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Encyclopedia > Great Orme
Great Orme
Elevation 207 m (679 ft)
Location Conwy county borough, Wales
Prominence 201 m
Topo map OS Landranger 115
OS grid reference SH767833
Listing Marilyn
Almost all that remains above ground of the Bishop of Bangor's 13th century palace at Gogarth is the short wall on the left, the narrow column to the right of centre collapsed into the sea during the storms of March 2005
Almost all that remains above ground of the Bishop of Bangor's 13th century palace at Gogarth is the short wall on the left, the narrow column to the right of centre collapsed into the sea during the storms of March 2005
Saint Tudno's church, the original parish church of Llandudno
Saint Tudno's church, the original parish church of Llandudno
The Great Orme Marine Drive
The Great Orme Marine Drive
A tranquil garden in the Happy Valley near to the artificial ski slope
A tranquil garden in the Happy Valley near to the artificial ski slope

The Great Orme (Welsh: Y Gogarth or Pen y Gogarth) is a prominent limestone headland on the north coast of Wales situated in Llandudno. An earlier Welsh name is Creuddyn, and it is also referred to as Cyngreawdr Fynydd in a poem by the 12th century poet Gwalchmai ap Meilyr.[1] It is echoed by the Little Orme, a smaller but very similar limestone headland, which is on the other side of Llandudno Bay in the parish of Llanrhos. A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... The or meter (see spelling differences) is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Conwy [county borough] is a local government principal area in north Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height or shoulder drop (in America) or prime factor (in Europe), is a concept used in the categorization of hills and mountains, also known as peaks. ... Example of a topographic map with contour lines Part of the same map in a perspective shaded relief view illustrates how the contour lines of the original follow the terrain Topographic maps are a variety of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour... Part of an Ordnance Survey map at 1 inch to the mile scale from 1945 Ordnance Survey (OS) is an executive agency of the United Kingdom government. ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... The mountains and hills of Great Britain, and to a lesser extent Ireland, are the subject of a considerable number of lists which categorise them by height, topographic prominence, or other criteria. ... A Marilyn is a hill with a relative height of at least 150 metres, regardless of absolute height or other merit. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1136x806, 681 KB) photo taken by me, Noel Walley I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1136x806, 681 KB) photo taken by me, Noel Walley I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata StTudno4170020X.JPG‎ Photo by me Noel Walley. ... Image File history File linksMetadata StTudno4170020X.JPG‎ Photo by me Noel Walley. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1892x1309, 541 KB) Summary The Marine Drive at Llandudno photographed by me, Noel Walley, on 17/04/2004 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1892x1309, 541 KB) Summary The Marine Drive at Llandudno photographed by me, Noel Walley, on 17/04/2004 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 707 KB) Summary Llandudno in the Happy Valley gardens photograph taken by me, Noel Walley, on 18/06/2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 707 KB) Summary Llandudno in the Happy Valley gardens photograph taken by me, Noel Walley, on 18/06/2004. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... The bay at San Sebastián, Spain A headland is an area of land adjacent to water on three sides. ... Approximate extent of North Wales North Wales (known in some archaic texts as Northgalis) is the northernmost unofficial region of Wales, bordered to the south by Mid Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... Llandudno South Parade (on the north shore) viewed from the Great Orme, with the twin mounds of Deganwy Castle in the distance Llandudno Bay and the Little Orme viewed from the Great Orme Llandudno Pier viewed from the Happy Valley gardens A sunny corner in the Happy Valley gardens Llandudno... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Gwalchmai ap Meilyr (fl. ... The Little Orme (a. ... Saint Hilarys church at Llanrhos Llanrhos (also called Eglwys Rhos) is a village to the east and south of Llandudno in the Conwy County Borough, North Wales. ...

Contents

Gogarth Manor

The medieval parish of Llandudno comprised three townships, each established on the lower slopes of the Great Orme. The township of Y Gogarth at the south-western 'corner' of the Great Orme was latterly the smallest but it contained the palace of the Bishop of Bangor. The Manor of Gogarth (which included all three townships) had been bestowed on Anian, Bishop of Bangor by King Edward I in 1284 in recognition of services rendered to the crown, notably the baptism of the first English Prince of Wales, newly born at Caernarfon. The palace was burnt down by Owain Glyndŵr in 1400 and the ruins have mostly been washed away together with much of the township by coastal erosion in the Conwy Estuary. The Bishop of Bangor heads the Church in Wales diocese of Bangor centred upon Bangor Cathedral. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... The Prince of Wales Feathers. This Heraldic badge of the Heir Apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ... Caernarfon (the original Welsh spelling is now almost always used in preference to the anglicised forms, Caernarvon or Carnarvon) is a royal town in north-west Wales. ... Seal of Owain Glyndŵr The Banner of the Arms of Owain Glyndŵr showing his parentage Owain Glyndŵr [], sometimes anglicised as Owen Glendower (1359–c. ...


The significant agricultural yet north facing township of Cyngreawdr includes the original parish church and rectory of St Tudno, a sixth or seventh century foundation. Following the Glyndŵr uprising, the villagers of the Creuddyn peninsular were harshly taxed and by 1507 they had nearly all fled their homes. Henceforth the cultivated land lay fallow and is now grazed by sheep and goats. Llandudno's Victorian cemetery, which is still in regular use, was laid out in 1859 adjacent to the 12th century church of Saint Tudno where open-air services held every Sunday Morning in summer. Nearby are several large ancient stones that have become shrouded in folklore and also an unexplained stone lined avenue called Hwylfa'r Ceirw leading towards Cilfin Ceirw (Precipice of Deer). A parish church is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish, the basic administrative unit of episcopal churches. ... The rectory is the title usually given to the building inhabited, or formerly inhabited, by the rector of a parish. ... Folklore is the body of expressive culture, including tales, music, dance, legends, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, customs, material culture, and so forth within a particular population comprising the traditions (including oral traditions) of that culture, subculture, or group. ...


The third township was Yn Wyddfid clustered below the Iron Age hill fort of Pen y Dinas at the north eastern 'corner' of the Great Orme. With the reopening of the copper mines from the 18th century onwards, this township grew considerably in size with the streets and cottages of the mining village laid out on the largely abandoned agricultural holdings. Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for military advantage. ...


The Great Orme Wells

Natural wells were greatly prized in limestone districts and the Great Orme was no exception. Water was required for copper mining purposes as well as for domestic and agricultural use. The following Great Orme wells are known and most still supply running water:


Ffynnon Llygaid

Possibly one of the wells supplying the needs of the once populous Gogarth community before much of it was lost to coastal erosion.


Ffynnon Gogarth

The main water source for Gogarth and in the later eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries the power source to operate the famous Tom and Gerry engine that though a long series of Brammock rods powered the mine water pumps at the Higher shaft near the summit above Pyllau.


Ffynnon Powel

One of the water supplies together with ffynnon Tudno and ffynnon Rufeinig serving the medieval farming community of Cyngreawdr.


Ffynnon Galchog

This well, near Mynydd Isaf, to the north of Pen Dinas, is a source of lime-rich water known for its petrifying qualities, it is one of two wells known to have been used in the washing of copper ores. A petrifying well is a well with the ability to turn everyday objects into stone. ...


Ffynnon Tudno

Situated beyond the road, near the north-east corner of St Tudno's Church, Ffynnon Tudno was, together with Ffynon Rufeinig, a principal source of water for the community settled round the church.


Ffynnon Rufeinig

Translated Roman Well it takes its name from the tradition that Roman copper miners used its waters to wash the copper ores mined nearby.


Ffynnon Llech

A spring of water located in Ogof Llech, a cave on the headland very difficult of excess and claimed to have been used as a hermitage by Saint Tudno a sixth century monk of Bangor-is-y-Coed who established the first church here. Bangor-Is-y-Coed is a village in Maelor in the county borough of Wrexham in North Wales, near the English border. ...


Ffynnon Gaseg

Literally "Mare's well" this spring was revealed, at the side of the road, about half way round and near the highest point (and where it can still be seen), during the construction of the Marine Drive in the nineteenth century. It was thus ideally situated to refresh the horses on that five mile carriage drive round the base of the Great Orme.


The Copper Mines

The Great Orme Mines are possibly the most important copper mines of the Bronze Age yet discovered and excavated. Apparently abandoned around 600 BC, but with some evidence of Roman patronage, the mines were reopened in 1692 and continued to be worked until the end of the 19th century. It is possible that some of the copper from the mine was exported to Continental Europe, even in the Bronze Age. In addition to the three main mining areas, there are many opencast bell pit mines along the lines of the main geological faults. The most commonly present source of copper ore is chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), which accounts for about 50% of copper production. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ...


In the 20th century the mines have been once again reopened, and the Bronze Age mine workings are now a fee-paying attraction for the public to experience. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Tourism

A cable-car (reopened 2006) and the Great Orme Tramway, a vintage tram system (built 1902), convey visitors to the summit of the Great Orme, past one of only two artificial ski slopes in North Wales, complete with one of the longest toboggan runs in the UK. Aerial tramway suspended on two track cables with an additional haulage rope Cable car at Zell am See in the Austrian Alps. ... Two cars passing at a passing loop Victoria station at the foot of the line. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A shaped, twin-tip alpine ski. ... A modern bobsleigh toboggan A toboggan is a simple sled used on snow, to carry one or more people (often children) down a hill or other slope, for recreation. ...


Around the lower slopes of the Orme are landscaped gardens in the Happy Valley and terraces in the Haulfre Garden on the landward facing steeply sloping southern side. Invalid walks link the Haulfre Gardens with the western end of the Marine Drive. The 'Marine Drive' toll road around the coastal perimeter of the Orme leads also to St. Tudno's Church, the Bronze Age Mine and to the Great Orme Summit with car park. Among the Summit attractions are a licensed hotel and cafeteria, a visitors' centre, a tourist shop, and a play area for young children.


The Country Park

The Great Orme is run as a nature reserve, with a number of protective designations (including Special Area of Conservation, Heritage Coast, Country Park, and Site of Special Scientific Interest), being an area two miles (3.2 km) long by one mile (1.6 km) wide. It is home to a long-established herd of several hundred feral Kashmir goats (a present from Queen Victoria). There are numerous paths for walking on the summit, including a section of the North Wales Path, a long distance route. A Special Area of Conservation (SAC) is defined in the European Commission Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC), also known as the Directive on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora. ... A Heritage Coast is a strip of coastline designated by the Countryside Agency in England and Wales. ... A Site of Special Scientific Interest or SSSI is a conservation designation denoting a protected area in the United Kingdom. ... ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... The route logo, used for way-marking The North Wales Path is a long distance walk of some 60 miles which runs close to the North Wales coast between Prestatyn in the east and Bangor in the west. ...


The Royal Artillery coastal gunnery school was transferred from Shoeburyness to the Great Orme in 1940 (and additionally to the Little Orme in 1941) during the Second World War. Target practice was undertaken from the headland to anchored boats. The foundations of some of the buildings and installations remain and can be seen from the western end of the Marine Drive. Location within the British Isles Shoeburyness is a town in southeast Essex, England, situated at the mouth of the river Thames. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Origin of the word 'Orme'

Both the Great and Little Ormes have been etymologised to the Old Norse word for sea serpent (transliterated to urm (or orm) and pronounced as /ǫrɱ/ in the IPA). (The modern day word, Orme, is pronounced as [ɔːɱ] in English). Marauding Vikings are thus said to have believed the Ormes (and the wider Creuddyn Peninsula) looked like a sea serpent (with the Great Orme being the serpent's head) as their boats came in. But it is very difficult to substantiate this belief because the Vikings left us no written texts, because it seems unlikely that the Vikings ever colonised the area (there are no other Norse names in Gwynedd), and because etymology is a notoriously imprecise tool. Not to be confused with Entomology, the study of insects. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Loch Ness Monster (Painting) by Heikenwaelder Hugo Sea serpents are a kind of sea monster either wholly or partly serpentine. ... Transliteration in a narrow sense is a mapping from one script into another script. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Loch Ness Monster (Painting) by Heikenwaelder Hugo Sea serpents are a kind of sea monster either wholly or partly serpentine. ... Not to be confused with Entomology, the study of insects. ...


Until the coming of tourism in the 19th century (and the first tourists and developers came by sea), the name used for the peninsula was usually Creuddyn but sometimes Y Gogarth, and the name Orme appears to have been used for the headland as seen from the sea. This is the case in the "Plan of the Bay & Harbour of Conway in Caernarvon Shire" by Lewis Morris and published in 1748, which map boldly shows the name "CREUDDYN" in the body of the peninsula and applies the name "Orme's Head" beyond the headland at its north-westerly seaward point. [2]

Great Orme panorama from Llandudno promenade
Great Orme panorama from Llandudno promenade

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2924x944, 479 KB)Great Orme Panorama from Llandudno promenade Author: User:Velela. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2924x944, 479 KB)Great Orme Panorama from Llandudno promenade Author: User:Velela. ... Llandudno South Parade (on the north shore) viewed from the Great Orme, with the twin mounds of Deganwy Castle in the distance Llandudno Bay and the Little Orme viewed from the Great Orme Llandudno Pier viewed from the Happy Valley gardens A sunny corner in the Happy Valley gardens Llandudno...

References

  1. ^ J. E. Caerwyn Williams (ed.), Gwaith Meilyr Brydydd a'i ddisgynyddion (University of Wales Press, 1994). 9.153n.
  2. ^ Mary Aris, Historic Landscapes of the Great Orme page 32
  • Ivor Wynne Jones. Llandudno Queen of Welsh Resorts Landmark, Ashbourne Derbyshire 2002 ISBN 1-84306-048-5 .
  • Mary Aris. Historic Landscapes of the Great Orme. Carreg Gwalch, Llanrwst Wales, 1996 ISBN 0-86381-357-7 .
  • Jim Roberts. Llandudno Past & Present, Sutton Publishing Ltd, Stroud, Gloucestershire 1992 ISBN 0-7509-2903-0 .

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Cable Car Home Page - Great Orme Tramway (1678 words)
Great Orme is a mass of limestone approximately two and one-half miles long and a half-mile wide, which rises to a height of 679 feet.
Both of the Great Orme Tramway's are three-foot, six-inch-gauge funiculars with counterweighted cars (i.e., the weight of the descending tram aids in the ascent of the ascending tram).
A unique aspect of the Great Orme is that the cars, as they progress on their trips, lubricate the various curves and pulleys with water, which is carried on the cars in holding tanks.
Great Orme - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1426 words)
The Great Orme is a prominent limestone headland on the north coast of Wales situated in Llandudno and its oldest Welsh name is Creuddyn.
The township of Y Gogarth at the south-western 'corner' of the Great Orme was latterly the smallest but it contained the palace of the Bishop of Bangor.
The Great Orme Mines are possibly the most important copper mines of the Bronze Age yet discovered and excavated.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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