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Encyclopedia > Great Moravia

Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. It was inhabited and ruled by the Slavic ancestors of modern Moravians and Slovaks. The core territory laid on both sides of the Morava river, in present-day Slovakia and the Czech Republic, but the empire also extended to what is today Hungary, Poland, Austria, Germany, Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia and Ukraine. Events End of the reign of caliph Al-Mamun Nimmyo succeeds Junna as emperor of Japan Creation of Great Moravia Births Deaths October 10 - al-Mamun, Abbasid caliph of Baghdad Categories: 833 ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... The West Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking West Slavic languages. ... A Moravian can be: an ethnic group a Christian denomination This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Morava (as it is called in Czech and Slovak languages) or the March (as it is known in German) is a river located in Central Europe. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  First unified state c. ...


Great Moravia was founded when Prince Mojmír I unified by force the neighboring Principality of Nitra with his own Moravian Principality in 833. Unprecedented cultural development resulted from the mission of Saints Cyril and Methodius, who came during the reign of Prince Rastislav in 863. The Great Moravian Empire reached its greatest territorial extent under King Svatopluk I (871-894). Weakened by internal struggle and frequent wars with the Frankish Empire, Great Moravia was ultimately overrun by Magyar invaders in the early 10th century and its remnants were later divided between the Kingdom of Hungary, Bohemia, Poland, and the Holy Roman Empire. Mojmír I was the first known prince of the Моravian principality (?830-833) and the first prince of Great Moravia (833-846). ... The Principality of Nitra or Nitrian Principality ( Slovak: Nitrianske kniežatstvo, Nitriansko, Nitrava) was a principality in what is today Slovakia and some adjacent territories in present-day Hungary in the Middle Ages. ... Monument to Sts. ... Rastislav (?-870) was the second prince of Great Moravia. ... Svatopluk (-modern Czech name; modern Slovak name: Svätopluk; Old Slavic Свѧтопълкъ; reconstructed name: Sventopluk; some names in Latin texts: Suentopolcus, Zventopluk, Suatopluk, Zwentibald) (around 830 - 894) from the Mojmírs dynasty was the prince of the Nitrian principality (850s - 871) and then the king of Great Moravia (871 - 894). ... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ...


Great Moravia left behind a lasting legacy in Central and Eastern Europe. Most castles and towns survived the destruction of the empire. The language and script even diffused to other Slavic countries. Both Slovakia and the Czech Rpublic consider Great Moravia to be a predecessor of their own modern statehood.

Contents

Name

The designation "Great Moravia" - "Ἡ Μεγάλη Μοραβία" - originally stems from the work De Administrando Imperio written by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos around 950.[1] De Administrando Imperio is the commonly used title of a scholarly work from ca. ... Constantine and his mother Zoë. Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus, the Purple-born (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος, Kōnstantinos VII PorphyrogennÄ“tos), (Constantinople, September 905 – November 9, 959 in Constantinople) was the son of the Byzantine emperor Leo VI and his fourth wife Zoe Karbonopsina. ...


The word "Moravia" did not refer only to present-day Moravia, but to a country situated on both sides of the Morava river, whose capital was also plausibly called Morava.[2] It is not always clear whether an early medieval written source names a country or a town called Morava. The adjective "Great" nowadays denotes Moravia plus the annexed territories. In De Administrando Imperio, it may have rather meant "distant", because Byzantine texts used to distinguish between two countries of the same name using the attribute "little" for the territory closer to the Byzantine Empire (such as the Morava rivers in Serbia) and "great" for the more distant territory (such as the Morava river between Moravia and Slovakia).[3] Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... The Morava (as it is called in Czech and Slovak languages) or the March (as it is known in German) is a river located in Central Europe. ... The Morava or Great Morava (Морава or Велика Морава) is a major river system in Serbia. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  First unified state c. ...


The names of Great Moravia in other languages are Велья Морава in Old Church Slavonic, Veľká Morava in Slovak, Velká Morava in Czech, Magna Moravia in Latin, Velika Moravska (Велика Моравска) in Serbian and Croatian and Nagymorva Birodalom in Hungarian . Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian or Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...


The use of the term (Great) Slovak Empire instead of Great Moravia is promoted by some Slovak authors who try to define it as an early Slovak state.[4] This term has not been adopted by mainstream historians, who agree that the break of the 9th century the distinct Slavic nationa had not yet emerged and the culture and language of Slavs in central Europe was too similar to identify specific nation-states as ancestors of modern peoples.[5]


History

Foundation

A kind of predecessor of Great Moravia was Samo's Empire, encompassing the territories of Moravia, Slovakia, Lower Austria and probably extending also to Bohemia, Sorbia at the Elbe, and temporarily to Carinthia between 623 and 658. Although this tribal confederation plausibly did not survive its founder, it created favorable conditions for formation of the local Slavic aristocracy. Graves dated to the period after King Samo's death show that the Avars returned to some of their lost territories. However, archaeological findings from the same period (such as an exquisite noble tomb in Blatnica) also indicate formation of a Slavic upper class on the territory that later became the nucleus of Great Moravia.[6] King Samo (? – 658) was a merchant born in the Senonian country (Senonago) (probably todays Sens in France). ... Map of Lower Austria showing districts and the four quarters (Waldviertel in green, Weinviertel in red, Mostviertel in yellow and Industrieviertel in blue) Lower Austria (de: Niederösterreich) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer in Austria. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech and Serbian Lužice), sometimes called Sorbia comprises a region in the southern parts of Brandenburg and eastern parts of Saxony, Germany. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... Karantania sometimes Carantania, Carentania, Carinthia (in old Slovenian onomastics Korotan, or Karantanija) was a Slavic principality that developed in the 6th century and was centered on the territory of contemporary Carinthia. ... King Samo (? – 658) was a merchant born in the Senonian country (Senonago) (probably todays Sens in France). ... Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Blatnica is a village and municipality in the Turiec region of Slovakia. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ...


In the late 8th century, the Morava river basin and western Slovakia, inhabited by the Slavs and situated at the Frankish border, flourished economically. Construction of numerous river valley settlements as well as hill forts indicates that political integration was driven by regional strongmen protected by their armed retinues. The so-called Blatnica-Mikulčice culture, partially inspired by the contemporaneous Western European and Avar art, arose from this economic and political development.[6] In the 790s, the Slavs settled on the middle Danube overthrew the Avar yoke in connection with Charlemagne's campaigns against the Avars. Further centralization of power and progress in creation of state structures of the Slavs living in this region followed. The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for military advantage. ... Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ...


As a result, two major states emerged: the Moravian Principality originally situated in present-day southeastern Moravia and westernmost Slovakia (with the probable center in Mikulčice) and the Principality of Nitra, located in present-day western and central Slovakia (with the center in Nitra). The Moravian Principality was mentioned for the first time in the Royal Frankish Annals in 822, when Moravians paid homage to the Frankish Emperor at the Diet in Frankfurt.[7] The first Moravian ruler known by name, Mojmír I, supported Christian missionaries coming from Passau. Nitra was ruled by Prince Pribina, who, although probably still a pagan himself, built the first Christian church in Slovakia in 828.[8] In 833, Mojmír I ousted Pribina from Nitra and the two principalities became united under the same ruler. Excavations revealed that at least two Nitrian castles (Pobedim and Čingov) were destroyed during the conquest. But Pribina with his family and retinue escaped to the Franks and their king Louis the German granted him the Balaton principality. Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Location of Mikulčice in the Czech Republic Mikulčice is a municipality (obec) in the Czech Republic, situated 7 km south of Hodonín, near the border with Slovakia. ... The Principality of Nitra or Nitrian Principality ( Slovak: Nitrianske kniežatstvo, Nitriansko, Nitrava) was a principality in what is today Slovakia and some adjacent territories in present-day Hungary in the Middle Ages. ... Nitra - City Center Nitra (German: ( ); Hungarian: / Nyitria [archaic]) is a city in western Slovakia (and the fourth largest urban settlement in Slovakia) situated at the foot of Zobor Mountain in the Nitra River valley. ... The Royal Frankish Annals (Latin: Annales Regni Francorum) are annals written for the early Frankish kings, covering the years 741 to 829. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Mojmír I was the first known prince of the Моravian principality (?830-833) and the first prince of Great Moravia (833-846). ... Passau (Latin: Batavis or Batavia, also Passavium; Italian: Passavia; Czech: Pasov) is a town in Niederbayern, Eastern Bavaria, Germany, known also as the Dreiflüssestadt (City of Three Rivers), because the Danube River is joined there by the Inn River from the South, and the Ilz River coming out of... Pribina, also called Priwina or Privina by Frankish chronicles, was the first known prince of the Principality of Nitra (?-833) and of the Balaton Principality (?840-861). ... Events Egbert became first King of England Alcamo was founded by the Muslim commander al-Kamuk. ... Location of Nové Mesto nad Váhom District in the Trenčín Region Pobedim is a village and municipality in Nové Mesto nad Váhom District in the Trenčín Region of western Slovakia. ... Louis the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian or German Ludwig der Deutsche) (804 – August 28, 876), the third son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye, was the king of Bavaria from 817, when his father partitioned the empire... Map of the main part of the Balaton principality (parts of the Dudleb County, of the Ptuj County and the whole former Principality of Etgar are not shown on this map) The Balaton Principality (also called Pannonian or Transdanubian Principality, in Slovak: Blatenské kniežatstvo, in Bulgarian: Blatensko Knezevstvo, in...


After unification

Rastislav as an Orthodox Saint (modern depiction)

What modern historians and Constantine VII designate as "Great" Moravia arose in 833 from the above mentioned Mojmír's conquest of the Principality of Nitra. In 846, Mojmír I was succeeded by his nephew Rastislav (846-870). Although he was originally chosen by Frankish king Louis the German, the new monarch pursued an independent policy. After stopping a Frankish attack in 855, he also sought to weaken influence of Frankish priests preaching in his realm. Rastislav asked the Byzantine Emperor Michael III to send teachers who would interpret the Christianity in the Slavic vernacular. Upon this request, two brothers, Byzantine officials and missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius came in 863. Cyril developed the first Slavic alphabet and translated the Gospel into the Old Church Slavonic language. Texts translated or written by Cyril and Methodius are considered to be the oldest literature in the Slavic languages. Rastislav was also preoccupied with security and administration of his state. Numerous fortified castles built thorough the country are dated to his reign and some of them (e.g. Devín Castle) are also mentioned in connection with Rastislav by Frankish chronicles.[9] Image File history File links Prince_Rastislav. ... Image File history File links Prince_Rastislav. ... Constantine and his mother Zoë. Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus, the Purple-born (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος, Kōnstantinos VII PorphyrogennÄ“tos), (Constantinople, September 905 – November 9, 959 in Constantinople) was the son of the Byzantine emperor Leo VI and his fourth wife Zoe Karbonopsina. ... Events End of the reign of caliph Al-Mamun Nimmyo succeeds Junna as emperor of Japan Creation of Great Moravia Births Deaths October 10 - al-Mamun, Abbasid caliph of Baghdad Categories: 833 ... Rastislav (?-870) was the second prince of Great Moravia. ... It has been suggested that Eastern Roman Empire be merged into this article or section. ... This coin struck during the regency of Theodora shows how Michael was less prominent than his mother, who is represented as ruler alone on the obverse, and even than his sister Thecla, who is depicted together with the young Michael on the reverse of this coin. ... Monument to Sts. ... Events Constantine I succeeds as king of Scotland. ... Saint Cyril (Greek: Κύριλλος , Church Slavonic: Кирилъ) (827 - February 14, 869) was a Byzantine Greek monk, scholar, theologian, and linguist. ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian or Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Devín Castle (Slovak: hrad Devín or Devínsky hrad) is a castle in Devín, which is a part of Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia. ...

Central Europe in 870. Eastern Francia in blue, Bulgaria in orange, Great Moravia under Rastislav in green. The green line depicts the borders of Great Moravia after the territorial expansion under Svatopluk I (894).
Central Europe in 870. Eastern Francia in blue, Bulgaria in orange, Great Moravia under Rastislav in green. The green line depicts the borders of Great Moravia after the territorial expansion under Svatopluk I (894).

During Rastislav's reign, the Principality of Nitra was given to his nephew Svatopluk as an appanage. The rebellious prince allied himself with the Franks and overthrew his uncle in 870. The beginning of Svatopluk I’s reign was turbulent as his former Frankish allies refused to leave the western part of his empire. The young prince was even taken captive by the Franks and the country rallied around Slavomír who led an uprising against the invaders in 871. Released Svatopluk finally took over the command of the insurgents and drove the Franks from Great Moravia. In the subsequent years, he successfully defended independence of his realm from Eastern Francia and subjected many neighboring lands. Similarly to his predecessor, Svatopluk I (871-894) assumed the title of the king (rex). Under his reign, the Great Moravian Empire reached its greatest territorial extent, when not only Moravia and Slovakia but also present-day northern and central Hungary, Lower Austria, Bohemia, Silesia, Lusatia, southern Poland and northern Serbia belonged to the empire. Svatopluk also withstood several attacks of proto-Magyar tribes and Bulgarian Empire. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... East Francia was the land of Louis the German after the Treaty of Verdun of 843, which divided the Carolingian Empire of the Franks. ... Rastislav (?-870) was the second prince of Great Moravia. ... Svatopluk (-modern Czech name; modern Slovak name: Svätopluk; Old Slavic Свѧтопълкъ; reconstructed name: Sventopluk; some names in Latin texts: Suentopolcus, Zventopluk, Suatopluk, Zwentibald) (around 830 - 894) from the Mojmírs dynasty was the prince of the Nitrian principality (850s - 871) and then the king of Great Moravia (871 - 894). ... Svatopluk (-modern Czech name; modern Slovak name: Svätopluk; Old Slavic Свѧтопълкъ; reconstructed name: Sventopluk; some names in Latin texts: Suentopolcus, Zventopluk, Suatopluk, Zwentibald) (around 830 - 894) from the Mojmírs dynasty was the prince of the Nitrian principality (850s - 871) and then the king of Great Moravia (871 - 894). ... Priest Slavomír was an interim ruler of the Great Moravian Empire in 871. ... East Francia was the land of Louis the German after the Treaty of Verdun of 843, which divided the Carolingian Empire of the Franks. ... The First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681 AD in the lands near the Danube delta and disintegrated in 1018 AD by annexion to the Byzantine Empire. ...


In 880, the Pope John VIII issued the Bull Industriae Tuae, by which he set up an independent ecclesiastical province in Great Moravia with Archbishop Methodius as its head. He also named the German cleric Wiching the Bishop of Nitra, and Old Church Slavonic was recognized as the fourth liturgical language, besides Latin, Greek and Hebrew. John VIII was pope from 872 to 882. ... Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... Nitra - City Center Nitra (German: ( ); Hungarian: / Nyitria [archaic]) is a city in western Slovakia (and the fourth largest urban settlement in Slovakia) situated at the foot of Zobor Mountain in the Nitra River valley. ...


Decline and fall

After the death of King Svatopluk in 894, his sons Mojmír II (894-906?) and Svatopluk II succeeded him as the King of Great Moravia and the Prince of Nitra respectively. However, they started to quarrel for domination of the whole Empire. Weakened by an internal conflict as well as by constant warfare with Eastern Francia, Great Moravia lost most of its peripheral territories. The Magyar nomadic tribes also took advantage and invaded the Danubian Basin. Both Mojmír II and Svatopluk II probably died in battles with the Magyars between 904 and 907 because their names are not mentioned in written sources after 906. Mojmír II (?-(?)906) was the last king of the Great Moravian Empire (894-?906). ... Svatopluk II (-modern Czech name, modern Slovak name: Svätopluk II, for name alternatives see Svatopluk I, born ?, died 906?) was the Prince of the Principality of Nitra from 894 to 906. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In three battles (July 4-5 and August 9, 907) near Bratislava, the Magyars routed Bavarian armies. Historians traditionally put this year as the date of breakup of the Great Moravian Empire. However, there are sporadic references to Great Moravia from later years:[2] In 924/925, both Folkuin in his Gesta abb. Lobiensium and Ruotger in Archiepiscopi Coloniensis Vita Brunonis mention Great Moravia. From 925 until 931, there are several references to certain counts Mojmír and Svatopluk in official documents from Salzburg, though the origin of the two nobles is not clear. In 942, Magyar warriors captured in Al Andalus said that Moravia is the northern neighbor of their people. The fate of northern and western parts of former Great Moravia in the 10th century is thus largely unclear. Battle of Bratislava refers to three successive battles fought at Brezalauspurc (today Bratislava in Slovakia) on July 4-5 and August 9, 907. ... Events Oleg leads Kievan Rus in a campaign against Constantinople Yelü Abaoji establishes Liao (Khitan) dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 907 ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: Country Slovakia Region Bratislava Region Districts Bratislava I-V City parts 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907[1] Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský[2] Area  - City 367. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ...   is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg. ... Al-Andalus (Arabic: الأندلس al-andalus) was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims at various times in the period between 711 and 1492. ...


The western part of the Great Moravian core territory (present-day Moravia_ became the Frankish March of Moravia. Originally a buffer against Magyar attacks, the march became obsolete after the Battle of Lechfeld (955). After the battle, it was given to the Bohemian duke Boleslaus I. In 999 it was taken over by Poland under Boleslaus I of Poland and returned to Bohemia in 1019. Coat of Arms of Moravia The March or Margraviate of Moravia, sometimes called the Bohemian march within the Holy Roman Empire, was a marcher state, sometimes de facto independent and varyingly within the power of the Empire or the Duchy and later Kingdom of Bohemia. ... Combatants East Francia Magyars Commanders Otto the Great harka Bulcsú; chieftains Lél and Súr Strength 10,000 heavy cavalry 50,000 light cavalry Casualties about 3,500 about 30,000 fell in the battle about 5,000 killed by local farmers maybe 5,000 fleeing Magyars killed by... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Boleslav (or Boleslaus) I the Cruel (? - 972), was the Duke of Bohemia from 929 or 935 to July 15, 972. ... Reign From 992 until 1025 Coronation On April 18, 1025 in Gniezno Cathedral, Poland Royal House Piast Coat of Arms Orzeł Piastowski Parents Mieszko I Dubrawka Consorts Rikdaga Judith Enmilda Oda Children with Judith Bezprym with Enmilda Regelina Mieszko II Lambert Otton with Oda Matylda Date of Birth 966/967...


As for the eastern part of the Great Moravian core territory (present-day Slovakia), its southernmost parts were conquered by the Hungarian chieftain Lehel around 925 and they fell under domination of the old Magyar dynasty of Arpads after 955. The rest remained under the rule of the local proto-Slovak aristocracy (western Slovakia maybe sharing the fate of Moravia from 955 to 999). In 1000 or 1001, all of Slovakia was taken over by Poland under Boleslaus I, and in 1030 the southern half of Slovakia was again taken over by Hungary. The rest of Slovakia was progressively integrated into the Kingdom of Hungary from the end of the 11th century until the 14th century. Since the 10th century, the population of this territory has been evolving into the present-day Slovaks. Lehel killing his captor, miniature of the Chronicon Pictum, 1360. ... The Árpáds (Hungarian: Árpádok, Slovak: Arpádovci, Croatian: Arpadovići) were a dynasty ruling in historic Hungary from the late 9th century to 1301 (with some interruptions, e. ...


Territory and people

Great Moravia at its greatest extent during the reign of Svatopluk I (with modern borders of European states)
Great Moravia at its greatest extent during the reign of Svatopluk I (with modern borders of European states)

The territory of Great Moravia included: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 689 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (876 × 762 pixel, file size: 223 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 689 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (876 × 762 pixel, file size: 223 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

  • 833-?907: today's Slovakia + current Moravia (ie. southeastern part of the Czech republic) + Lower Austria (territory north of the Danube) + Hungary (territory north to Budapest and Theiss River, except for western Hungary)
  • 874-?: plus a strip of about 100-250km of present-day Poland above Slovak border (Vistula Basin, Kraków)
  • 880-?: plus a strip of about 100-250km of present-day Poland above Czech border (Silesia)
  • 880-896: plus territory in the east of the Danube - the remaining present-day Hungary (between Danube and Tisa) and present-day northern Serbia (Bačka region)
  • 880/883/884-894: plus the remaining present-day Hungary (up to Vienna)
  • 888/890-895: plus Bohemia
  • 890-897: plus Lusatia

As for the history of Bohemia - annexed by Great Moravia for five to seven years (from 888/890 to 895) - the crucial year is 895, when the Bohemians broke away from the empire and became vassals of Arnulf of Carinthia. Independent Bohemia, ruled by the dynasty of Přemyslids, began to gradually emerge. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Tisza (in Hungarian, Ukrainian: Tysa/Тиса, Russian: Tisa/Тиса, Romanian, Slovak and Serbian: Tisa, German: Theiß, Latin: Tissus, Tisia or Pathissus) is a river, tributary of the Danube and one of the major rivers of Central Europe, passing through Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine... The Vistula (Polish: ) is with 1,047 kilometers (678 miles) the longest river in Poland. ... Wawel Hill, Old Town, Kraków. ... Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  First unified state c. ... Bačka (Serbian: Бачка or Bačka, Hungarian: Bácska, Croatian: Bačka, Slovak: Báčka, German: Batschka) is an area of the Pannonian plain lying between the rivers Danube and Tisa. ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern... Later romantic portrait of Arnulf. ... PÅ™emyslid coat of arms. ...


The inhabitants of Great Moravia were designated "Slovene", which is an old Slavic word meaning the "Slavs". The same name was also used by (future) Slovenians and Slavonians at that time. People of Great Moravia are sometimes called "Moravian peoples" by Slavic texts, and "Sclavi" (i.e. the Slavs), "Winidi" (another name for the Slavs), "Moravian Slavs" or "Moravians" by Latin texts. The present-day terms "Slovaks" / "Slovakia" (in Slovak: Slováci / Slovensko) and "Slovenians" / "Slovenia" (in Slovenian: Slovenci / Slovenija) arose later from the above "Slovene". Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


Towns and castles

Ruins of a Great Moravian castle in Ducové
Ruins of a Great Moravian castle in Ducové

According to Geographus Bavarus, 30 out of the 41 Great Moravian castles (civitates) were situated on the territory of present-day Slovakia and the remaining 11 in Moravia.[10] These numbers are also corroborated by archaeological evidence. The only castles which are mentioned by name in written texts are Nitra (828),[8] Devín Castle (today in Bratislava) (864),[9] Bratislava Castle (907),[11] and Uzhhorod (in Ukraine) (903). Many other (for example Mikulčice and Staré Město in Moravia; Pobedim, Ducové, Trenčín, and Beckov in the Váh river valley; Svätý Jur near Bratislava; Ostrá skala in Orava; Čingov and Spišské Tomášovce in Spiš; Esztergom in Hungary; Gars-Thunau in Austria) were identified by excavations. Image File history File links Kostolec-hradisko. ... Image File history File links Kostolec-hradisko. ... The Bavarian Geographer (Latin: Geographus Bavarus) is a conventional name given by Jan Potocki in 1796[1] to the author of an anonymous medieval document Descriptio civitatum et regionum ad septentrionalem plagam Danubii (Description of Cities and Lands North of the Danube). The short document was discovered in 1772 in... Nitra - City Center Nitra (German: ( ); Hungarian: / Nyitria [archaic]) is a city in western Slovakia (and the fourth largest urban settlement in Slovakia) situated at the foot of Zobor Mountain in the Nitra River valley. ... Devín Castle (Slovak: hrad Devín or Devínsky hrad) is a castle in Devín, which is a part of Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: Country Slovakia Region Bratislava Region Districts Bratislava I-V City parts 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907[1] Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský[2] Area  - City 367. ... Bratislava Castle The Bratislava Castle (Slovak: Bratislavský hrad) is the main castle of Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia. ... Motto: Oblast Zakarpattia Oblast Mayor Serhiy Ratushnyak Area 31. ... Location of Mikulčice in the Czech Republic Mikulčice is a municipality (obec) in the Czech Republic, situated 7 km south of Hodonín, near the border with Slovakia. ... Staré MÄ›sto (meaning Old town in English) is a town in the Zlín Region of the Czech Republic near Uherské HradiÅ¡tÄ›. Population: 6,766 (2003). ... Location of Nové Mesto nad Váhom District in the Trenčín Region Pobedim is a village and municipality in Nové Mesto nad Váhom District in the Trenčín Region of western Slovakia. ... Ruins of a church and reconstructed palisades of the Great Moravian castle in Ducové Ducové is a municipality (village) situated in western Slovakia, near the spa town of PieÅ¡Å¥any. ... Trenčín (Hungarian: Trencsén, German: Trentschin, Latin: Laugaricio) is a town in western Slovakia (close to the Czech border) at the Váh river. ... Location of Nové Mesto nad Váhom District in the Trenčín Region Beckov (Hungarian: ) is a village and municipality in Nové Mesto nad Váhom District in the Trenčín Region of western Slovakia. ... The Váh near PieÅ¡Å¥any. ... The Gothic church of St. ... This article is about the former Hungarian county. ... Location of Spisska District in the KoÅ¡ice Region SpiÅ¡ské Tomášovce is a village and municipality in the SpiÅ¡ská Nová Ves District in the KoÅ¡ice Region of central-eastern Slovakia. ... SpiÅ¡ in Slovakia SpiÅ¡ (-Slovak; Latin: Scepusium, Polish: Spisz, German: , Hungarian: Szepesség) is a region in north-eastern Slovakia, with a very small area in south-eastern Poland. ... Basilica in Esztergom. ...


Most Great Moravian castles were rather large hill forts, fortified by wooden palisades, stone walls and in some cases, moats. Most buildings were made of timber, but ecclesiastical and residential parts were made of stone. At least some churches (e.g. in Bratislava) were decorated by frescoes, plausibly painted by Italian masters since the chemical composition of colors was the same as in northern Italy. In Nitra and Mikulčice, several castles and settlements formed a huge fortified urban agglomeration. Other castles (e.g. Ducové) served as regional administrative centers, ruled by a local nobleman. Their form was probably inspired by Carolingian estates called curtis.[6] The largest castles were usually protected by a chain of smaller forts. Forts (e.g. Beckov) also controlled trade routes and provided shelter for peasants in case of a military attack. A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for military advantage. ... Lorsch monastery gatehouse The Palatine Chapel in Aachen Carolingian architecture is the style of North European architecture promoted by Charlemagne, King of the Franks, who was crowned Imperator Augustus in Rome on Christmas Day, 800 by Pope Leo III. The period of architecture spans the late 8th and 9th centuries...


Although location of the Great Moravian capital has not been safely identified, the fortified town of Mikulčice with its palace and 12 churches is the most widely accepted candidate.[12] Nitra, the second center of the Empire, was ruled autonomously by the heir of the dynasty as an appanage. However, it is fair to note that early medieval kings spent a significant part of their lives campaigning and traveling around their realms due to the lack of reliable administrative capacities. It is thus very likely that they also resided from time to time in other important royal estates, such as Devín and Bratislava.[13] For instance, Devín Castle is mentioned in the Annales Fuldenses as a fortress of Prince Rastislav[9] and importance of the Bratislava Castle is shown by its stone palace and a three-nave church.[6] The system of appanage has greatly influenced the territorial construction of France and explains the flag of many provinces of France. ... The Annales Fuldenses or Annals of Fulda is a medieval chronicle compiled at the Abbey of Fulda. ...


Culture

Due to the lack of written documents, very little is known about the original Slavic religion and mythology. The territory of Great Moravia was originally evangelized by missionaries coming from the Frankish Empire or Byzantine enclaves in Italy and Dalmatia since the early 8th century and sporadically earlier.[14] The first known Christian church of the Western and Eastern Slavs was built in 828 by Pribina in his capital Nitra. The church, consecrated by Bishop Adalram of Salzburg, was built in a style similar to contemporaneous Bavarian churches, while architecture of two Moravian churches from the early 9th century (in Mikulčice and Modrá) indicates influence of Irish missionaries.[12] The Church organization in Great Moravia was supervised by the Bavarian clergy until the arrival of Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius in 863. Note; many of the names that follow, such as Perun are those taken and renamed by those who have discovered evidence, and are not the actual, acurate historical names of many of the real gods, or figures in slavic mythology. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Pribina, also called Priwina or Privina by Frankish chronicles, was the first known prince of the Principality of Nitra (?-833) and of the Balaton Principality (?840-861). ...   is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg. ... Monument to Sts. ...


Foundation of the first Slavic bishopric (870), archbishopric (880), and monastery was the politically relevant outcome of the Byzantine mission initially devised by Prince Rastislav to strengthen his early feudal state. It is not known where the Great Moravian archbishop resided (a papal document mentions him as the archbishop of Moravia, Moravia being the name of a town), but there are several references to bishops of Nitra. Big three-nave basilicas unearthed in Mikulčice, Uherské Hradiště, Bratislava, and Nitra were obviously ecclesiastical centers of the country, but their very construction may have predated the Byzantine mission. Nitra and Uherské Hradiště are also sites where monastic buildings have been excavated. A church built at Devín Castle is clearly inspired by Byzantine churches in Macedonia (from where Cyril and Methodius came) and rotundas, particularly popular among Great Moravian nobles, also have their direct predecessors in the Balkans.[6] Uherské HradiÅ¡tÄ› (-Czech, German: Ungarisch Hradisch) is a town in the southeastern Czech Republic on the Morava river in the Zlin Region, Moravia. ... In Mosta, Malta, the Rotunda of Santa Marija Assunta is covered by a saucer dome. ...

An example of the Glagolitic script created by Saint Cyril for the mission in Great Moravia
An example of the Glagolitic script created by Saint Cyril for the mission in Great Moravia

But yields of the mission of Cyril and Methodius extended beyond the religious and political sphere. The Old Church Slavonic became the fourth liturgical language of the Christian world, though its use in Great Moravia proper had gradually declined until it virtually vanished in the late Middle Ages. Its late form still remains the liturgical language of the Russian, Bulgarian, and Serbian Orthodox Church. Cyril also invented the Glagolitic alphabet, suitable for Slavic languages. He translated the Gospel and the first translation of the Bible into a Slavic language was later completed by his brother Methodius. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x509, 135 KB) The famous Baščanska ploča, oldest evidence of the glagolitic script. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x509, 135 KB) The famous Baščanska ploča, oldest evidence of the glagolitic script. ... Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian or Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church The MONTENEGRO Orthodox Church (crnogorski: Crnogorska Православна Црква / Crnogorska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the Church of Montenegro is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches, ranking sixth after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Russia. ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ...


Methodius wrote the first Slavic legal code, combining the local customary law with the advanced Byzantine law. Similarly, the Great Moravian criminal law code was not merely a translation from Latin, but it also punished a number of offenses originally tolerated by the pre-Christian Slavic moral standards yet prohibited by the Christianity (mostly related to sexual life). The canon law was simply adopted from the Byzantine sources. In law, custom, or customary law consists of established patterns of behaviour that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting. ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) also known as Codex Justinianus is a fundamental work in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for...


There are not many literary works that can be unambiguously identified as originally written in Great Moravia. One of them is Proglas, a cultivated poem in which Cyril defends the Slavic liturgy. Vita Cyrilli (attributed to Clement of Ohrid) and Vita Methodii (written probably by Methodius' successor Gorazd) are biographies with precious information about Great Moravia under Rastislav and Svatopluk I. Proglas (Old Church Slavonic Glagolitic ⰒⰓⰑⰃⰎⰀⰔⰟ, Cyrillic Прогласъ; meaning Foreword) is the foreword to the Old Church Slavonic translation of the four Gospels. ... Saint Clement of Ohrid Saint Clement of Ohrid (Bulgarian: , IPA: ) (ca. ...


The brothers also founded an academy, initially led by Methodius, which produced hundreds of Slavic clerics. A well-educated class was essential for administration of all early-feudal states and Great Moravia was no exception. Vita Methodii mentions bishop of Nitra as Svatopluk I’s chancellor and even Prince Koceľ of the Balaton Principality was said to master the Glagolitic script.[14] Location of the Great Moravian academy has not been identified, but the possible sites include Mikulčice (where some styli have been found in an ecclesiastical building), Devín Castle (with a building identified as a probable school), and Nitra (with its Episcopal basilica and monastery). When Methodius’ disciples were expelled from Great Moravia in 885, they disseminated their knowledge (including the Glagolitic script) to other Slavic countries, such as Bulgaria, Croatia, and Bohemia. They created the Cyrillic alphabet, which became the standard alphabet in the Slavic Orthodox countries, including Russia. The Great Moravian cultural heritage survived in Bulgarian seminaries, paving the way for evangelization of Eastern Europe. Statue of Koceľ Koceľ (also Kocel, Kocelj, Gozil, Chezil, Chezilo, Chezul, born ?, died 876) was second Prince of the Balaton Principality from 860/861 until 876. ... Map of the main part of the Balaton principality (parts of the Dudleb County, of the Ptuj County and the whole former Principality of Etgar are not shown on this map) The Balaton Principality (also called Pannonian or Transdanubian Principality, in Slovak: Blatenské kniežatstvo, in Bulgarian: Blatensko Knezevstvo, in... Modern stylus, used for touch-screen enabled devices such as the Nintendo DS and personal digital assistants Styli used in writing in the Fourteenth Century. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages—Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ...


Legacy

Destruction of the Great Moravian Empire was rather gradual. Since excavations of Great Moravian castles show continuity of their settlement and architectural style after the alleged disintegration of the Empire, local political structures must have remained untouched by the disaster. Another reason is that the originally nomad old Magyars lacked siege engines to conquer Great Moravian fortifications. Nevertheless, the core of Great Moravia was finally integrated into the newly established states of Bohemia and the Kingdom of Hungary. Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ...


Great Moravian centers (e.g. Bratislava, Nitra, Zemplín) also retained their functions afterwards. As they became the seats of early Hungarian administrative units, the administrative division of Great Moravia was probably just adopted by new rulers.[6][3] Social differentiation in Great Moravia reached the state of early feudalism, creating the social basis for development of later medieval states in the region.[15] A significant part of the local aristocracy remained more or less undisturbed by the fall of Great Moravia and their descendants became nobles in the newly formed Kingdom of Hungary.[16] Therefore, it is not surprising that many Slavic words related to politics, law, and agriculture were taken into the Hungarian language.[6][3] The most obvious example of political continuity is the Principality of Nitra, which was ruled autonomously by heirs of the Arpads dynasty – a practice similar to that of the Mojmírs dynasty in Great Moravia. Similarly, the Church organization survived invasion of the pagan Magyars at least to some degree. Pilgrim, Bishop of Passau, wrote to Pope Benedict VI in 974 about four Great Moravian bishops serving after the Magyars invaded Bavaria (i.e. after the alleged fall of the Empire in 907).[2] Continuity of the Church organization is also confirmed by a list of Moravian bishops from the 14th century.[2] Map of the counties in the Kingdom of Hungary around 1880 A comitatus (less frequently, a comitat, or, inaccurately, a county; for the various names, their origin and use see here) is the name of an administrative unit in the Kingdom of Hungary from the 10th century to 1918. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... Hungarian (magyar nyelv  ) is a Finno-Ugric language (more specifically an Ugric language) unrelated to the other languages of Central Europe. ... The Principality of Nitra or Nitrian Principality ( Slovak: Nitrianske kniežatstvo, Nitriansko, Nitrava) was a principality in what is today Slovakia and some adjacent territories in present-day Hungary in the Middle Ages. ... The Árpáds (Hungarian: Árpádok, Slovak: Arpádovci, Croatian: Arpadovići) were a dynasty ruling in historic Hungary from the late 9th century to 1301 (with some interruptions, e. ... Benedict VI, Pope (born in Rome, 972 - 974), was chosen with great ceremony and installed as pope under the protection of the Emperor Otto the Great. ...


Neither the demographic change was dramatic. As far as the graves can tell, there had been no influx of the Magyars into the core of former Great Moravia before 955. Afterwards, Magyar settlers appear in some regions of Southern Slovakia, but graves indicate a kind of cultural symbiosis (resulting in the common Belobrdo culture), not domination.[6] Due to cultural changes, archaeologists are not able to identify the ethnicity of graves after the half of the 11th century (though it is sometimes possible to determine the ethnicity of a whole village). This is also why integration of central, eastern, and northern Slovakia into the Hungarian Kingdom is difficult to be documented by archeology, and written sources have to be used. Events August 10 - Otto I the Great defeats Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld Edwy becomes King of England. ...


The Byzantine double-cross thought to have been brought by Cyril and Methodius has remained the symbol of Slovakia until today and the Constitution of Slovakia refers to Great Moravia in its preamble. Interest about that period rose as a result of the national revival in the 19th century. Great Moravian history has been regarded as a cultural root of several Slavic nations in Central Europe (especially the Slovaks, as it was the only significant Slavic state Slovakia had ever been a part of) and it was employed in vain attempts to create a single Czechoslovak identity in the 20th century. Coat of arms of Slovakia The coat of arms of Slovakia is composed of a silver (argent) double cross, elevated on the middle peak of a dark blue mountain consisting of three peaks. ... This article is about the current constitution of Slovakia. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Constantine Porphyrogenitus (1967). De Administrando Imperio; Greek text edited by Gy. Moravcsik ; English translation by R.J.H. Jenkins, new, rev. ed., Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies. 
  2. ^ a b c d Havlík, Lubomír E. (1992). Kronika o Velké Moravě. Brno: Iota. 
  3. ^ a b c Sedlák, Vincent (2005). "Onomastika a historiografia", in Karin Fábrová: Príspevky k slovenským dejinám. Prešov: Prešovská univerzita v Prešove. 
  4. ^ Veteška, Tomáš J. (1987). Veľkoslovenská ríša. Hamilton: MSA ZMS. 
  5. ^ Bartl, Július (1997). "Ďurica, M. S.: Dejiny Slovenska a Slovákov". Historický časopis 45 (1): 114-122. Retrieved on 2007-06-13. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Štefanovičová, Tatiana (1989). Osudy starých Slovanov. Bratislava: Osveta. 
  7. ^ (1950) Annales regni Francorum, inde ab a. 741. usque ad a. 829., qui dicuntur Annales laurissenses maiores et Einhardi. Post editionem G.H. Pertzii recognovit Fridericus Kurze. Hannover: Imprensis Bibliopolii Hahniani. 
  8. ^ a b (1969) "Libellus de conversione Bagoariorum et Carantanorum (i.e. Conversio)", in Bartoňková Dagmar, et al.: Magnae Moraviae fontes historici III. Praha: Statni pedagogicke nakl.. 
  9. ^ a b c (1978) Annales Fuldenses, sive, Annales regni Francorum orientalis ab Einhardo, Ruodolfo, Meginhardo Fuldensibus, Seligenstadi, Fuldae, Mogontiaci conscripti cum continuationibus Ratisbonensi et Altahensibus / post editionem G.H. Pertzii recognovit Friderious Kurze ; Accedunt Annales Fuldenses antiquissimi. Hannover: Hahn. 
  10. ^ (1969) "Descriptio civitatum et regionum ad septentrionalem plagam Danubii", in Bartoňková Dagmar, et al.: Magnae Moraviae fontes historici III. Praha: Statni pedagogicke nakl.. 
  11. ^ Špiesz, Anton (2001). Bratislava v stredoveku. Bratislava: Perfekt. 
  12. ^ a b Poulík, Josef (1975). Mikulčice: Sídlo a pevnost knížat velkomoravských. Praha: Academia. 
  13. ^ Tibenský, Ján et al. (1971). Slovensko: Dejiny. Bratislava: Obzor. 
  14. ^ a b (1986) "Vita Methodii: Translation with Commentary". Slavic Studies 33: 1-16. Retrieved on 2007-06-13. 
  15. ^ Kučera, Matúš (1974). Slovensko po páde Veľkej Moravy. Bratislava: Veda. 
  16. ^ Lukačka, Ján (2002). Formovanie vyššej šľachty na západnom Slovensku. Bratislava: Mistrál. 

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ...

Sources

Primary sources

Primary documents can be found in the following volumes: The Royal Frankish Annals (Latin: Annales Regni Francorum) are annals written for the early Frankish kings, covering the years 741 to 829. ... Annals are a form of historical writing which record events year by year. ... The Annales Bertiniani or Annals of St. ... The Annales Fuldenses or Annals of Fulda is a medieval chronicle compiled at the Abbey of Fulda. ... The Bavarian Geographer (Latin: Geographus Bavarus) is a conventional name given by Jan Potocki in 1796[1] to the author of an anonymous medieval document Descriptio civitatum et regionum ad septentrionalem plagam Danubii (Description of Cities and Lands North of the Danube). The short document was discovered in 1772 in... Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... The Annales Iuvavenses or Annals of Salzburg were a series of annals written in the 9th and 10th centuries from Salzburg. ...   is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg. ... De Administrando Imperio is the commonly used title of a scholarly work from ca. ... Constantine and his mother Zoë. Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus, the Purple-born (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος, Kōnstantinos VII PorphyrogennÄ“tos), (Constantinople, September 905 – November 9, 959 in Constantinople) was the son of the Byzantine emperor Leo VI and his fourth wife Zoe Karbonopsina. ...

  • Havlík, Lubomír E. (1966-1977). Magnae Moraviae Fontes Historici I.-V., Brno: Masarykova univerzita.
  • Marsina, Richard (1971). Codex diplomaticus et epistolaris Slovaciae I., Bratislava: Veda.
  • Ratkoš, Peter (1964). Pramene k dejinám Veľkej Moravy, Bratislava: Vydavateľstvo Slovenskej akadémie vied.

Secondary sources

  • Dekan, Jan (1981). Moravia Magna: The Great Moravian Empire, Its Art and Time, Minneapolis: Control Data Arts. ISBN 0-89893-084-7
  • Havlík, Lubomír E. (1992). Kronika o Velké Moravě, Brno: Iota.
  • Kučera, Matúš (1974). Slovensko po páde Veľkej Moravy, Bratislava: Veda.
  • Lukačka, Ján (2002). Formovanie vyššej šľachty na západnom Slovensku, Bratislava: Mistrál.
  • Poulík, Josef (1975). Mikulčice: Sídlo a pevnost knížat velkomoravských, Praha.
  • Štefanovičová, Tatiana (1989). Osudy starých Slovanov, Bratislava: Osveta.
  • Wieczorek, Alfried and Hans-Martin Hinz (Hrsg.) (2000). Europas Mitte um 1000, Stuttgart. ISBN 3-8062-1545-6 or ISBN 3-8062-1544-8

External links

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  • Articles about Great Moravia and text of many primary sources (Czech)
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Station Information - Great Moravia (680 words)
A kind of predecessor of Great Moravia was the Empire of Samo in around 623-658 in Moravia, Slovakia and Lower Austria (probably also Bohemia, Serbia at the Elbe, and temporarily in Carinthia), which probably has not been a true state, but only a tribal union.
The western part of Great Moravia's core (=present-day Moravia) was finally conquered by Bohemia in early 11th century and its population was czechicized in the 19th century.
As for the history of Bohemia - annexed by Great Moravia 888/890-895—the important year is 895, when the Bohemians broke away from the empire and became Frankish vassals (vassals of Arnulf of Carinthia) and gradually an independent Bohemia, ruled by descendants of Premysl, began to emerge.
Moravia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (863 words)
Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava, German: Mähren, Polish: Morawy, Hungarian: Morvaország) is an historical region in the east of the Czech Republic.
In the north, Moravia borders Poland and Czech Silesia; in the east, Slovakia; in the south, Lower Austria; and in the west, Bohemia.
Great Moravia went on to encompass neighbouring Bohemia, present-day Hungary, Lusatia, Silesia and the Vistula Basin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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