early Great Pyramid explorer Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819-1900), claims that the Pyramid is somehow the product of divine Christian revelation, planned by Hebrew prophets who influenced pharaoh Khufu at least 700 years before the birth of the Hebrew patriarch Abraham. Expanding on these ideas, 20th century believers, most notably Adam Rutherford, David Davidson, televangelist Dr. Gene Scott, Larry Pahl, and Peter Lemesurier, maintain that the Pyramid passage systems, largely based on Charles Piazzi Smyth's calculations, when measured with the arbitrary 'Pyramid inch', or 'Sacred Cubit', contain a prophetic timeline which reveals the date of creation by Yahweh the Hebrew God of the Bible, the building of the Pyramid, the Hebrew exodus from Egypt, and the birth, crucifixion and resurrection of Christ among other religious and world events. Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819-1900) Charles Piazzi Smyth (January 3, 1819 – February 21, 1900), was Astronomer Royal for Scotland from 1846 to 1888, well-known for many innovations in astronomy and his pyramidological and metrological studies of the Great Pyramid of Giza. ...


Beyond these writers and the devout followers of the concept, there is virtually no support for pyramidology in either the mainstream or alternative communities. The existence of the 'pyramid inch', of which pyramidology draws its sole support, was summarily discredited early on by Egyptologist Sir Flinders Petrie (1853-1942), who found the measurements and calculations of Smith and his use of the 'pyramid inch' to be inaccurate to such a degree as to categorically reject the theory altogether; a conclusion fully supported by the scientific community to this day. Initially a supporter of pyramidology, Petrie states: ""there is no authentic example, that will bear examination, of the use or existence of any such measure as a ‘Pyramid inch,’ or of a cubit of 25.025 British inches."[29] Despite the authoritative evidence to the contrary, pyramidologists then and now remain unwavered in their belief, a phenomenon which even in the late 1800's prompted Petrie to coin the term 'pyramidiot'[30]. Petrie summarized his contention by concluding: "It is useless to state the real truth of the matter, as it has no effect on those who are subject to this type of hallucination. They can but be left with the flat earth believers and other such people to whom a theory is dearer than a fact."[31].


See also

General
Archaeology, List of Egypt-related topics, World's tallest free standing structure on land, The Upuaut Project
Measurements
Measures and Mathematics, Pyramid inch

This July 2007 does not cite any references or sources. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to Egypt. ... Torontos CN Tower is currently the tallest free-standing structure on land and has been for 30 years. ... The Upuaut Project was a scientific exploration of the so-called air shafts of the Great Pyramid of Cheops. ... The former Weights and Measures office in Middlesex, England. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... The pyramid inch, infrequently called the sacred Jewish inch, is a unit of measure claimed by pyramidologists to have been used in ancient times. ...

References

  1. ^ Ashmawy, Alaa (January 21, 2004). The Great Pyramid of Giza. The Seven Wonders. Retrieved on 2007-04-13.
  2. ^ The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press, New York, 2001. Edited by Dana M Collins. Volume 2, Page 234.
  3. ^ [" http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pyramid/explore/khufustory.html"]
  4. ^ Kimmelman, Michael. "Egyptian Art: The Mysterious Lure of an Old Friend", The New York Times, 1999-09-17. Retrieved on 2006-07-13. 
  5. ^ The Pyramids: The Mystery, Culture, and Science of Egypt's Great Monuments, Oxbow Books: October 2001, 432 pages (ISBN 0-8021-1703-1)
  6. ^ a b c Civil Engineering magazine, June 1999
  7. ^ Khufu's Inside Story. Nova online. PBS.org (1997). Retrieved on 2007-04-13.
  8. ^ pgs. 104-105, 5/5/2000, Richard Noone, 1982 Three rivers Press, New York ISBN 0-609-80067-1
  9. ^ (September 16-22, 2004)(2006) Al Ahram. The World's Oldest Dam
  10. ^ pgs. 167-168, The Great Pyramids of Egypt, Dr. I.E.S. Edwards, 1975 Penguin books, New York ISBN 0-14-022549-8
  11. ^ O.A.W. Dilke, Mathematics and Measurement, University of California Press/British Museum, 1987, 9&23
  12. ^ pg. 25, 5/5/2000, Richard Noone, 1982 Three rivers Press, New York ISBN 0-609-80067-1
  13. ^ Birdsall, Ronald. The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh.
  14. ^ a b (November 15, 2000) (2006) New Scientist. Pyramid precision
  15. ^ Verner, M. The Pyramids, their archaeology and history 1997 pp70
  16. ^ Richard Gillings, Mathematics in the Time of the Pharaohs, Dover Publication, New York, 1982, p185-187
  17. ^ Furlong, David. Sekeds and the Geometry of the Egyptian Pyramids.
  18. ^ The Sphinx Group - 1998 news [dead link – history]
  19. ^ Miroslav Werner, The Pyramids – Their Archaeology and History p.455, "From a paleographic, grammatical and historical point of view, there is not the slightest doubt as their authenticity"
  20. ^ Unfinished Chamber. PBS
  21. ^ "http://www.phouka.com/pharaoh/egypt/history/00kinglists.html"
  22. ^ "http://www.friesian.com/notes/oldking.htm"
  23. ^ a b (September/October 1999) (2006) Archeology Dating the Pyramids Volume 52 Number 5 by members of the David H. Koch Pyramids Radiocarbon Project
  24. ^ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/transcripts/1915mpyramid.html
  25. ^ a b Schoch, Robert M. (2003). Voyages of the Pyramid Builders. Penguin Books, 14-18. ISBN 1585422037. 
  26. ^ (2006) Graham Hancock. Like a Thief in the Night
  27. ^ (1979)(2006). Serpent in the Sky.
  28. ^ [1]
  29. ^ [2]
  30. ^ [3]
  31. ^ Baskette, John (1994). Answers In Action FAQ file on the Great Pyramid. answers.org. Retrieved on 2007-04-13.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert M. Schoch is an American geologist and academic with an especial interest in pyramid monuments around the world. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Information. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Archaeology

  • The Giza Mapping Project

Exploration

Other theories

  • Ron Wyatt [5]
  • Vincent Brown's Pyramid of Man
  • Pyramids in relation with the Noble Quraan (Quran)
  • Wall, John, "The Wrong Question (or: The Myth of the Mystery of the Missing Messages)". In the Hall of Maat.
  • World-Mysteries.com - Mystic Places : The Great Pyramid
  • Composition of Giza Plateau
  • Ottar Vendel's Age of the Pyramids
  • Pyramid construction theory
  • Joseph Davidovits' "Ari-Kat Technology" - Geopolymer theory of pyramid construction
  • Maureen Clemmons' "How Many Caltechers Does It Take to Raise An Egyptian Obelisk?" - Wind power construction theory
  • W.T. Wallington's "[6] - Moving and hoisting of heavy weights without wheels, rollers and ropes
  • In 1998, mechanical engineer Christopher Dunn published his theory that the Great Pyramid was a chemical maser used for generating energy. Dunn reverse-engineered the Great Pyramid to discover its use, concluding that the structure was a source of harmonic resonance that converted the Earth's vibrational energies to electricity using a combination of electrolysis and acoustical resonance.[32] Dunn's website.
  • In 2001, physicist Joseph P. Farrell built upon Dunn's framework in his Giza Death Star trilogy of books, extending it to postulate that the Great Pyramid was a weapon that used scalar physics of the aether as a harmonically-coupled phase-conjugate howitzer, coupling the energies from the Earth, Solar system and local galaxy into a cohered non-local output.[33] Farrell's website.
  • Ralph Ellis - The Great Pyramid as a map.
  • The Pyramid Reveals Its Secrets [7]
  • The Speed of Light in Stone at The Giza Plateau "[8]"

An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... A hydrogen radio frequency discharge, the first element inside a hydrogen maser (see description below) A maser is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification due to stimulated emission. ... This article is about the chemical process. ... Acoustic resonance is an important consideration for instrument builders as most acoustic instruments use resonators, such as the strings and body of a violin, the length of tube in a flute, and the shape of a drum membrane. ... A scalar may be: Look up scalar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) | Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (æ°´) Hinduism and Buddhism The Pancha Mahabhuta (The Five Great Elements) Vayu/Pavan (Air/Wind) Agni/Tejas (Fire) Akasha (Aether) Prithvi/Bhumi (Earth) Ap/Jala (Water) Aether (also spelled ether) is a concept used in ancient and medieval science as a substance. ... In classical mechanics, a Harmonic oscillator is a system which, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force proportional to the displacement according to Hookes law: where is a positive constant. ... In physics, two systems are coupled if they are interacting with each other. ... Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the behaviour of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light. ... 19th century 12 pounder (5 kg) mountain howitzer displayed by the National Park Service at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, USA A howitzer is a type of artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles at trajectories with... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ... NGC 4414, a typical spiral galaxy in the constellation Coma Berenices, is about 17,000 parsecs in diameter and approximately 20 million parsecs distant. ... A physical theory is said to exhibit nonlocality if, in that theory, it is not possible to treat widely separated systems as independent. ... Ralph Ellis is a British historical researcher who has written a number of books on revisionary theology. ...

News

  • Guardian's Pyramids of Egypt
  • Secret chamber may hold key to mystery of the Great Pyramid (The Guardian, August 30, 2004.)
  • Amateur archaeologists track lost tomb of Cheops (Australian Broadcasting Corporation, August 30, 2004.)
  • Pyramid Construction: Ancient ramp leading to the Great Pyramid discovered, but only of maximal height approximately 100 feet (30 m). Pyramid's original height was 481 feet. Also, the heaviest stone blocks were discovered to have holes bored on opposite sides, indicating the use of cranes (or other mechanical means) to raise and precisely position them.
  • Was Great Pyramid built from inside out? French architect (Jean-Pierre Houdin) releases 3-D data to support unconventional claim. msnbc.msn.com and khufu.3ds.com.

The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A modern crawler type derrick crane with outriggers. ...

Images

  • Satellite image of Khufu's Pyramid (29°58'51"N 31°09'00"E) - at WikiMapia = Google maps + wiki
  • A Picture Tour of The Great Pyramid at the Great Pyramid of Giza Research Association.
  • Fullscreen Quicktime VR Panorama' Pyramids of Giza
  • Pyramid of Giza Images
  • Pyramidcam!
  • digital.egypt - QTVR fullscreen panoramas on Giza Plateau
  • Egypt Pyramids Pictures of Pyramids in Giza published under Creative Commons License

Coordinates: 29°58′44.68″N, 31°08′02.58″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Great Pyramid of Giza - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5695 words)
In contrast, a Great Pyramid feasibility study relating to the quarrying of the stone was performed in 1978 by Technical Director Merle Booker of the Indiana Limestone Institute of America.
For the Great Pyramid of Giza in particular, it is maintained (depending on the theorist) that either it was ordained and built by this now-vanished civilization, or else that its construction was somehow influenced by knowledge (now lost) acquired from this civilization.
The Pyramid of Khufu at Giza in Egypt.
Great Pyramid of Giza (1456 words)
The Great Pyramid of Giza, (sometimes spelled Gizeh) is the oldest and last remaining of the Seven Wonders of the World and the most famous pyramid in the world.
The pyramid was constructed of limestone, basalt, and granite stones from two to four tonnes in weight each, adding up to a total estimated weight of some 7 million tonnes, and a volume of 2,600,600 cubic metress.
The great pyramid and the Sphinx are often alleged to have been built with mysterious ancient forces rather than human labor and/or by Atlanteans, extraterrestrials, or other mysterious creators.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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