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Encyclopedia > Great Hurricane of 1780
Great Hurricane of 1780
Unknown strength hurricane (SSHS)

Areas affected by the hurricane (excluding Bermuda)
Formed October 9, 1780
Dissipated October 20, 1780
Highest
winds
200 mph (320 km/h) (gusts)
Lowest pressure Unknown
Fatalities 22,000+ direct
Damage Unknown
Areas
affected
Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Bermuda, possibly Florida (information scarce)
Part of the
1780 Atlantic hurricane season

The Great Hurricane of 1780, also known as the Hurricane San Calixto II,[1] is the deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record. Over 22,000 people died when the storm passed through the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean between October 10 and October 16.[2] Specifics on the hurricane's track and strength are unknown since the official Atlantic hurricane database wasn't established until 1851[3]. The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a scale classifying most Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms, and thereby become hurricanes. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Location of the Lesser Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean Islands of the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles, also known as the Caribbees,[1] are part of the Antilles, which together with the Bahamas and Greater Antilles form the West Indies. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... The decade of the 1780s featured the 1780-1789 Atlantic hurricane seasons. ... Callixtus I (also Callistus I) was pope from about 217 to 222, during the reigns of the Roman Emperors Elagabalus and Alexander Severus. ... Atlantic hurricane refers to a tropical cyclone that forms in the Atlantic Ocean north of the equator, usually in the Northern Hemisphere summer or autumn. ... Location of the Lesser Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean Islands of the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles, also known as the Caribbees,[1] are part of the Antilles, which together with the Bahamas and Greater Antilles form the West Indies. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ...


The hurricane struck Barbados with winds possibly exceeding 200 mph (320 km/h), before moving past Martinique, Saint Lucia, and Sint Eustatius; thousands of deaths were reported on each island. Coming in the midst of the American Revolution, the storm caused heavy losses to British and French fleets contesting for control of the area. The hurricane later passed near Puerto Rico and over the eastern portion of the Dominican Republic, which at the time was known as Santo Domingo. There, it caused heavy damage near the coastlines; it ultimately turned to the northeast before being last observed on October 20 southeast of Cape Race, Newfoundland. Map showing location of Sint Eustatius relative to Saba and Sint Maarten/Saint Martin. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cape Race, Newfoundland Cape Race (46° 39′ 35″ N, 53° 04′ 20″ W NST) is a point of land located at the southeastern tip of the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland, Canada. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


The death toll from the Great Hurricane alone exceeds that for any other entire decade of Atlantic hurricanes, and is substantially higher than that of the second-deadliest Atlantic storm, Hurricane Mitch. The hurricane was part of the disastrous 1780 Atlantic hurricane season, with three other deadly storms occurring in the month of October.[2] Lowest pressure 905 mbar (hPa; 26. ... The decade of the 1780s featured the 1780-1789 Atlantic hurricane seasons. ...

Contents

Storm history

The exact origin of the hurricane is unknown, though modern historians estimated it developed near the Cape Verde Islands in early October. The system strengthened and increased in size as it tracked slowly westward and first began affecting Barbados late on October 9. Late on October 10, the worst of the hurricane passed over the island. Modern meteorologists estimated winds there reached over 200 mph (320 km/h). Early on October 11 the hurricane turned to the north-northwest about 55 miles (90 km) east of Saint Lucia, and later that night it neared the island of Martinique. The cyclone gradually weakened as it passed to the southwest of Dominica early on October 12 and subsequently struck the island of Guadeloupe.[1] is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


After hitting Guadeloupe, the hurricane turned to the west-northwest, passing about 90 miles (145 km) southwest of Saint Kitts. The hurricane steadily neared Puerto Rico as it paralleled the southern coastline, and made its closest point of approach on October 14 to the southwest portion of the island. Subsequently it turned to the northwest, hitting the island of Mona in the Mona Passage before making landfall near the current-day Dominican Republic province of Samaná. Late on October 15 it reached the Atlantic Ocean, and after passing about 160 miles (260 km) east of Grand Turk it is estimated to have recurved to the northeast. The hurricane passed 150 miles (240 km) southeast of Bermuda on October 18,[1] and was last observed two days later about 300 miles (475 km) southeast of Cape Race, Newfoundland.[4] Country Saint Kitts and Nevis Archipelago Leeward Islands Region Caribbean Area 65 sq. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mona Island redirects here. ... The Mona Passage is a strait that separates the islands of Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. ... Samaná is a province of the Dominican Republic. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Grand Turk can mean : (historically) an informal western name for the Great Sultan of the Turkish Ottoman dynasty (Geography) see : Grand Turk Island Tall ships : see Grand Turk (frigate) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cape Race, Newfoundland Cape Race (46° 39′ 35″ N, 53° 04′ 20″ W NST) is a point of land located at the southeastern tip of the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland, Canada. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


On October 19, strong winds and high tides were reported in northeastern Florida. One modern historian suggested the hurricane passed much closer to the state than previously thought. Another possibility considered was an extension to a hurricane in the western Caribbean Sea. Due to lack of data, the exact track of the Great Hurricane is unknown.[5] is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ...


Impact

Deadliest Atlantic hurricanes
Rank Hurricane Season Fatalities
1 "Great Hurricane" 1780 22,000
2 Mitch 1998 11,000 – 18,000
3 "Galveston" 1900 8,000 – 12,000
4 Fifi 1974 8,000 – 10,000
5 "Dominican Republic" 1930 2,000 – 8,000
6 Flora 1963 7,186 – 8,000
7 "Pointe-a-Pitre" 1776 6,000+
8 "Newfoundland 1775 4,000 – 4,163
9 "Okeechobee" 1928 4,075+
10 "San Ciriaco" 1899 3,433+
Main article: List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes

The Great Hurricane persisted near Barbados for about two days, producing violent winds which were described as "so deafening that people could not hear their own voices." The winds stripped the bark off of trees before the hurricane downed every tree on the island.[1] It is unknown how the winds stripped the trees; such an event never occurred elsewhere in history. However, one hurricane researcher believed the rainfall traveling at the wind speeds over 200 mph cause the phenomenon.[6] The winds also destroyed every house on Barbados. Most ships at the bay broke free of their moorings from the hurricane's rough surf,[1] and all forts on the island were destroyed. The winds and seas moved heavy cannons about 100 feet (30.6 m). About 4,500 people died on the island.[6] The decade of the 1780s featured the 1780-1789 Atlantic hurricane seasons. ... Lowest pressure 905 mbar (hPa; 26. ... The 1998 Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 1, 1998, and lasted until November 30, 1998. ... Lowest pressure 936 mbar (hPa; 27. ... The 1900 Atlantic hurricane season was an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. ... Lowest pressure ≤971 mbar (hPa)[1] Damage $900 million (1974 USD) $3. ... The 1974 Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 1, 1974, and lasted until November 30, 1974. ... The 1930 Atlantic hurricane season was an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. ... Hurricane Flora blasted through the Caribbean in September and October, 1963. ... ... The decade of 1770 featured the 1770-1779 Atlantic hurricane seasons. ... The Newfoundland Hurricane (also called the Independence Hurricane) of 1775 during the 1775 Atlantic hurricane season was one of the deadliest hurricanes ever in the Atlantic basin. ... The decade of 1770 featured the 1770-1779 Atlantic hurricane seasons. ... Lowest pressure 929 mbar (hPa; 27. ... The 1928 Atlantic hurricane season was an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. ... Hurricane San Ciriaco was an Atlantic tropical cyclone which crossed Puerto Rico over the two day period August 8 to August 9, 1899, causing many deaths from the flooding. ... The 1899 Atlantic hurricane season was an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. ... This is a list of the deadliest known Atlantic hurricanes (those causing at least 1,000 deaths). ...


In Saint Vincent, the hurricane destroyed 584 of the 600 houses in Kingstown. At Grenada, 19 Dutch ships were wrecked. On Saint Lucia, rough waves and a strong storm tide destroyed the fleet of British Admiral Rodney at Port Castries, with one ship destroying the city hospital by being lifted on top of it. The hurricane destroyed all but two houses at Port Castries, and throughout the island about 6,000 perished.[1] Kingstown Kingstown, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Location Map Kingstown, estimated population 15,900 (July 1999), is the chief port of Saint Vincent, and the capital of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. ... A storm tide is a tide with a high flood period caused by a storm. ... Admiral Lord George Brydges Rodney, 1st Baron Rodney, 1719-1792 by Jean-Laurent Mosnier, painted 1791 George Brydges Rodney, 1st Baron Rodney Bt (February 1718 – May 24, 1792) – British naval officer. ... The Quarter of Castries, showing Castries city (red dot) Castries, population 11,147 (1991), is the capital city of Saint Lucia. ...


A fleet of 40 French ships involved in the American Revolutionary War capsized as a result of the hurricane off of Martinique; about 4,000 soldiers drowned. The hurricane produced a 25 foot (7.6 m) storm surge on Martinique, destroying all houses in Saint-Pierre; 9,000 died on the island. Severe damage was reported on Dominica, Guadeloupe, Antigua, and Saint Kitts, though it is unknown if any died on those islands. Additionally, many ships were washed ashore on Saint Kitts. A powerful storm surge affected the island of Sint Eustatius, causing 4,000 to 5,000 fatalities.[1] Engraving based on the painting Action Between the Serapis yo and Bonhomme Richard by Richard Paton, published 1780. ... Saint-Pierre was the former capital of Frances Caribbean département doutre-mer of Martinique. ... Country Saint Kitts and Nevis Archipelago Leeward Islands Region Caribbean Area 65 sq. ... Map showing location of Sint Eustatius relative to Saba and Sint Maarten/Saint Martin. ...


Heavy damage was reported in southern Puerto Rico, primarily in Cabo Rojo and Lajas. Severe damage also occurred in the eastern region of the Dominican Republic. The hurricane later grounded 50 ships near Bermuda. Throughout its path, the hurricane killed over 22,000 people, making it the deadliest hurricane in Atlantic hurricane history.[1] Flag Seal Nickname: Gentilic: Caborrojeños Location Location of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico within Puerto Rico Government Founded December 17, 1771 Mayor Hon. ... Lajas is a small town located in Puerto Ricos southwest. ...

See also

Tropical cyclones Portal

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x662, 320 KB) http://eol. ... This is a list of notable Atlantic hurricanes, subdivided by reason for notability. ... This is a list of the deadliest known Atlantic hurricanes (those causing at least 1,000 deaths). ...

External links and sources

  • The Deadliest Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, 1492–1996, by Edward N. Rappaport and Jose Fernandez-Partagas
  • Natural Disasters: Hurricanes, by Patrick J. Fitzpatrick, ABC-CLIO Inc. 1999, ISBN 1-57607-071-9
  • A thanksgiving sermon, preached at St. Lucia, the Sunday after the hurricane in October, 1780, on board His Majesty's Ship Vengeance, Capt. Holloway, and before Commodore Hotham.
  • The Use of Spanish and British documentary sources in the investigation of Atlantic hurricane incidence in historical times
  • The Frequency of tropical cyclones (West Indian Hurricanes) that approach or enter the United States
  • Dunbar, Transactions of the American [Philosophical] Society, Philadelphia, vol. 6, second series. Philadelphia, 1804.
  • Blodgett L. Climatology of United States. p. 397, "The Great Hurricane of 1780."

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Orlando Férez (1970). Notes on the Tropical Cyclones of Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico National Weather Service. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
  2. ^ a b Edward N. Rappaport, Jose Fernandez-Partagas, and Jack Beven (1997). The Deadliest Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, 1492-1996. NOAA. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  3. ^ Hurricane Research Division (2006). Re-Analysis Project. NOAA. Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
  4. ^ Michael Chenoweth (2006). A Re-assessment of Historical Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity, 1700-1855. NOAA. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
  5. ^ Al Sandrik and Chris Landsea (2003). Chronological Listing of Tropical Cyclones affecting North Florida and Coastal Georgia 1565-1899. Hurricane Research Division. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
  6. ^ a b Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (2005). NEMO remembers the great hurricane of 1780. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.

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