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Encyclopedia > Great Lakes
The Great Lakes from space
The Great Lakes from space

The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. They are the largest group of fresh water lakes on Earth. The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence system is the largest fresh-water system in the world. They are sometimes referred to as inland seas. Download high resolution version (900x546, 146 KB) This image is not licensed under the GFDL. It is under a non-commercial-use only licence. ... Download high resolution version (900x546, 146 KB) This image is not licensed under the GFDL. It is under a non-commercial-use only licence. ... A man-made lake in Keukenhof, Netherlands A lake (from Latin lacus) is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Canada and the United States of America share the longest common border among any two countries that is not militarized or actively patrolled. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... TheSaint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... An inland sea is a shallow sea that covers central areas of continents during high stands of sea level that result in marine transgressions. ...

Contents

Lakes



The Great Lakes are:

  • Lake Superior (the largest by volume, area, and depth; larger than Scotland or South Carolina)
  • Lake Michigan (the second-largest by volume and third-largest by area; the only one entirely in the U.S.)
  • Lake Huron (the third-largest by volume; the second largest in area)
  • Lake Erie (the smallest by volume and most shallow of all the great lakes)
  • Lake Ontario (the second-smallest in volume and smallest in area, much lower elevation than the rest)
Map of the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Watershed
Map of the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Watershed

Lakes Michigan and Huron, being hydrologically intertwined, are sometimes considered to be one entity: Lake Michigan-Huron. Considered together, Michigan-Huron would be larger in surface area than Lake Superior, but smaller in total water volume. Lake Superior, bounded by Ontario, Canada and Minnesota, USA, to the north and Wisconsin and Michigan, USA, to the south, is the largest of North Americas Great Lakes. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English (de facto)1; Gaelic[1]2 and Scots3 (recognised minority... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35°12N... Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one in the group located entirely within the United States. ... Ipperwash Beach, Lake Huron. ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the eleventh largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, it is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... Lake Ontario, bounded on the north by the Canadian province of Ontario and on the south by Ontarios Niagara Peninsula and by New York State, USA, is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. ... Image File history File links Grlakes_lawrence_map. ... Image File history File links Grlakes_lawrence_map. ... The Great Lakes from space; the two-lobed Lake Michigan-Huron lies in the center Lake Michigan-Huron is a designation sometimes given to the body of water (part of the North American Great Lakes) customarily referred to as two separate lakes: Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. ...


Lake St. Clair, a much smaller lake, is part of the Great Lakes system between Lake Huron and Lake Erie, but is not considered one of the "Great Lakes." Lake Nipigon is another large lake that is part of the same hydrological system, but not part of the Great Lakes proper. Other lakes of notable mention that are not considered part of the "Great Lakes", but are part of their hydrological system are Lake Nipissing, Lake Simcoe, Lake Winnebago, Oneida Lake, the Finger Lakes of Upstate New York, and Lake Champlain. The system also includes the rivers that connect the lakes: St. Marys River between Lake Superior and Lake Huron, the St. Clair River between Lake Huron and Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River between Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie, and the Niagara River and Niagara Falls, between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. (Lake Michigan is connected to Lake Huron through the Straits of Mackinac.) Large islands and a peninsula divide Lake Huron into the lake proper and Georgian Bay. Public beach on Lake St. ... Lake Nipigon (French : lac Nipigon) is the largest lake entirely within the boundaries of the Canadian province of Ontario and is sometimes described as the sixth Great Lake. ... Ominous storm approaching the south of Lake Nipissing Lake Nipissing (French: lac Nipissing) is a lake in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Lake Simcoe is a lake in southern Ontario, Canada, the fourth largest lake in the province. ... Lake Winnebago from space, July 1996. ... Oneida Lake is a large lake in central New York, northeast of Syracuse. ... The Finger Lakes, a major tourist destination in the west-central section of Upstate New York, are actually eleven in number, but only seven of the largest are commonly identified as such. ... The areas highlighted in YELLOW and GREEN are those which are considered to be a bona fide part of Upstate New York from the perspective of New York City. ... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ... The St. ... Landsat satellite photo, showing Lake Saint Clair, as well as St. ... Landsat satellite photo, showing Lake Saint Clair, as well as St. ... Satellite image of the Niagara River. ... Niagara Falls (French: ) is a set of massive waterfalls located on the Niagara River, straddling the international border separating the Canadian province of Ontario and the U.S. state of New York. ... The Straits of Mackinac, spanned by the Mackinac Bridge, seen from the southern shore View of the Straits from Mackinac Island The Straits of Mackinac (pronounced , like MACK-in-aw, note the silent c) is the strip of water that connects two of the Great Lakes, Lake Michigan and Lake... Map of Southern Ontario showing Bruce Peninsula in red. ... Georgian Bay (French: baie Georgienne) is a large bay of Lake Huron, located in Ontario, Canada. ...


The lakes are bounded by Ontario (all of the lakes except Michigan), Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan (all but Lake Ontario), Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. Four of the five lakes straddle the U.S.-Canada border; the fifth, Lake Michigan, is entirely within the United States. The Saint Lawrence River, which marks the same international border for a portion of its course, is a primary outlet of these interconnected lakes, and flows through Quebec and past the Gaspé Peninsula to the northern Atlantic Ocean. Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42°30N to 47°3N  - Longitude 86°49W to 92°54W Population  Ranked... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... NY redirects here. ... TheSaint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... NASA satellite image of the Gaspé Peninsula. ...

The Great Lakes are clearly visible in this satellite image of North America
The Great Lakes are clearly visible in this satellite image of North America

Sprinkled throughout the lakes are the approximately 35,000 Great Lakes islands, including Manitoulin Island in Lake Huron, the largest island in any inland body of water (also home to the world's largest lake within a lake: Lake Manitou), and Isle Royale in Lake Superior, the largest island in the largest lake (each island large enough to itself contain multiple lakes). Download high resolution version (1624x1748, 474 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1624x1748, 474 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Great Lakes islands consist of 35,000 islands created by uneven glacial activity in the Great Lakes basin. ... Manitoulin Island is the worlds largest freshwater lake island, with an area of 2,766 square kilometres (1068 square miles). ... Lake Manitou is an islandlake in Canada - it is the largest lake on Manitoulin Island, which itself is surrounded by Lake Huron. ... Isle Royale is an island of the Great Lakes, located in the northwest of Lake Superior. ...


Today, 20 percent of the world’s fresh surface water is contained in the five great lakes: 5,472 cubic miles (22,812 km³), or 6 quadrillion U.S. gallons (22.81 quadrillion L) in all. It is enough water to cover the contiguous 48 states to a uniform depth of 9.5 feet (2.9 m). The combined surface area of the lakes is 94,250 square miles (244,100 km²) — larger than the states of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont and New Hampshire combined or the provinces of Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador combined. Area is the measure of how much exposed area any two dimensional object has. ... NY redirects here. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Largest metro area Hartford Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[2] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Official language(s) English Capital Providence Largest city Providence Area  Ranked 50th  - Total 1,214* [1] sq mi (3,144* km²)  - Width 37 miles (60 km)  - Length 48 miles (77 km)  - % water 32. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) None Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  Ranked 45th  - Total 9,620 sq mi (24,923 km²)  - Width 80 miles (130 km)  - Length 160 miles (260 km)  - % water 3. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,359 sq mi (24,239 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 3. ... Motto: i lost P.E.I. again mom:well, look under the couch Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Barbara Oliver Hagerman - Premier Pat Binns (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 4 - Senate seats 4 Confederation July 1, 1873 (7th) Area Ranked 13th... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ...


The Great Lakes coast measures 10,900 miles (17,549 km) (including islands and connecting channels), nearly as long as the total US ocean coastline (19,928 km, or 12,383 mi), including Alaska.


The Saint Lawrence Seaway and Great Lakes Waterway opened the Great Lakes to ocean-going vessels. However the move to wider ocean-going container ships — which do not fit through the locks on these routes — has limited shipping on the lakes. Despite their vast size, large sections of the Great Lakes freeze over in winter, and most shipping stops during that season. Some icebreakers operate on the lakes. The Eisenhower Locks in Massena, NY. The St. ... The Great Lakes Waterway is a system of channels and canals that makes all of the Great Lakes accessible to oceangoing vessels. ... Canal locks in England. ... Icebreaker Polarstern Track of research vessel Polarstern while breaking ice in the Southern Ocean An icebreaker is a special purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters. ...


The lakes have an effect on weather in the region, known as lake effect. In winter, the moisture picked up by the prevailing winds from the west can produce very heavy snowfall, especially along lakeshores to the east such as Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Ontario, and New York. It is not uncommon for heavy snow to occur during completely clear skies because of this phenomenon. The lakes also moderate seasonal temperatures somewhat, by absorbing heat and cooling the air in summer, then slowly radiating that heat in autumn. This temperature buffering produces areas known as "fruit belts", where fruit typically grown farther south can be produced in commercial quantities. The eastern shore of Lake Michigan and the southern shore of Lake Erie are home to many wineries as a result of this, as is the Niagara Peninsula between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. A similar phenomenon occurs in the Finger Lakes region of New York as well as Prince Edward county on the northeast shore of Lake Ontario. Related to lake effect, is the occurrence of fog over medium-sized areas, particularly along the shorelines of the lakes. This is most noticeable along Lake Superior's shores, due to its maritime climate. Lake-effect precipitation coming off the Great Lakes, as seen from NEXRAD. Lake effect snow, which can be a type of snowsquall, is produced in the winter when cold, artic dry winds move across long expanses of warmer lake water, picking up water vapor which freezes and is deposited on... Map of Southern Ontario showing Niagara Peninsula in red The Niagara Peninsula is the portion of Ontario, Canada lying on the south shore of Lake Ontario. ... The Finger Lakes, a major tourist destination in the west-central section of Upstate New York, are actually eleven in number, but only seven of the largest are commonly identified as such. ... Golden Gate Bridge in Fog Evening fog obscures Londons Tower Bridge from passers by. ... An oceanic climate (also called marine west coast climate and maritime climate) is the climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of all the worlds continents, and in southeastern Australia; similar climates are also found at high elevations within the tropics. ...


The Great Lakes have also been observed to help strengthen storms, such as Hurricane Hazel in 1954, and a frontal system in 2007 that spawned a few tornadoes in Michigan and Ontario, picking up the warmth and energy from the lakes to fuel them. Also observed in 1996, was a rare subtropical cyclone forming in Lake Huron, dubbed the 1996 Lake Huron cyclone. Lowest pressure ≤937 mbar (hPa)[1] Damage $381+ million (1954 USD)[2] $3–5 billion (2005 USD) Fatalities 600 – 1,200 direct Areas affected Grenada, Haiti, Bahamas, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York, Toronto and southern and eastern Ontario Part of the 1954 Atlantic hurricane... This page documents the tornadoes and tornado outbreaks of 2007, primarily (but not entirely) in the United States. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... Image:Http://upload. ... Ipperwash Beach, Lake Huron. ... The 1996 Lake Huron cyclone (commonly known as Hurricane Huron) was a strong cyclonic storm system that developed over Lake Huron in September 1996. ...

Relative elevations, average depths, maximum depths, and volumes of the Great Lakes.

Notes: The area of each rectangle is proportionate to the volume of each lake. All measurements at Low Water Datum.
Source: EPA's Great Lakes Atlas: Factsheet #1.

EPA redirects here. ...

Geological pre-history

The Great Lakes were formed at the end of the last ice age about 10,000 years ago, when the Laurentide ice sheet receded. When this happened, the glaciers left behind a large amount of meltwater (see Lake Agassiz) which filled up the basins that the glaciers had carved, thus creating the Great Lakes as we know them today. Because of the uneven nature of glacier erosion, some higher hills became Great Lakes islands. The Niagara Escarpment follows the contour of the Great Lakes between New York and Wisconsin – Herbert Simon called this escarpment the spinal cord of my native land. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Laurentide ice sheet was a massive sheet of ice that covered hundreds of thousands of square miles, including most of Canada and a large portion of the northern United States, between ~ 90,000 and ~ 18,000 years before the present day. ... A map of the extent of Lake Agassiz Lake Agassiz was an immense lake—bigger than all of the present-day Great Lakes combined—in the center of North America, which was fed by glacial runoff at the end of the last ice age. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. For erosion as an operation of Mathematical morphology, see Erosion (morphology) Erosion is displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of ocean currents, wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement... The Great Lakes islands consist of 35,000 islands created by uneven glacial activity in the Great Lakes basin. ... Rattlesnake Point near Milton, Ontario. ... Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American political scientist whose research ranged across the fields of cognitive psychology, computer science, public administration, economics, management, and philosophy of science and a professor, most notably, at Carnegie Mellon University. ...


Economy

The lakes are extensively used for transport, though cargo traffic has decreased considerably in recent years. The Great Lakes Waterway makes each of the lakes accessible. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Great Lakes Waterway is a system of channels and canals that makes all of the Great Lakes accessible to oceangoing vessels. ...


During settlement, the Great Lakes and its rivers were the only practical means of moving people and freight. Anything and everything floated on the lakes. Some ended up on the bottom because of storms, fires, collisions and underwater hazards. (See Edmund Fitzgerald and Le Griffon.) Barges from middle North America were able to reach the Atlantic Ocean from the Great Lakes when the Erie Canal opened in 1825. By 1848, with the opening of the Illinois and Michigan Canal at Chicago, direct access to the Mississippi River was possible from the lakes. With these two canals an all-inland water route was provided between New York City and New Orleans. SS Edmund Fitzgerald (nicknamed The Fitz or The Big Fitz) was a lake freighter that sank suddenly during a gale storm on Lake Superior on November 10, 1975. ... Built by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, Le Griffon is considered to have been the first actual ship on the Upper Great Lakes. ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Erie Canal (currently part of the New York State Canal System) is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The location and course of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. ... Nickname: Motto: “Urbs in Horto” (Latin: “City in a Garden”), “I Will” Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country United States State Illinois Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ...


The main business of many of the passenger lines in the 1800s was transporting immigrants. Many of the larger cities owe their existence to their position on the lakes as a freight destination as well as for being a magnet for immigrants. After railroads and surface roads developed the freight and passenger businesses dwindled and, excepting ferries and a few foreign cruise ships, now has vanished. Map of the world with countries colored according to their immigrant population as a percentage of total population: Immigration is the movement of people from one nation-state to another. ...


Yet, the immigration routes still have an effect today. Immigrants often formed their own communities and some areas have a pronounced ethnicity, such as Dutch, German, Polish, Finnish, and many others. Since many immigrants settled for a time in New England before moving westward, many areas on the U.S. side of the Great Lakes also have a New England feel, especially in home styles and accent.


Since general freight these days is transported by railroads and trucks, domestic ships mostly move bulk cargoes, such as iron ore and its derivatives, coal and limestone for the steel industry. The domestic bulk freight developed because of the nearby mines. It was more economical to transport the ingredients for steel to centralized plants rather than try to make steel on the spot. Ingredients for steel, however, are not the only bulk shipments made. Grain exports are also a major shipping commodity on the lakes. This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... -1... The steel cable of a colliery winding tower. ...


In the 19th and early 20th centuries, iron and other ores such as copper were shipped south on (downbound ships) and supplies, food staples, and coal were shipped north (upbound). Because of the location of the coal fields in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, and the general northeast track of the Appalachian Mountains, railroads naturally developed shipping routes that went due north to ports such as Erie, Pennsylvania and Ashtabula, Ohio. Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Appalachians in North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains (French: les Appalaches) are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... Nickname: Location in Erie County Location in the state of Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country  United States State  Pennsylvania County Erie Founded 1795 Incorporated 1851-04-14 Government  - Mayor Joseph Sinnott Area  - City  28. ... Aerial view of the port at Ashtabula Railyard in the port of Ashtabula Ashtabula is a city in Ashtabula County, Ohio, United States, and the center of the Ashtabula Micropolitan Statistical Area (as defined by the United States Census Bureau in 2003). ...


Because the lake maritime community largely developed independently, it has its own language. Ships, no matter the size, are referred to as boats. When the sailing ships gave way to steamships, they were called steamboats—the same term used on the Mississippi. The ships also have a distinctive design. Ships that primarily trade on the lakes are known as lakers. Foreign boats are known as salties. The ill-fated SS Edmund Fitzgerald, built in the classic dual superstructure style with her wheelhouse up near the bow. ...


One of the more common sights on the lakes is the 1,000 by 105-foot (305 by 32-m), 78,850 U.S. long tons (80,117 metric tonnes) self-unloader. This is a laker with a huge conveyor belt system that can unload itself by swinging a crane over the side.[1] Today, the Great Lakes fleet is much smaller in numbers than it once was because of the increased use of overland freight and the use of larger ships replacing the need for many smaller ships. A long ton is the name used in the US for the unit called the ton in the avoirdupois or Imperial system of measurements, as used (alongside the metric system) in the United Kingdom and to some extent in other Commonwealth countries. ... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ...


Modern economy

The Great Lakes are used as a major mode of transport for bulk goods. The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, was built at Cayuga Creek, near the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first sailing ship to travel the upper Great Lakes on August 7, 1679. Mode of transport is a general term for the different kinds of transportation of people or cargo: Car Truck Ship Aircraft ... Built by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, Le Griffon is considered to have been the first actual ship on the Upper Great Lakes. ... Engraving of La Salle René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle (November 22, 1643 – March 19, 1687) was a French cleric and explorer. ... Satellite image of the Niagara River. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 24 - King Charles II of England disbands Parliament August 7 - The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes. ...


In 2002, 162 million net tons of dry bulk cargo were moved on the Lakes. This was, in order of volume: iron ore, coal, stone, grain, salt, cement, and potash. The iron ore and much of the stone and coal are used in the steel industry. There is also some shipping of liquid and containerized cargo but most container ships cannot pass the locks on the Saint Lawrence Seaway because they are too wide. The total amount of shipping on the lakes has been on a downward trend for several years. Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Wolfe Islander III, Kingston, Ontario

Recreational boating and tourism are major industries on the Great Lakes. A few small cruise ships operate on the Great Lakes including a couple of sailing ships. Sport fishing, commercial fishing, and Native American fishing represent a US$4 billion a year industry with salmon, whitefish, smelt, lake trout, and walleye being major catches. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For either of the songs named Sailing, see Sailing (song). ... Illustration of a male Coho Salmon The Chinook or King Salmon is the largest salmon in North America and can grow to 1. ... Species See text. ... Genera Allosmerus Hypomesus Mallotus Osmerus Spirinchus Thaleichthys Smelts are a family, Osmeridae, of small anadromous fish. ... Binomial name Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum, 1792) Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) is a freshwater char living mainly in lakes in northern North America. ... Binomial name (Mitchill, 1818) Subspecies S. v. ...


The Great Lakes are used to supply drinking water to tens of millions of people in bordering areas. This valuable resource is collectively administered by the state and provincial governments adjacent to the lakes.


Passenger traffic

From 1844 through 1857, palace steamers carried passengers and cargo around the Great Lakes. Several ferries currently operate on the Great Lakes to carry passengers to various islands, including Isle Royale, Pelee Island, Mackinac Island, Beaver Island, both Bois Blanc Islands, Kelleys Island, South Bass Island, North Manitou Island, South Manitou Island, Harsens Island, Manitoulin Island, and the Toronto Islands. As of 2007, two car ferry services cross the Great Lakes, both on Lake Michigan: a steamer from Ludington, Michigan to Manitowoc, Wisconsin and a high speed catamaran from Milwaukee to Muskegon, Michigan. An international ferry across Lake Ontario from Rochester, New York to Toronto ran during 2004 and 2005, but is no longer in operation. Palace steamers were luxurious steamships that carried passengers and cargo around the North American Great Lakes from 1844 through 1857. ... Isle Royale is an island of the Great Lakes, located in the northwest of Lake Superior. ... Pelee Island. ... Mackinac Island (pronounced or MACK-in-aw) is an island covering 3. ... A view of Iron Ore Bay on the southern end of Beaver Island. ... There are two islands known as Bois Blanc in North America: One is coterminus with Bois Blanc Township, Mackinac County in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Kelleys Island is both a village in Erie County, Ohio and the island which it fully occupies in Lake Erie. ... South Bass Island from the air, looking west, over Put-in-Bay. ... North Manitou Island is located in Lake Michigan, approximately 12 miles west of Leland, Michigan. ... South Manitou Island is located in Lake Michigan, approximately 21 miles west of Leland, Michigan. ... 69. ... Manitoulin Island is the worlds largest freshwater lake island, with an area of 2,766 square kilometres (1068 square miles). ... Toronto Islands as seen from CN Tower. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Clock Tower Park. ... Nickname: The Port City, Manty Location of Manitowoc in Manitowoc County, Wisconsin County Manitowoc Government  - Mayor Kevin M. Crawford(D) Area  - City 44. ... This article is about Milwaukee in Wisconsin. ... The entrance to Muskegon Lake from Lake Michigan at Muskegon, Michigan Muskegon is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Spirit of Ontario I is a high-speed catamaran passenger-vehicle ferry currently operating an 82 nautical mile (96 km) service on Lake Ontario linking the ports of Rochester, New York and Toronto, Ontario. ... Nickname: Motto: Rochester: Made for Living Location of Rochester in New York State Country United States State New York County Monroe Government  - Mayor Robert Duffy (D) Area  - City  37. ...


Shipwrecks

Travel on the Lakes has not been without risks. There are parts where no land is visible because of the immense size of the Lakes: thus they are sometimes referred to as inland seas.


Storms and reefs are a common threat, and many thousands of ships have sunk in these waters. It is estimated that between 6,000 and 10,000 ships have sunk or been stranded since the early 1800s, many with partial or total loss of crew. This area is prone to sudden and severe storms, particularly in the autumn from late October until early December. The Great Lakes Storm of 1913 became the worst Great Lakes storm on record: at least 12 ships sank, and 31 more were stranded on rocks and beaches. At least 248 sailors lost their lives over that weekend. The SS Edmund Fitzgerald, which sank November 10, 1975, was famously the last major freighter lost on the lakes. She sank just over 30 miles offshore from Whitefish Point in Lake Superior. For many years in the late 1700s and early 1800s, wars were fought over the control of the Lakes and many warships were built for the inland seas, ranging from small and swift sloops-of-war to three-deckers capable of standing in any line of battle. USS Freedom (LCS-1) is the newest warship to be built on the Great Lakes. The Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817 limits the number of armed vessels permitted on the Great Lakes. A shelf cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, Netherlands A storm is any disturbed state of an astronomical bodys atmosphere, especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather. ... A reef surrounding an islet. ... Italian Full rigged ship Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large watercraft capable of offshore navigation. ... The Great Lakes Storm of 1913, historically referred to as the Big Blow, the Freshwater Fury, or the White Hurricane, was a blizzard with hurricane-force winds that devastated the Great Lakes basin in the United States Midwest and the Canadian province of Ontario from November 7, 1913, to November... SS Edmund Fitzgerald (nicknamed The Fitz or The Big Fitz) was a lake freighter that sank suddenly during a gale storm on Lake Superior on November 10, 1975. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Theres also the village of Whitefish Bay, Wisconsin on Lake Michigan. ... Lake Superior, bounded by Ontario, Canada and Minnesota, USA, to the north and Wisconsin and Michigan, USA, to the south, is the largest of North Americas Great Lakes. ... British and Danish ships in line of battle at the Battle of Copenhagen (1801). ... USS Freedom (LCS-1), the lead ship of the Freedom class of littoral combat ships (LCS), is the third vessel of the United States Navy to be so named:[1] USS Freedom (LCS-1) The construction contract was awarded to Lockheed Martins LCS team (Lockheed Martin, Gibbs & Cox, Marinette... The Rush-Bagot Treaty was a treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom enacted in 1817. ...


The greatest concentration of these wrecks lies near Thunder Bay (Michigan), beneath Lake Huron, near the point where eastbound and westbound shipping lanes converge. Today there is a U.S. NOAA Marine Archeology Research Station located in the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Here divers can explore more than 200 shipwrecks that form one of the most concentrated and best preserved maritime archaeology sites in the world. Thunder Bay is a bay in the U.S. state of Michigan on Lake Huron. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... The Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve is a U.S. National Marine Sanctuary on the Thunder Bay of Lake Huron within the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Maritime archaeology (also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline that studies human interaction with the sea, lakes and rivers through the study of vessels, shore side facilities, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes. ...


Invasive species

The Great Lakes have suffered from the introduction of many non-native species. Since the 1800s, more than 160 invasive species have invaded the Great Lakes ecosystem from around the world, causing severe economic and ecological impacts. Other terms used to describe invasive species include nonindigenous, aquatic nuisance species (ANS), and aquatic pests. Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ...


"Over 160 invasive species threaten the ecological balance of the Lakes. They deprive fish of food, cause blooms of toxic algae, and foul boats, spawning areas and drinking water intakes. On average one new invasive enters the Great Lakes every eight months." [2]


Zebra mussel infestations in the Great Lakes and inland waters illustrate the severity of the problems stemming from invasive species introduction and spread. This nonindigenous mollusk is an efficient filter feeder that competes with native mussels and impacts fish populations by reducing food and available spawning habitat. The utility and manufacturing industries around the region, depending on Great Lakes water for production, are expending substantial time and money cleaning intake and discharge pipes clogged by the zebra mussel. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service estimates the economic impact to these industries to be $5 billion dollars over the next decade. [3] Binomial name Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771 The Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is a bivalve mussel native to freshwater lakes of southeast Russia. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia The mollusks or molluscs are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... Mussels A mussel is a bivalve shellfish that can be found in lakes, rivers, creeks, intertidal areas, and throughout the ocean. ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ...


Approximately 10 percent of nonindigenous aquatic species introduced into the Great Lakes have had significant impacts, both economic and ecological. The remaining 90 percent have potentially harmful impacts but are insufficiently researched and understood. Besides the zebra mussel, several other species have been particularly harmful. The invasion of the sea lamprey, a parasite that attaches to large fishes with a sucker mouth armed with teeth that consume flesh and fluid from its prey, has resulted in substantial economic losses to recreational and commercial fisheries. Protection of the Great Lakes fishery (both native and nonindigenous species) from sea lamprey predation has required annual expenditures of millions of dollars to finance chemical control programs. Subfamilies Geotriinae Mordaciinae Petromyzontinae A lamprey is a type of fish with a toothed, funnel-like, jawless sucking mouth, with which most species bore into the flesh of other fishes to suck their blood. ...


Alewife, introduced through the canal systems built in the Great Lakes, littered beaches each spring and altered food webs, causing increased water turbidity. These impacts subsided with the intentional introduction of salmonids that were stocked as predators to keep alewife populations under control. The ruffe, a small percid fish, became the most abundant fish species in Lake Superior's St. Louis River within five years of its detection in 1986. Its range, which has expanded to Lake Huron, poses a significant threat to the lower lake fishery. Five years after first being observed in the St. Clair River, the round goby can now be found in all of the Great Lakes. The goby is considered undesirable for several reasons: It preys upon bottom-feeding fishes, overruns optimal habitat, spawns multiple times a season, and can survive poor water quality conditions. [4] Binomial name Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson, 1811) This article is about the fish. ... Binomial name Gymnocephalus cernuus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Gymnocephalus cernua The Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) is a freshwater fish found in ur moms poo. ... Genera Ammocrypta Crystallaria Etheostoma Gymnocephalus Perca Percarina Percina Romanichthys Sander Zingel See text for species. ... The Saint Louis River is a river in Minnesota that flows into Lake Superior. ... Landsat satellite photo, showing Lake Saint Clair, as well as St. ... Binomial name Neogobius melanostromus Pallas, 1814 The Round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) is a freshwater bottom-dwelling fish native to central Eurasia including the Black Sea and Caspian Sea. ...


An electric fence has been set up across the mouth of the Great Lakes across the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal in order to keep several invasive species of Asian carp out of the area. Having voracious appetites, these fish feed upon native fish species to grow to 90 pounds and nearly four feet long. [5] The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal is the only shipping link between the Great Lakes (specifically Lake Michigan by the Chicago River) with the Mississippi River system, by way of the Illinois and Des Plaines rivers. ... There are several species of fish known as Asian carp. ...


Political issues

Great Lakes water use and diversions

The International Joint Commission was established in 1909 to help prevent and resolve disputes relating to the use and quality of boundary waters, and to advise Canada and the United States on questions related to water resources. Concerns over diversion of Lake water are of concern to both Americans and Canadians. Some water is diverted through the Chicago River to operate the Illinois Waterway but the flow is limited by treaty. Possible schemes for bottled water plants and diversion to dry regions of the continent raise concerns. Under the U.S. "Water Resources Development Act"[6], diversion of water from the Great Lakes basin requires the approval of all eight Great Lakes governors, which rarely occurs. International treaties regulate large diversions. In 1998, the Canadian company Nova Group won approval from the Province of Ontario to withdraw 158,000,000 US gallons (600,000 m³) of Lake Superior water annually to ship by tanker to Asian countries. Public outcry forced the company to abandon the plan before it began. Since that time, the eight Great Lakes Governors and the Premiers of Ontario and Quebec have negotiated the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Sustainable Water Resources Agreement [7] and the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact [8] that would prevent most future diversion proposals and all long-distance ones. The agreements also strengthen protection against abusive water withdrawal practices within the Great Lakes basin. On December 13, 2005, The Governors and Premiers signed these two agreements: the first is between all ten jurisdictions. It is somewhat more detailed and protective, but cannot be enforced in court because enforcement arrangements can be made only between the federal governments. The second is just between the U.S. states, which, if approved by all eight state legislatures which border the Great Lakes and the U.S. Congress, could be enforced in U.S. federal court. The International Joint Commission is an independent binational organization established by the United States and Canada under the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909. ... The Chicago River is 156 miles (251 km) long[1], and flows through downtown Chicago. ... The Illinois waterway system is consisted of 336 miles of water. ... The Nova Group is the largest of the Big Four eikaiwa (or private English teaching companies) in Japan. ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ...


Coast Guard live fire exercises on the Great Lakes

In 2006 the United States Coast Guard had proposed a plan to designate 34 areas in U.S. portions of the Great Lakes including 14 in Lake Michigan, at least five miles offshore as permanent safety zones for live fire machine gun practice. The plan was published a notice in August, 2006 in the Federal Register. The USCG reserved the right to hold target practice whenever the weather allowed with a two hour notice. These firing ranges would be open to the public when not in use.[9] In response to requests from the public, the Coast Guard held a series of public meetings in nine U.S. cities to solicit comment. During these meetings many people voiced concerns about the plan and its impact on the environment.[10] USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States armed forces and is involved in maritime law enforcement, mariner assistance, search and rescue, and national defense. ... The Federal Register contains most routine publications and public notices of United States government agencies. ...


A preliminary health risk assessment stated that the “proposed training will result in no elevated risks for a freshwater system such as the Great Lakes… using ‘realistic worst case’ assumptions, and further investigation is not recommended. If typical rather than worst case assumptions were used the predicted risk would be even less.” This assessment is based on lead levels after 5 years which are only 1/3 of those allowed by the US EPA. After 15 years, one could infer, that lead levels could meet or exceed EPA safe levels for lead. [11] The Coast Guard established an information page about their proposal.[12]


On December 18, 2006 the Coast Guard announced its decision to withdraw the entire proposal. Officials said they will look into alternative ammunition, modifying the proposed zones, and have more public dialogue before proposing a new plan. [13]

Restoration

In the U.S. Congress, the Great Lakes Collaboration Implementation Act [14] puts into practice priority recommendations of a $20 billion Great Lakes clean-up plan released in December as part of the Great Lakes Regional Collaboration [15], a planning process established by President Bush in 2004. A bipartisan group of U.S. legislators introduced the bill, including U.S. Sens. Mike DeWine (R-Ohio) and Carl Levin (D-Michigan) and Reps. Vern Ehlers (R-Grand Rapids) and Rahm Emanuel (D-Chicago). The Great Lakes Collaboration Implementation Act would: Richard Michael Mike DeWine (born January 5, 1947) is an American politician from Ohio. ... Carl Milton Levin (born June 28, 1934) is a Democratic United States Senator from Michigan and is the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Armed Services. ... Vernon James Ehlers (born February 6, 1934), American politician, is a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 1993, representing the 3rd District of Michigan (map). ... Rahm Emanuel (born November 29, 1959) is an American politician. ...

  • Stop the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species by enacting a comprehensive national program.
  • Prevent the Asian carp from entering the Great Lakes by authorizing the Corps of Engineers to maintain and operate the dispersal barrier on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, and prohibit the importation and sale of Asian carp.
  • Restore fish and wildlife habitat by reauthorizing the Great Lakes Fish & Wildlife Restoration Act at $20 million.
  • Prevent sewage contamination by reauthorizing the State Revolving Loan Fund and provide $20 billion over five years to assist communities nationally with improving their wastewater infrastructure.
  • Clean up contaminated sediment under the Great Lakes Legacy Act by authorizing $150 million per year.
  • Phase out mercury in products by establishing a new grant program and improving existing research programs.
  • Coordinate and improve Great Lakes programs by establishing the Great Lakes Interagency Task Force and the Great Lakes Regional Collaboration process.

The Healing Our Waters(R) - Great Lakes Coalition [16] has formed to help groups and citizens across the United States advocate for restoring the health of the Great Lakes.


Additions to the five Great Lakes

Lake Champlain, on the border between upstate New York and northwestern Vermont, briefly became labeled by the U.S. government as the sixth "Great Lake of the United States" on March 6, 1998, when President Clinton signed Senate Bill 927. This bill, which reauthorized the National Sea Grant Program, contained a line penned by Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT) declaring Lake Champlain to be a Great Lake. Not coincidentally, this status allows neighboring states to apply for additional federal research and education funds allocated to these national resources. The claim was viewed with some amusement by other countries, particularly in the Canadian media, and the lake is small compared to other Canadian lakes (such as Great Bear Lake which has over 27 times more surface area). Following a small uproar (and several New York Times articles), the Great Lake status was rescinded on March 24 (although Vermont universities continue to receive funds to monitor and study the lake). Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ... NY redirects here. ... Official language(s) None Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  Ranked 45th  - Total 9,620 sq mi (24,923 km²)  - Width 80 miles (130 km)  - Length 160 miles (260 km)  - % water 3. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The National Sea Grant Program is a national network of 30 Sea Grant Colleges and institutional programs shares research, outreach and education to solve old problems and explore new uses for the worlds marine, Great Lakes and coastal resources. ... Patrick Joseph Leahy (born March 31, 1940) is the senior United States Senator from Vermont. ... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ... Canada has a well-developed media sector, but cultural output—particularly in English Canada—is often overshadowed by imports from the United States. ... Great Bear Lake, NWT, Canada Mackenzie River drainage basin showing Great Bear Lakes position in the Western Canadian Arctic Great Bear Lake (Slavey: Sahtu, French: Grand lac de lOurs) is the largest lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada, the fourth largest in North America, and the eight... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) None Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  Ranked 45th  - Total 9,620 sq mi (24,923 km²)  - Width 80 miles (130 km)  - Length 160 miles (260 km)  - % water 3. ...


Similarly, there has been interest in making Lake St. Clair a Great Lake. In October, 2002, backers planned to present such a proposal at the Great Lakes Commission annual meeting, but ultimately withheld it as it appeared to them to have too little support. Public beach on Lake St. ... Great Lakes. ...


Ecological challenges

Before the arrival of Europeans, the lakes provided fish to the native groups who lived near them. Early European settlers were astounded by both the variety and quantity of fish. Historically, fish populations were the early indicator of the condition of the Lakes, and have remained one of the key indicators even in our technological era of sophisticated analyses and measuring instruments. According to the bi-national (U.S. and Canadian) resource book, The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book, "the largest Great Lakes fish harvests were recorded in 1889 and 1899 at some 67,000 tonnes (147 million pounds)," though the beginning of environmental impacts on the fish can be traced back nearly a century prior to those years. An independent origin and development of writing is counted among the many achievements and innovations of pre-Columbian American cultures. ...


By 1801, New York legislators found it necessary to pass regulations curtailing obstructions to the natural migrations of Atlantic salmon from Lake Erie into their spawning channels. In the early nineteenth century, Upper Canada’s government found it necessary to introduce similar legislation prohibiting the use of weirs and nets at the mouths of Lake Ontario’s tributaries. Other protective legislation was passed as well, but enforcement remained difficult and often quite spotty.


On both sides of the U.S.-Canada border, the proliferation of dams and impoundments multiplied, necessitating more regulatory efforts. The decline in fish populations was unmistakable by the middle of the nineteenth century. The decline in salmon was recognized by Canadian officials and reported as virtually a complete absence by the end of the 1860s. The Wisconsin Fisheries Commission noted a reduction of roughly 25 percent in general fish harvests by 1875. These dams prevent sturgeon spawning, too. Many Michigan rivers sport multiple dams that range from mere relics to those with serious loss of life potential. The State's dam removal budget has been frozen in recent years. In the 1990s the state was removing 1 dam per year. Illustration of a male Coho Salmon The Chinook or King Salmon is the largest salmon in North America and can grow to 1. ...


Overfishing was cited as responsible for the decline of the population of various whitefish, important because of their culinary desirability and, hence, economic consequence. Moreover, between 1879 and 1899, reported whitefish harvests declined from some 24.3 million pounds (11 million kg) to just over 9 million pounds (4 million kg). Recorded sturgeon catches fell from 7.8 million pounds (1.5 million kg) in 1879 to 1.7 million pounds (770,000 kg) in 1899. Giant Fresh water mussels were wiped out for buttons by early Great Lakes entrepreneurs. Whitefish (or white fish) has several meanings: It is a fisheries term referring to the flesh of many types of fish; see Whitefish (fisheries term) It refers precisely to the whitefishes of the salmonid genus Coregonus It can refer specifically to the common whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) It was formerly used...


There were, however, other factors in the declines besides overfishing and the problems posed by dams and other obstructions. Logging in the region removed tree cover near stream channels which provide spawning grounds, and this affected necessary shade and temperature-moderating conditions. Removal of tree cover also destabilized soil, allowing soil to be carried in greater quantity into the streambeds, and even brought about more frequent flooding. Running cut logs down the Lakes’ tributary rivers also stirred bottom sediments. In 1884, the New York Fish Commission determined that the dumping of sawmill waste (chips and sawdust) was impacting fish populations. Logging is the process in which trees are cut down usually as part of a timber harvest. ...


The Great Lakes are international, and in situations that require regulation, a lack of cooperation between the U.S. and Canada might be predicted to have disastrous consequences. In the development of ecological problems in the Great Lakes, it was the influx of parasitic lamprey populations after the development of the Erie Canal and the much later Welland Canal that led to the two federal governments attempting to work together – which proved a very complicated and troubled road. Subfamilies Geotriinae Mordaciinae Petromyzontinae A lamprey (sometimes also called lamprey eel) is a jawless fish with a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth. ... The Erie Canal (currently part of the New York State Canal System) is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... A ship transits the Welland Canal, with the Homer Lift Bridge and Garden City Skyway in background. ...


Nevertheless, despite the ever more sophisticated efforts to eliminate or minimize the lamprey, by the mid 1950s Lakes Michigan's and Huron’s lake trout populations were reduced by about 99%, with the lamprey deemed largely to blame. A result was the bi-national Great Lakes Fishery Commission.


Other ecological problems in the Lakes and their surroundings have stemmed from urban sprawl, sewage disposal, and toxic industrial effluent. These, of course, also affect aquatic food chains and fish populations. Some of these glaring problem areas are what attracted the high-level publicity of Great Lakes ecological troubles in the 1960s and 1970s. Evidence of chemical pollution in the Lakes and their tributaries now stretches back for decades. In the late 1960s, the recurrent phenomenon of the surface of river stretches (see Ohio’s Cuyahoga River) catching fire from a combination of oil, chemicals, and combustible materials floating on the water’s surface, came to the attention of a public growing more environmentally aware. Another aspect that caught popular attention was the “toxic blobs” (expanses of lake bed covered by various combinations of such substances as solvents, wood preservatives, coal tar, and metals) found in Lake Superior, the St. Clair River, and other portions of the Great Lakes region. The Cuyahoga River (IPA pronunciation: , or kuy-a-HAW-ga, locally kie-uh-HOE-guh) is located in Northeast Ohio in the United States. ...


According to the authoritative bi-national source The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book, "Only pockets remain of the once large commercial fishery."


The annual Great Lakes Bioneers Conference held in Traverse City, Michigan addresses many of these problems with local speakers, workshops and tools. The conference is a satellite conference of the Bioneers Conference in San Rafael, California. The Traverse City site focuses on durable ecological and socially just solutions to a diverse set of issues in the Great Lakes bioregion. Traverse City is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... A bioneer is a pioneer with a land ethic that differs from that of colonialism, that being to increase biodiversity, conserve habitat for wild species, and practice precision agriculture. ... An ecoregion is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ...


Important cities along the lakes

Cities with a population greater than 100,000 are in bold.

Lake Erie

Lake Huron Aerial view of the port at Ashtabula Railyard in the port of Ashtabula Ashtabula is a city in Ashtabula County, Ohio, United States, and the center of the Ashtabula Micropolitan Statistical Area (as defined by the United States Census Bureau in 2003). ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Erie County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown Area  - City 52. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario County none–Single-tier municipality Established 1998 Government  - City Mayor Randy Hope  - Governing body Chatham-Kent Council  - MPs Bev Shipley (CPC) Dave Van Kesteren (CPC)  - MPPs Pat Hoy (OLP) Maria Van Bommel (OLP) Area  - City 2,458 km²  (949 sq mi) Elevation 198 m... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Port Conneaut waterfront showing lighthouse Conneaut (pronounced KAW-nee-ut) is a city located in Ashtabula County, Ohio. ... Nickname: Location in Erie County Location in the state of Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country  United States State  Pennsylvania County Erie Founded 1795 Incorporated 1851-04-14 Government  - Mayor Joseph Sinnott Area  - City  28. ... Location of Fort Erie in the Niagara Region Fort Erie (2001 population 28,143) is a town on the Niagara River in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. ... Nickname: Canadas Southernmost Town Country Canada Province Ontario County Essex Government  - Mayor Nelson Santos  - Governing body Kingsville Town Council  - Member of Parliament Jeff Watson (CONS)  - Provincial Representative Bruce Crozier (LIB) Area  - City 246. ... Nickname: Motto: Building on the Past. ... Location within the state of Ohio Coordinates: Country United States State Ohio County Lorain Founded 1807 Government  - Mayor Craig L. Foltin(R) Area  - City  24. ... Monroe is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Nanticoke is a town that supplies hydroelectric energy to southern Ontario through its Nanticoke Generating Station. ... Location of Port Colborne in the Niagara Region Port Colborne (2001 population 18,450) is a city on Lake Erie, at the southern end of the Welland Canal, in the Niagara Region of southern Ontario, Canada near Niagara Falls. ... Port Dover is a community in Norfolk County, Ontario, Canada, located on the north shore of Long Point Bay, south of Simcoe, Ontario on Highway 6. ... Aerial view of Sandusky, Ohio on Sandusky Bay Muddy brown water fills Sandusky Bay, just south of Lake Erie in this astronaut photograph. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio Coordinates: , Country United States State Ohio County Lucas Founded 1833 Government  - Mayor Carty Finkbeiner (D) Area  - City 84. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Lake Michigan Alpena is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Bay City is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan located near the base of the Saginaw Bay on Lake Huron. ... Blind River is a town situated on the North Channel of Lake Huron in the Algoma District, Ontario, Canada. ... Map showing location of Collingwood in Ontario The town of Collingwood is located on the southern point of Georgian Bay, known as Nottawasaga Bay. ... Goderich (pronounced either God-rich or God-er-ich) is a town in the Canadian province of Ontario and is the county seat of Huron County. ... Owen Sound (2006 City population 21,753; UA Population 22,649; CA Population 32, 259), the county seat of Grey County, is a city in south-western Ontario, Canada. ... Midland (population 16,300, 2006 Canada Census) is a town located on Georgian Bay in Simcoe County, Ontario, Canada. ... Mackinac Island is a city located on Mackinac Island and Round Island in Mackinac County in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Mackinaw City is a village in Emmet County, with a small portion lying within Cheboygan County, in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Parry Sound (population 6,500) is a town in southern Ontario, Canada, located on the eastern shore of Georgian Bay). ... Port Huron is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Port Sanilac is a village located in Sanilac County, Michigan. ... Sarnia is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada (city population 71,419, census area population 88,793, in 2006). ... This is the Point Edward village crest. ... A summer evening on the Grand Bend beach Located on the shores of Lake Huron, Grand Bend, often referred to as simply The Bend or GB, is part of the municipality of Lambton Shores in the county of Lambton. ... Thessalon is a community in the Canadian province of Ontario, located at the junction of Highway 17 and Highway 129. ... Tobermory is a small town lying at the north tip of the Bruce Peninsula in Ontario, Canada. ...

Lake Ontario Benton Harbor is a city in Berrien County in the U.S. State of Michigan. ... Nickname: Motto: “Urbs in Horto” (Latin: “City in a Garden”), “I Will” Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country United States State Illinois Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Elberta is a village located in Benzie County, Michigan. ... Escanaba [es-kuh-nah-buh] is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan, located on the states Upper Peninsula. ... Incorporated City in 1872. ... The Frankfort Lighthouse Frankfort is a city located in Benzie County, Michigan. ... This article is about the city in Indiana, USA, for other uses of Gary, see Gary (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Green Bay Police Department be merged into this article or section. ... Harbor Springs is a city in Emmet County in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Holland is a city in the western region of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Nickname: K-town Keno Kenowhere Location of Kenosha within Wisconsin Coordinates: Country United States State Wisconsin Counties Kenosha Settled 1836 Government  - Mayor John M. Antaramian Population  - City 96,845  - Density  3,795. ... Mackinaw City is a village in Emmet County, with a small portion lying within Cheboygan County, in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Nickname: The Port City, Manty Location of Manitowoc in Manitowoc County, Wisconsin County Manitowoc Government  - Mayor Kevin M. Crawford(D) Area  - City 44. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Nickname: Location of Milwaukee in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin Coordinates: , County Milwaukee Government  - Mayor Tom Barrett Area  - City  97 sq mi (251. ... The entrance to Muskegon Lake from Lake Michigan at Muskegon, Michigan Muskegon is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Norton Shores is a city located in Muskegon County, Michigan. ... Sidewalk in downtown Petoskey Petoskey is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... St. ... Sheboygan is the county seat of Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, United States. ... Traverse City is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Waukegan is a city in Lake County, Illinois, of which it is the county seat. ... US Baháí House of Worship in Wilmette Wilmette is a village in New Trier Township, Cook County, Illinois, United States. ...

Lake Superior For other uses, see Ajax. ... Motto: Stand By Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Region Halton Regional Municipality Established 1874 Government  - Mayor Cam Jackson  - Governing Body Burlington City Council  - MPs Mike Wallace (CPC), Garth Turner (Liberal)  - MPPs Joyce Savoline (PC), Ted Chudleigh (PC) Area  - City 187 km²  (72 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 164,415 (Ranked... The Municipality of Clarington (estimated 2005 population 80,000) is a municipality in Ontario, Canada in the Regional Municipality of Durham. ... Cobourg (2001 population 17,172) is a town some 75 km east of Toronto. ... Cornwall. ... Gananoque is a town in Leeds and Grenville County, Ontario, located at 44°1955 North 76°944 West. ... Location of Grimsby in the Niagara Region Grimsby (2001 population 21,297) is a town on Lake Ontario in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. ... Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - Representatives 5 MPs and 5 MPPs Area [2]  - City 1,138. ... Irondequoit is a town (and census-designated place) in Monroe County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the CDP had a total population of 52,354. ... Murney Tower, Kingston The Fort Henry Guard performing an historical demonstration The Prince George Hotel. ... Location of Lincoln in the Niagara Region Lincoln is a town on Lake Ontario on the Niagara Peninsula. ... Nickname: Motto: Pride in our past, Faith in our future Location of Mississauga in the Regional Municipality of Peel in the province of Ontario Coordinates: , Country  Canada Province  Ontario Region Peel Established 1968, as a town Incorporated 1974, as a city Government  - City Mayor Hazel McCallion  - Local government Mississauga City... Niagara-on-the-Lake in the Niagara Region Niagara-on-the-Lake Niagara-on-the-Lake (2001 population 13,839) is a town where the Niagara River meets Lake Ontario in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. ... Oakville (2006 population 165,613[1]) is a town on Lake Ontario in southern Ontario, Canada, midway between Toronto (about 31 km or 19 mi away) on its eastern border and Hamilton (about 20 km or 12 mi away) from its western border. ... Oshawa (estimated 2004 population 150 000; metropolitan population 296 298) is a city on Lake Ontario located approximately 60 km east of downtown Toronto in Ontario, Canada. ... Look up Oswego in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pickering is a city located immediately east of Toronto in Durham Region, Ontario, Canada. ... Picton Harbour in the winter Picton is a town and the county seat of Prince Edward County in central Ontario, Canada. ... Port Hope is a municipality in Ontario, Canada, about 100 km east of Toronto and about 150 km west of Kingston filled with crack addicts. ... Nickname: Motto: Rochester: Made for Living Location of Rochester in New York State Country United States State New York County Monroe Government  - Mayor Robert Duffy (D) Area  - City  37. ... Nickname: Motto: Industry and Liberality Location of St. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Image:Toronto, Ontario Location. ... Whitby (2006 population 111 184) is a town located east of Toronto on the north shore of Lake Ontario, and is the seat of Durham Region, Ontario, Canada. ...

Detroit River' Munising harbor Munising is a city on the southern shore of Lake Superior in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. ... Location of Ashland, Wisconsin Coordinates: Country United States State Wisconsin Counties Ashland / Bayfield Government  - Mayor Ed Monroe Area  - City 13. ... Duluths canal connects Lake Superior to the Duluth-Superior harbor and the St. ... Location of Houghton, Michigan Country United States State Michigan County Houghton County Area  - City  4. ... Marquette is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Marathon is a town located in the Thunder Bay district in Ontario. ... Nipigon (2001 population 1,964) is a township in Thunder Bay District, Northwestern Ontario, Canada, located on the most northern point of Lake Superior and situtated along the west side of the Nipigon River and north of the small lake running between Lake Nipigon and Lake Superior. ... Paradise is an unincorporated community in Whitefish Township, Chippewa County in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Nickname: The Soo Location of Sault Ste. ... Nickname: Motto: Naturally Gifted Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario District Algoma District Incorporated 1887 (town), 1912 (city) Government  - City Mayor John Rowswell  - Governing body The Corporation of the City of Sault Sainte Marie  - MPs Tony Martin  - MPPs David Orazietti Area  - City  276 sq mi (715 km²) Elevation  630 ft (192... The city of Superior sits at the junction of U.S. Highway 2 and U.S. Highway 53, and is the county seat of Douglas County, Wisconsin. ... Nickname: Motto: Superior by nature Location of Thunder Bay, Ontario Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Region Northwestern Ontario District Thunder Bay District CMA Thunder Bay Settled 1679 as Fort Caministigoyan See histories of Port Arthur and Fort William Amalgamation 1 January 1970 Government [1][2]  - Type Municipal Government  - Mayor Lynn... This article on a place of local interest appears to contain only a small amount of verifiable information. ...

Nickname: Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (Latin for, We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes) Location in Wayne County, Michigan Coordinates: , Country United States State Michigan County Wayne County Founded 1701 Incorporation 1806 Government  - Type Strong Mayor-Council  - Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick (D) Area  - City  143. ... Nickname: Motto: The river and the land sustain us. ...

Trivia

  • The names of the five Great Lakes are often remembered with the mnemonic HOMES, from the first letter of the name of each lake. Additionally, the phrase Super Man Helps Every One is sometimes used to remember the lakes in west-to-east order.
  • Ontario is the only province in Canada that borders any of the Great Lakes. Ontario borders Huron, Ontario, Erie, and Superior.

Not to be confused with pneumonic. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Ipperwash Beach, Lake Huron. ... Lake Ontario, bounded on the north by the Canadian province of Ontario and on the south by Ontarios Niagara Peninsula and by New York State, USA, is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the eleventh largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, it is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... Lake Superior, bounded by Ontario, Canada and Minnesota, USA, to the north and Wisconsin and Michigan, USA, to the south, is the largest of North Americas Great Lakes. ...

See also

Look up Great Lakes in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Landsat satellite photo, showing Lake Saint Clair, as well as St. ... SS Edmund Fitzgerald was a ship that sank suddenly, without a distress signal, in a storm on Lake Superior on November 10, 1975. ... Great Lakes. ... Great Lakes Areas of Concern are designated geographic areas within the Great Lakes watershed that show severe environmental degradation. ... The International Boundary Waters Treaty is the 1909 treaty between the United States and Canada providing mechanisms for resolving any dispute over any waters bordering the two countries. ... Public beach on Lake St. ... Lake surfing is a form of surfing that takes place primarily on the Great Lakes, where a large surface area and strong storms, particularly in the fall and winter, can produce large waves. ... This is a partial list of cities along the Great Lakes. ... Michigan Underwater Preserves or Michigan Bottomland Preserves are protected areas of the Great Lakes on Michigans coast. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Muskellunge or muskie or musky (Esox masquinongy) are large, relatively rare freshwater fish of North America. ... Binomial name Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1758 Northern pike The northern pike, Esox lucius, is a carnivorous fish of brackish and freshwaters of the northern hemisphere. ... The Sixty Years War (1754–1814) was a military struggle for control of the Great Lakes region in North America, encompassing a number of wars over several generations. ...

References

  • Beltran, R. et al. The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book. (Washington & Ottawa: United States Environmental Protection Agency and Government of Canada, 1995, ISBN 0-662-23441-3).
  • Dempsey, Dave On the Brink: The Great Lakes in the 21st Century. (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-87013-705-0).
  • George Cuthbertson authored and illustrated “Freshwater, a history of the Great Lakes,” (Toronto: MacMillan, 1931).

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Great Lakes

Coordinates: 45° N 84° W Image File history File links Information. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Lake Superior, bounded by Ontario, Canada and Minnesota, USA, to the north and Wisconsin and Michigan, USA, to the south, is the largest of North Americas Great Lakes. ... Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one in the group located entirely within the United States. ... Ipperwash Beach, Lake Huron. ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the eleventh largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, it is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... Lake Ontario, bounded on the north by the Canadian province of Ontario and on the south by Ontarios Niagara Peninsula and by New York State, USA, is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This is a list of Canada-related topics. ... Canada is a country of 32 million inhabitants that occupies the northern portion of the North American continent, and is the worlds second largest country in area. ... This is a brief timeline of the history of Canada. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... // Main article: Province of Quebec (1763-1791) In North America, Seven Years War officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763. ... // Confederation Main article: Canadian Confederation Fathers of Confederation meet in Quebec City In the 1860s, in the wake of the American Civil War, the British were concerned with possible American reprisals against Canada for Britains tacit support of the Confederacy. ... A Canadian WWI recruiting poster // World War I Main article: Military History of Canada during WWI On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated, setting off a chain of events leading to World War I. By August 4, Britain had declared war on Germany and, as... // The Second World War brought many changes to Canada; the government was necessarily more centralized during the war, and it remained so afterwards. ... // Main article: Great Flag Debate Diefenbaker was succeeded by Pearson in 1963, at a time of increasing political unrest in much of the Western world. ... // The New constitution Main article: Patriation In 1982 Britain passed the Canada Act, repatriating the Constitution of Canada. ... // Chretien years and the 1995 referendum Jean Chrétien became prime minister in the 1993 election, pledging to repeal the GST, which proved to be unfeasible due to the economic circumstances at the time. ... Canadian soldiers advancing behind a tank at the Battle of Vimy Ridge, one of Canadas greatest military victories. ... Canadian historians until the 1960s tended to focus on economic history, including labour history. ... The constitutional history of Canada begins with the 1763 Treaty of Paris, in which France ceded most of New France to Great Britain. ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm (see Monarchy in Canada) with a federal system of parliamentary government, and strong democratic traditions. ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian Monarch, who is the Head of State; Canada is one of... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) has two chambers. ... The Court system of Canada is made up of many courts differing in levels of legal superiority and separated by jurisdiction. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... // Canadian provinces and territories are normally grouped into the following regions (generally from west to east): Northern Canada (The North) Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut Western Canada British Columbia Prairies Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Eastern Canada Central Canada Ontario Quebec Atlantic Canada Maritimes New Brunswick Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia Newfoundland and... The Coast Mountains are the westernmost range of the Pacific Cordillera, running along the south western shore of the North American continent, extending south from the Alaska Panhandle and covering most of coastal British Columbia. ... Ringrose Peak, Lake OHara, British Columbia, Canada The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range. ... Map of the Canadian Prairie provinces, which include boreal forests, taiga, and mountains as well as the prairies (proper). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Northern Canada, defined politically Northern Canada is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. ... Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield— also called the Precambrian Shield, Laurentian Shield, Bouclier Canadien (French), or Laurentian Plateau— is a large shield covered by a thin layer of soil that forms the nucleus of the North American craton. ... Central Canada, defined politically. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Appalachians in North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains (French: les Appalaches) are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... The four Canadian Atlantic provinces. ... The Maritime provinces. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This is a list of incorporated cities of Canada in alphabetical order by province. ... This is a list of the extreme communities in Canada. ... Mount Logan in the Yukon is the highest peak of Canada. ... The Canadian National Parks system encompasses over forty protected areas, including National Parks, National Park Reserves and National Marine Conservation Areas. ... The flora of Canada is quite diverse, due to the wide range of ecoregions and environmental conditions present in Canada. ... // Canadian provinces and territories are normally grouped into the following regions (generally from west to east): Northern Canada (The North) Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut Western Canada British Columbia Prairies Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Eastern Canada Central Canada Ontario Quebec Atlantic Canada Maritimes New Brunswick Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia Newfoundland and... The list of rivers in Canada is organized by drainage basin (new format) and province (old format to be removed). ... The north face of Mount Garibaldi rises above The Table and Garibaldi Lake Black Tusk viewed from the southeast Mount Fee as seen from its north side Mount Edziza in the Stikine Volcanic Belt as seen from the Stewart-Cassiar Highway Mount Garibaldi in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt as seen... Banking in Canada is one of the most efficient and safest banking systems in the world. ... Headquarters Ottawa, Ontario ,Canada Established 1935 Governor David A. Dodge Central Bank of Canada Currency Canadian dollar ISO 4217 Code CAD Website www. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Loonie. ... This is a list of companies from Canada. ... Canadas health care system is a publicly funded health care system, with most services provided by private entities. ... Demographics of Canada, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... The table below lists the 100 largest metropolitan areas in Canada by population, using data from the Canada 2001 Census[1] and the Canada 2006 Census. ... The urban areas identified below are defined by Statistics Canada with reference to continuous population density, ignoring municipal boundaries. ... The table below lists the 100 largest municipalities in Canada by population, using data from the Canada 2006 census for census subdivisions. ... The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ... The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ... Bonhomme, mascot of the Quebec winter carnival. ... The Gothic Revival Parliament Buildings are some of Canadas best known structures The architecture of Canada is, with the exception of that of the First Nations, closely linked to the techniques and styles developed in Europe and the United States. ... The following is a list of some important Canadian artists and groups of artists: Individuals Ran Andrews, 1956-, painter Robert Bateman, 1930-, painter Emily Carr, 1871-1945, painter Alex Colville, 1920-, painter Ken Danby, 1940-, painter Charles Daudelin, 1920-2001, sculptor and painter Paterson Ewen, 1925-2002, painter Marcelle Ferron... This is a list of well-known Canadians. ... Canadian national holidays (with provincial exceptions): Each province of Canada has its own provincial holiday or holidays. ... Skating on the Rideau Canal in Ottawa. ... Canadian literature may be divided into two parts, based on their separate roots: one stems from the culture and literature from France; the other from Britain. ... Canadian music includes pop and folk genres; the latter includes forms derived from England, France (particularly in Quebec), Ireland, Scotland, and various Inuit and Indian ethnic groups. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Celtic music is primarily associated with the folk traditions of Ireland, Scotland and Wales, as well as the popular styles derived from folk culture. ... The term classical music in this article refers to the western or European classical music tradition. ... Canadian hip hop developed much more slowly than the rock music scene. ... Canada has been a source of rock and roll music for decades, beginning with rockabilly singer Jack Scott in the 1950s. ... The Flag of Canada Canadian nationalism is a loose term which has been applied to ideologies of several different types which highlight and promote specifically Canadian interests over those of other countries, notably the United States. ... Cultural protectionism in Canada has, since the mid 20th century, taken the form of conscious, interventionist attempts on the part of various Canadian governments to promote Canadian cultural production and limit the effect of foreign, largely American, culture on the domestic audience. ... The contemporary theatre scene in Canada revolves around companies and summer festivals based at facilities in Canadian cities. ... Coat of Arms of Canada (since 1994) The Royal Coat of Arms of Canada (formally known as The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada) was proclaimed by King George V on November 21, 1921, as the Arms or Ensigns Armorial of the Dominion of Canada. ... This is a list of flags used in Canada. ... The National Flag of Canada, popularly known as the Maple Leaf and lUnifolié (French for the one-leaved), is a base red flag with a white square in its centre featuring a stylized, 11-pointed, red maple leaf. ... This is a list of the symbols of Canadian provinces and territories. ... There are many symbols reflecting Canadas status as a constitutional monarchy, including those of the Monarch, or the vice-regal representatives. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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