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Encyclopedia > Great Northern War
Great Northern War
Part of Russo–Swedish Wars and Polish–Swedish wars and Dano-Swedish Wars

Battle of Poltava as painted by Denis Martens the Younger in 1726
Date February 17001721
Location Europe
Casus
belli
Russian Empire and Sweden vying for hegemony over Eastern Europe.
Result Russian victory
Territorial
changes
Russia gained almost all Swedish colonies, including Livonia.
Combatants
Flag of Sweden Sweden
Ottoman Empire (17101714)
Ukrainian Cossacks
Flag of Russia Russia
Denmark-Norway
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Saxony
after 1718
Prussia
Hanover
Commanders
Flag of Sweden Charles XII of Sweden
Ahmed III
Ivan Mazepa
Flag of Russia Peter the Great
Flag of Denmark Frederick IV of Denmark
Augustus II the Strong
Strength
77,000 in the beginning of the war. 110 000 in 1707
Ottoman Empire added some 100,000-200,000
Unknown numbers of Cossacks
In beginning:
170,000 Russians, +40,000 Danes, some +100,000 Poles and Saxons
many more by the end of the war
Casualties
About 25 000 Swedes KIA/wounded in battle and 175 000 from other causes (Dead out of disease, missing, captured)[1] unknown numbers of Ottomans and unknown numbers of cossacks At least 75, 000 russian soldiers KIA/wounded on the Swedish front unknown number of total casualties, probably very high.
Dano-Swedish Wars
Swedish Liberation – Northern Seven Years' – Kalmar – Torstenson – Northern – Scanian – Great Northern – Theater – Napoleonic
Polish-Swedish Wars
Livonian – 1600–11 – 1620–22 – 1625–29 – The Deluge – Northern – Great Northern
Russo-Swedish Wars
Middle Ages – 1495–97 – 1554–57 – 1558-83 – 1590–95 – 1610–17 – 1656–58 – 1700–21 – 1741–43 – 1788–90 – 1808–09
Great Northern War
NarvaDaugava – Kliszów – Pułtusk – Jēkabpils – Punitz – GemauerthofFraustadt – Kalisz – HolowczynLesnayaPoltavaHelsingborgGadebuschStorkyroGangutStralsundDynekilenÖsel – Stäket – Grengam
This is an article about the 18th century war. For wars with similar names see Northern Seven Years' War (15631570), Northern Wars (16551661) and the Flagstaff War (18451846) in New Zealand

The Great Northern War took place between 1700 and 1721. It was fought between a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway, and Saxony (also the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1701 and Prussia and Hanover from 1715) on one side and Sweden, which was helped by the Ottoman Empire on the other. The term Russo-Swedish War can apply to any of the wars fought between Sweden and Russia: Swedish-Novgorodian Wars Russo-Swedish War (1496–1499) Russo-Swedish War (1554–1557) Livonian War (1558–1583) Russo-Swedish War (1590–1595) Ingrian War (1610–1617) Russo-Swedish War (1656–1658) Great Northern... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Image File history File links Battle of Poltava as painted by Denis Martens the Younger in 1726 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Combatants Swedish Empire Russian Empire Commanders Carl Gustaf Rehnskiöld # Peter the Great Strength 17,000 troops attacking, 8,000 besieging Poltava, 42,000–45,000 troops, 72 cannons 3,000 Kalmyks arrived at the end of battle Casualties 6,900 killed or wounded, 2,800 prisoners 1,345 killed... Events George Friderich Handel becomes a British subject. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... // Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 3 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... The Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, consisting of Denmark and Norway, including Norways possessions Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a term used for the two united kingdoms after their amalgamation as one state in 1536. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland_corrected_(bordered). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saxony. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... // The Funj warrior aristocracy deposes the reigning mek and places one of their own ranks on the throne of Sennar. ... The Prussian flag (small) 1701-1918 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Motto Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Government Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I (first)  - 1688–1701 Frederick III (last) King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I (first)  - 1888–1918 William II (last) Prime Minister1,2... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: ) was a historical territory in todays Germany, at various times a principality, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom and a province of Prussia and of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as DemirbaÅŸ Åžarl (Charles the Habitué), was King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Sultan Ahmed III Köçeks at a fair. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa (Ukrainian: , Russian: , historically spelled as Mazeppa; circa 1640—August 28, 1709), Cossack Hetman (Ataman) of the Hetmanate in Left-bank Ukraine, in 1687–1708. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekséyevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Frederick IV Frederick IV (October 11, 1671 - October 12, 1730) king of Denmark and Norway from 1699. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland_corrected_(bordered). ... Reign From 1697, until 1706 and from 1709, until February 1, 1733 Elected In 1697 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On September 15, 1697 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents John George III Wettin Anne Sophie Consorts  ? Children August III Sas Maurice... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Swedish War of Liberation (1521-1523) was a civil war in which the Swedish nobleman Gustav Vasa successfully deposed the Danish king Kristian II, as regent of the Kalmar Union in Sweden. ... Frederick II of Denmark attacking Älvsborg, 1563 The Northern Seven Years War (also known as the Nordic Seven Years War, the First Northern War or the Seven Years War in Scandinavia) was the war between Sweden and a coalition of Denmark-Norway, Lubeck and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, fought between 1563... Kalmar War The Kalmar War lasted from 1611 to 1613. ... The Hannibal war, Hannibal controversy or Torstenson War was a short period of conflict between Sweden and Denmark/Norway which occurred in 1643 to 1645 during the waning days of the Thirty Years’ War. ... King Charles X of Sweden The Northern Wars (1655-1661) is a name sometimes used for the series of conflicts between Sweden and its adversaries Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (The Deluge, 1655-1660), Russia (1656-1661), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657-1660), the Holy Roman Empire (1657-60) and Denmark (1657-1658, 1658... Scanian War (Danish: SkÃ¥nske Krig Swedish: SkÃ¥nska kriget) was the Nordic part of the Franco-Dutch War (1672-1678). ... The Theater War (Swedish: Teaterkriget, Norwegian: Tyttebærkrigen) was a brief war between Denmark-Norway and Sweden lasting between 1788 and 1789. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[5] Saxony[6] Denmark [7] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick Prince of... The Polish-Swedish Wars refer to a series of wars between Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden, in the wider meaning to the series of wars in which both Sweden and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth participated between 1563 and 1721, in the narrower meaning to denote the two wars between 1600 and... The Reformation reached Livonia in the 1520s. ... Combatants Sweden Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth // This conflict between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden can trace its roots to the War against Sigismund, where Sigismund III Vasa, at one time king of both the Commonwealth and Sweden, lost the throne of Sweden during the civil war (1597–1599). ... Having signed the Treaty of Stolbovo ending their Ingrian War with Russia in 1617, the Swedes under king Gustav II Adolf (Gustavus Adolphus, hailed as saviour of Protestant Europe) expanded their gains in their previous war with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the disputed Livonia region, taking Dünamünde... In 1625, the Swedes quickly occupied all of Livonia and Courland by the years end. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... King Charles X of Sweden The Northern Wars (1655-1661) is a name sometimes used for the series of conflicts between Sweden and its adversaries Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (The Deluge, 1655-1660), Russia (1656-1661), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657-1660), the Holy Roman Empire (1657-60) and Denmark (1657-1658, 1658... The term Russo-Swedish War can apply to any of the wars fought between Sweden and Russia: Swedish-Novgorodian Wars Russo-Swedish War (1496–1499) Russo-Swedish War (1554–1557) Livonian War (1558–1583) Russo-Swedish War (1590–1595) Ingrian War (1610–1617) Russo-Swedish War (1656–1658) Great Northern... The Republic of Novgorod and medieval Sweden waged a number of wars for control of the Gulf of Finland, an area vital for the lucrative Hanseatic trade. ... The Russo-Swedish War of 1495–1497 was a result of an alliance between Ivan III of Russia and Hans of Denmark, who was waging war against the Sture family of Sweden in the hope of regaining the Swedish throne. ... The Russo-Swedish War of 1554–1557, considered a prelude to the Livonian War of 1558–1583, arose out of border skirmishes. ... The Reformation reached Livonia in the 1520s. ... The Russo-Swedish War of 1590–1595 was instigated by Boris Godunov in the hope of recovering territory along the Gulf of Finland lost to Sweden during the previous Livonian War. ... The Ingrian War, which lasted from 1610 to 1617, was initiated by Sweden against Russia in a final attempt to put a Swedish count on the Russian throne, but ended with a large Swedish territorial gain in the Treaty of Stolbovo See also The De la Gardie Campaign Dymitriads Mikhail... The Russo-Swedish War of 1656–1658 was fought by Russia and Sweden against the background of the simultaneous Northern Wars and the War for Ukraine. ... The Russo-Swedish War of 1741–1743, known as the Hats Russian War in Sweden and the Lesser Wrath (Finnish: Pikkuviha, Swedish: Lilla ofreden) in Finland, was instigated by the Hats, a Swedish political party which aspired to regain the territories lost to Russia during the Great Northern War, and... The Russo-Swedish War of 1788–90, known as Gustav IIIs Russian War in Sweden and as Catherine IIs Swedish War in Russia, was fought between Sweden and Russia from June 1788 to August 1790. ... Combatants Russia Sweden Commanders Fyodor Buxhoeveden Boris Knorring Barclay de Tolly Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor Carl Johan Adlercreutz Georg Carl von Döbeln The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... Combatants Sweden Russia Commanders King Charles XII of Sweden Field Marshal Charles Eugène de Croy Strength 10,640 about 37,000 Casualties 667 killed 15,000 killed or drowned the rest surrendered For other Battles of Narva, see Battle of Narva (disambiguation). ... Combatants Sweden Saxony/Russia Commanders Charles XII August II Adam Heinrich von Steinau Strength 7,000 in the first wave of attack Russians 10,000 Saxons 9,000 Casualties 100 wounded - 400 KIA 2,000 KIA The Crossing of the Daugava on July 9, 1701 was the Swedish push into... Combatants Sweden Poland,Saxony Commanders Charles XII August II the Strong Strength 20 000, 20 000, Casualties 1000 2000 {{{notes}}} Battle of Kliszów took place on July 19 1702 in MaÅ‚opolska during Great Northern War. ... Combatants Sweden Saxony Commanders Charles XII Adam Heinrich von Steinau Strength 3000 3500 Casualties 18 dead 200 dead 800 captured The Battle of PuÅ‚tusk took place on April 21, 1703 in PuÅ‚tusk during Great Northern War. ... Combatants Sweden Russia Commanders Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt unknown Strength 6,000 15,000 Casualties 52 killed, 187 wounded unknown Battle of Jakobstadt was a battle in the Great Nordic War. ... Combatants Sweden Russia Commanders Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt Boris Sheremetyev Strength about 5,500 about 10,000 Casualties 800 killed, 1000 wounded 2000-6000 killed Battle of Gemauerthof was a battle in the Great Nordic War. ... The battle of Fraustadt was fought on February 3, 1706 between Swedish and Russians. ... The Battle of Holowczyn was fought between the Russian army, led by Field Marshal Sheremetyev, and the Swedish army, led by Charles XII of Sweden. ... The Battle of Lesnaya was one of the decisive battles of the Great Northern War. ... Combatants Swedish Empire Russian Empire Commanders Carl Gustaf Rehnskiöld # Peter the Great Strength 17,000 troops attacking, 8,000 besieging Poltava, 42,000–45,000 troops, 72 cannons 3,000 Kalmyks arrived at the end of battle Casualties 6,900 killed or wounded, 2,800 prisoners 1,345 killed... Combatants Sweden Denmark Commanders Magnus Stenbock Jørgen Rantzau Strength 14,000 14,000 Casualties 800 dead, 2,000 wounded 5,000 dead 2,500 captured In the Battle of Helsingborg (February 28, 1710) 14,000 Danish invaders under Jørgen Rantzau was decisively defeated by an equally large Swedish... The Battle of Gadebusch was Swedens final great victory in the Great Northern War. ... Combatants Sweden Russia Commanders Carl Gustaf Armfeldt Mikhail Golitsyn Strength 4,500 9,000 Casualties 1,600 dead 900 wounded 1,800-2,000 dead or wounded The battle of Storkyro was fought on February 19, 1714 near the village Napue, Finland between a Swedish and a Russian army, as... The naval Battle of Gangut took place on July 27, 1714 during the Great Northern War, in the waters north of the Hanko Peninsula, near the site of the modern-day city of Hanko, Finland, between the Swedish Navy and Imperial Russian Navy. ... Combatants Denmark Prussia Sweden Commanders Frederick IV Frederick William III Charles XII Strength 36,000 soldiers Unknown Casualties Unknown Charles XII was wounded. ... The naval Battle of Dynekilen took place on 8 July 1716 during the Great Northern War, when a light Danish-Norwegian force under Tordenskjold trapped and defeated a similar Swedish force in Dynekilen fjord (just north of Strömstad), on the west coast of Sweden. ... This battle took place 4 June 1719, during the Great Northern War. ... Combatants Sweden Russia Commanders Frederick of Hessen-Kassel Carl Gustaf Dücker Rutger Fuchs Count Fyodor Matveyevich Apraksin Strength about 1,200 3,000 Casualties 100 killed or wounded about 500 killed or wounded The Battle of Stäket was a minor battle during the Great Northern War. ... The Battle of Grengam of 1720 was a major battle in the Great Northern War that marked the end of Swedish supremacy in the Baltic waters. ... Frederick II of Denmark attacking Älvsborg, 1563 The Northern Seven Years War (also known as the Nordic Seven Years War, the First Northern War or the Seven Years War in Scandinavia) was the war between Sweden and a coalition of Denmark-Norway, Lubeck and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, fought between 1563... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the bull Regnans in Excelsis May 20 - Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas. ... King Charles X of Sweden The Northern Wars (1655-1661) is a name sometimes used for the series of conflicts between Sweden and its adversaries Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (The Deluge, 1655-1660), Russia (1656-1661), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657-1660), the Holy Roman Empire (1657-60) and Denmark (1657-1658, 1658... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The First Maori War, also known as the Flagstaff War was fought between 11 March 1845 and 11 January 1846, in and around the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... // Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... The Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, consisting of Denmark and Norway, including Norways possessions Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a term used for the two united kingdoms after their amalgamation as one state in 1536. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Motto Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Government Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I (first)  - 1688–1701 Frederick III (last) King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I (first)  - 1888–1918 William II (last) Prime Minister1,2... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: ) was a historical territory in todays Germany, at various times a principality, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom and a province of Prussia and of Germany. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326...


The war began as a coordinated attack on Sweden by the coalition in 1700 and ended in 1721 with the Treaty of Nystad and the Stockholm treaties. A result of the war was the end of the Swedish Empire. Russia supplanted Sweden as the dominant Power on the Baltic Sea and became a major player in European politics. The Treaty of Nystad (1721), signed at the present-day Finnish town of Uusikaupunki (Swedish Nystad), ended the Great Northern War, in which Russia received the territories of Estonia, Livonia and Ingria, as well as much of Karelia and Tsar Peter I of Russia replaced King Frederick I of Sweden... The Treaty of Stockholm refers to two treaties signed in 1719 and 1720 that ended the Great Northern War between Sweden on one side and Hannover and Prussia. ... Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...

Contents

Background

Between 1560 and 1658, Sweden created a Baltic empire centered on the Gulf of Finland and comprising the provinces of Karelia, Ingria, Estonia, and Livonia. During the Thirty Years' War Sweden gained tracts in Germany as well, including Western Pomerania, Wismar, the Duchy of Bremen, and Verden. At the same period Sweden conquered Danish and Norwegian provinces north of the Sound (1645; 1658). These victories may be ascribed to a well trained army, which, despite its comparatively small size, was far more professional than most continental armies. In particular, it was able to maintain a high rate of small arms fire due to proficient drilling. However, the Swedish state was unable to support and maintain its army as the war was prolonged and the costs of warfare could not be passed to occupied countries. Image File history File linksMetadata Vikingshipmini. ... The history of Scandinavia is the common history of the Scandinavian countries— Denmark, Norway Sweden and Finland. ... The Nordic Stone Age refers to the Stone Age of Scandinavia. ... Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far... The Viking Age is the name of the age in Northern Europe, following the Germanic Iron Age. ... For the purposes of this article the Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian and Nordic peoples, starting in the 8th century with the arrival of missionaries in Denmark and ending in the 18th century with the conversion of the Inuits and the... The Kalmar Union flag. ... The Scandinavian Monetary Union (Swedish: Skandinaviska myntunionen, Danish: Skandinaviske møntunion) was a monetary union formed by Sweden and Denmark on May 5, 1873 by fixing their currencies against gold at par to each other. ... A Scandinavian defense union that would include Sweden, Norway and Denmark was planned between the three countries after World War II. Denmark and Norway had been occupied by Germany between 1940 and 1945, while Sweden, having escaped the horrors of occupation it had, still felt the effects of the war. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... Ingria may be seen represented in the easternmost part of the Carta Marina (1539) Ingria (Finnish: , Russian: , Swedish: , Estonian: ) is a historical region, now situated mostly in Russia, comprising the area along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in the... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Duchy of Pomerania, ruled by the slavic dynasty of the Griffins (Polish: Gryfici, German: Greifen), was a semi-independent principality in the 17th century. ... Wismar is a small port and Hanseatic League town in northern Germany on the Baltic Sea, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, about 45 km due east of Lübeck, and 30 km due north of Schwerin. ... The Duchy of Bremen was a state of the Holy Roman Empire, with territory stretching from the north of the city of Bremen (although not including the city itself) to the coast of the North Sea. ... Verden is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... The Flag of Skåne (also known as Scania in English) is the southernmost historical province (landskap) and County (Län) of Sweden. ... Denmark (red) / south Sweden (yellow), connected with the Oresund Bridge. ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with parade (military). ...


The foreign interventions during the Time of Troubles resulted in Sweden's gains in the Treaty of Stolbovo (1617). The treaty deprived Russia of direct access to the Baltic Sea, meaning that the Russians were not in a position to challenge the Swedish regional hegemony. Russian fortunes reversed during the later half of the 17th century, notably with the rise to power of Peter the Great, who looked to address the earlier losses and re-establish a Baltic presence. In the late 1690s, the adventurer Johann Patkul managed to ally Russia with Denmark and Saxony by the Treaty of Preobrazhenskoye and in 1700 the three powers attacked. The Time of Troubles (Russian: Смутное время, Smutnoye Vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last of the Moscow Rurikids, Tsar Feodor Ivanovich in 1598 and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. ... The Treaty of Stolbovo is a peace treaty of 1617 that ended the Ingrian War, fought between Sweden and Russia. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Regional hegemony refers to the power or influence which a nation exercises over more than one neighboring country. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekséyevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly... Events and Trends Thomas Neale designed Seven Dials The Salem Witchcraft Trials are held in Massachusetts Bay Colony (1692). ... Image:JRPatkul. ... The Treaty of Preobrazhenskoye (or the Treaty of Preobrazhenskoe) was negotiated by Johann Patkul and signed on November 22, 1699 in Preobrazhenskoye (now a part of Moscow), a favoured residence of the tsar Peter the Great. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ...


Opposing armies

Charles XI had left a standing army based on annual training, consisting of 77,000 men in 1700, but by 1707 this number had risen to at least 120,000 in spite of casualties. It was the army with the best morale in northern Europe, but not the greatest bulk. The large Ottoman forces were poorly disciplined and lacking in morale. Charles XI, or Karl XI, (November 24, 1655 - April 5, 1697) was a King of Sweden (1660 - 1697). ...


Though able to mobilize 170,000 men, Russia was not able to put all in action at the same place and did not even have one musket per man. Furthermore, the Russian mobilization system was ineffective, and the expansive nation had to be defended everywhere—garrisons had to be supported and the war paid for. A great mobilization over vast territories would have been unrealistic. Peter the Great aimed to have an army with the same morale as the Swedish.


The Danes added 20,000 in their invasion against Holstein-Gottorp and several more against other fronts. Poland and Saxony together could mobilize at least 100,000 men.


Swedish victories

The Swedish Victory at Narva, 1700 by Gustaf Cederström, painted 1910
The Swedish Victory at Narva, 1700 by Gustaf Cederström, painted 1910

From the very beginning of the Great Northern War, Sweden suffered from the inability of Charles XII to view the situation from anything but a purely personal point of view. His determination to avenge himself on enemies overpowered every other consideration. Time and again during the eighteen years of warfare it was in his power to dictate an advantageous peace, but he neglected to do so. The early part of the war consisted of a continual string of Swedish victories under Charles XII. Denmark was defeated in the summer of 1700, in what was to be the first major campaign of the war, and in such a way that she could not participate in the war for a number of years. Russia then suffered a crushing defeat in the Battle of Narva in November. Image:Victory at Narva. ... Image:Victory at Narva. ... Combatants Sweden Russia Commanders King Charles XII of Sweden Field Marshal Charles Eugène de Croy Strength 10,640 about 37,000 Casualties 667 killed 15,000 killed or drowned the rest surrendered For other Battles of Narva, see Battle of Narva (disambiguation). ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... The funeral transport of Charles XII (1884), Gustaf Cederströms own copy of his most famous painting. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as Demirbaş Şarl (Charles the Habitué), was King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ... Three famous battles took place around Narva. ...


After the dissipation of the first coalition through the peace of Travendal and the victory at Narva, the Swedish chancellor, Benedict Oxenstjerna, rightly regarded the universal bidding for the favor of Sweden by France and the maritime powers, then on the eve of the War of the Spanish Succession, as a golden opportunity of ending the war and making Charles the arbiter of Europe. At that time, the representatives of Poland-Lithuania (which considered itself neutral despite its king's active participation in the anti-Swedish coalition) offered to serve as mediators between the Swedish king and Augustus. But Charles, intent on dethroning Augustus of Saxony from the Polish throne, held attacked Poland, therefore ending the official neutrality of Poland-Lithuania. Five years later, on September 24, 1706, he concluded the Polish War through the treaty of Altranstadt, but, this treaty brought no advantage to Sweden, not even compensation for the expenses of six years of warfare. The Peace of Travendal (also Treaty of Travendal) concluded between King Charles XII of Sweden and King Frederick IV of Denmark represented Swedens first success in the Great Northern War. ... Count Bengt Gabrielsson Oxenstierna (1623-1702), Swedish statesman, was the son of Axel Oxenstierna’s cousin, Gabriel Bengtsson Oxenstierna (1586-1656). ... Combatants Holy Roman Empire, Great Britain,[1] Dutch Republic, Portugal, Others France, Spain, Bavaria, Others Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Earl of Galway, Count Overkirk, Marquês das Minas Duc de Villars, Duc de Vendôme, Duc de Boufflers, Duc de Villeroi, Duke... Arbitration, in the law, is a form of alternative dispute resolution — specifically, a legal alternative to litigation whereby the parties to a dispute agree to submit their respective positions (through agreement or hearing) to a neutral third party (the arbitrator(s) or arbiter(s)) for resolution. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Reign From 1697, until 1706 and from 1709, until February 1, 1733 Elected In 1697 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On September 15, 1697 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents John George III Wettin Anne Sophie Consorts  ? Children August III Sas Maurice... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... Altranstadt is a village of Germany, in Prussian Saxony near Merseburg (q. ...


Russian victories

Main articles: Battle of Poltava and Greater Wrath

During the years between 1700 and 1707, two of Sweden's Baltic provinces, Estonia and Ingria, had been seized by the Tsar, and a third, Livonia, had been essentially ruined. To secure his acquisitions, Peter founded the city of Saint Petersburg in Ingria in 1703. He began to build a navy and a modern-style army, based primarily on infantry drilled in the use of firearms. Combatants Swedish Empire Russian Empire Commanders Carl Gustaf Rehnskiöld # Peter the Great Strength 17,000 troops attacking, 8,000 besieging Poltava, 42,000–45,000 troops, 72 cannons 3,000 Kalmyks arrived at the end of battle Casualties 6,900 killed or wounded, 2,800 prisoners 1,345 killed... The Swedish Victory at Narva, 1700 by Gustaf Cederström, painted 1910 Battle of Poltava as painted by Denis Martens the Younger in 1726 The Great Northern War was the war fought between a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Saxony-Poland (from 1715 also Prussia and Hanover) on one... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Ingria may be seen represented in the easternmost part of the Carta Marina (1539) Ingria (Finnish: , Russian: , Swedish: , Estonian: ) is a historical region, now situated mostly in Russia, comprising the area along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in the... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ...

The Russian Victory at Gangut, 1714 by Maurice Baquoi, etched 1724

Yet even now Charles, by a stroke of the pen, could have recovered nearly everything he had lost. In 1707, Peter was ready to retrocede everything except St. Petersburg and the line of the Neva, and again Charles preferred risking the whole to saving the greater part of his Baltic possessions. The year following, he invaded Russia, but was frustrated in Smolensk by Generalissimo Menshikov and headed to Ukraine for the winter. However, the abilities of his force were sapped by the cold weather and Peter's use of scorched earth tactics. When the campaign started again in the spring of 1709, a third of his force had been lost and he was crushingly defeated by a larger and better-fed Russian force under Peter in the Battle of Poltava, fleeing to the Ottoman Empire and spending five years in exile. Peter's victory shook all European courts. In just one day, Russia emerged as a major European power. Image File history File links Bakua. ... Image File history File links Bakua. ... The naval Battle of Gangut took place on July 27, 1714 during the Great Northern War, in the waters north of the Hanko Peninsula, near the site of the modern-day city of Hanko, Finland, between the Swedish Navy and Imperial Russian Navy. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Menshikov in Exile Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov (Александр Данилович Меншиков) (1673 – 1729) was a Russian statesman, whose official titles included Generalissimo, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire... A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... Combatants Swedish Empire Russian Empire Commanders Carl Gustaf Rehnskiöld # Peter the Great Strength 17,000 troops attacking, 8,000 besieging Poltava, 42,000–45,000 troops, 72 cannons 3,000 Kalmyks arrived at the end of battle Casualties 6,900 killed or wounded, 2,800 prisoners 1,345 killed... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326...


This shattering defeat did not end the war, although it decided it. Denmark and Saxony joined the war again and Augustus the Strong, through the crafty politics of Boris Kurakin, regained the Polish throne. Peter continued his campaigns in the Baltics, and eventually he built up a powerful navy. In 1714, Peter's galley navy managed to capture a small detachment of the Swedish navy in the first Russian naval victory near Hangö udde (see Battle of Gangut for details). This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Hanko (IPA: ) (Hangö in Swedish, or Гангут in Russian), is a small bilingual port city on the south coast of Finland, 130 km west of Helsinki. ... The naval Battle of Gangut took place on July 27, 1714 during the Great Northern War, in the waters north of the Hanko Peninsula, near the site of the modern-day city of Hanko, Finland, between the Swedish Navy and Imperial Russian Navy. ...


The Fall of Stralsund

Only the firmness of the Chancellor, Count Arvid Horn, held Sweden in the war until Charles finally returned from the Ottoman Empire, arriving in Swedish held Stralsund in November 1714 on the south shore of the Baltic. Charles was by now at war with all of Northern Europe, and Stralsund was doomed. Charles remained there until December, 1715, escaping only days before Stralsund fell. Field Marshal and Count Arvid Bernhard Horn (April 6, 1664 â€“ April 17, 1742) was a statesman and a soldier of the Swedish empire during the period of Sweden-Finland). ... Stralsund is a city in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ...


By this point, Charles was considered mad by many, as he would not consider peace and the price Sweden had paid was already dear, with no hope in sight. All of Sweden’s Baltic and German possessions were lost.


Conclusion

Though Charles returned from the Ottoman Empire and resumed personal control of the war effort, initiating a series of Norwegian Campaigns, he accomplished little before his death in 1718. Over the next few years little changed, but a series of raids on Sweden itself demonstrated that there was little fight left, and soon Prussia, Hanover, and many smaller German states entered the war in the hope of gaining territory when peace was made. Eventually a series of massive seaborne invasions by combined Danish and Russian navies of the Swedish homeland forced the issue. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Great Northern War. ... // The Funj warrior aristocracy deposes the reigning mek and places one of their own ranks on the throne of Sennar. ... Motto Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Government Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I (first)  - 1688–1701 Frederick III (last) King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I (first)  - 1888–1918 William II (last) Prime Minister1,2... Hanover (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ...


The war was finally concluded by the Treaty of Nystad in 1721. Sweden had lost almost all of its "overseas" holdings gained in the 17th century, and was no longer a major power. Russia gained its Baltic territories, and from then on was the greatest power in Eastern Europe. Sweden's dissatisfaction with the result would lead to its fruitless attempts at recovering the lost territories, such as Hats' Russian War, and Gustav III's Russian War. The Treaty of Nystad (1721), signed at the present-day Finnish town of Uusikaupunki (Swedish Nystad), ended the Great Northern War, in which Russia received the territories of Estonia, Livonia and Ingria, as well as much of Karelia and Tsar Peter I of Russia replaced King Frederick I of Sweden... // Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... The Hats Russian War (1741-1743) was the Swedish participation in the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748). ... Gustav IIIs Russian War, also known as the Russo-Swedish War, was fought between Sweden and Russia from June 1788 to August 1790. ...


References

  1. ^ Ericson, Lars: "Svenska knektar", page 92. Historiska Media, 2004. ISBN 91-89442-52-0
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Sweden and the Baltic, 1523 - 1721, by Andrina Stiles, Hodder & Stoughton, 1992 ISBN 0-340-54644-1
  • The Struggle for Supremacy in the Baltic: 1600-1725 by Jill Lisk; Funk & Wagnalls, New York, 1967
  • The Northern Wars, 1558-1721 by Robert I. Frost; Longman, Harlow, England; 2000 ISBN 0-582-06429-5
  • Norges festninger by Guthorm Kavli; Universitetsforlaget; 1987; ISBN 82-00-18430-7
  • Admiral Thunderbolt by Hans Christian Adamson, Chilton Company, 1958
  • East Norway and its Frontier by Frank Noel Stagg, George Allen & Unwin, Ltd. 1956

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Great Northern War

Extensive information on the major battles and campaigns of the Great Northern War can be found as part of these articles: Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekséyevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly... Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as DemirbaÅŸ Åžarl (Charles the Habitué), was King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ... Three famous battles took place around Narva. ... The Battle of Holowczyn was fought between the Russian army, led by Field Marshal Sheremetyev, and the Swedish army, led by Charles XII of Sweden. ... The Battle of Lesnaya was one of the decisive battles of the Great Northern War. ... Combatants Swedish Empire Russian Empire Commanders Carl Gustaf Rehnskiöld # Peter the Great Strength 17,000 troops attacking, 8,000 besieging Poltava, 42,000–45,000 troops, 72 cannons 3,000 Kalmyks arrived at the end of battle Casualties 6,900 killed or wounded, 2,800 prisoners 1,345 killed... The naval Battle of Gangut took place on July 27, 1714 during the Great Northern War, in the waters north of the Hanko Peninsula, near the site of the modern-day city of Hanko, Finland, between the Swedish Navy and Imperial Russian Navy. ... The Battle of Gadebusch was Swedens final great victory in the Great Northern War. ... The Treaty of Nystad (1721), signed at the present-day Finnish town of Uusikaupunki (Swedish Nystad), ended the Great Northern War, in which Russia received the territories of Estonia, Livonia and Ingria, as well as much of Karelia and Tsar Peter I of Russia replaced King Frederick I of Sweden... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Great Northern War. ... Russo-Turkish War of 1710-1711 was the southernmost theatre of the Great Northern War. ... The Swedish Victory at Narva, 1700 by Gustaf Cederström, painted 1910 Battle of Poltava as painted by Denis Martens the Younger in 1726 The Great Northern War was the war fought between a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Saxony-Poland (from 1715 also Prussia and Hanover) on one...

External links

  • Great Northern War timeline


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