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Encyclopedia > Great Highland Bagpipe
Pipe Major
Pipe Major

The Great Highland Bagpipe (Gaelic : A' Phìob Mhòr) is probably the best-known variety of bagpipe. Abbreviated GHB, and commonly referred to simply as "the pipes", they have historically taken numerous forms in both Scotland and Ireland. The picture shows a modern set of Great Highland Bagpipes. ARGYLL and SUTHERLAND HIGHLANDERS Piper Major Exact age and date of photo not known, but most likely with expired copyright due to age. ... ARGYLL and SUTHERLAND HIGHLANDERS Piper Major Exact age and date of photo not known, but most likely with expired copyright due to age. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... A bagpipe performer in Amsterdam. ... Motto: , traditionally rendered in Scots as Wha daur meddle wi me?[1] and in English as No one provokes me with impunity. ...


A modern set has a bag, a chanter, a blowpipe, two tenor drones, and one bass drone. The scale on the chanter is approximately in mixolydian with a range from one degree lower than the tonic to one octave above it (in piper's parlance: Low G, Low A, B, C, D, E, F, High G, and High A; the C and F could or should be called sharp but this is always omitted). The two tenor drones are an octave below the keynote (Low A) of the chanter) and the bass drone two octaves below. This "A" of the GHB is actually slightly sharper than B-flat, around 480 Hz, and within the realm of competitive pipe bands, seems to get sharper each year. In the 1990s, there were a few new developments, namely, reliable synthetic drone reeds, and synthetic bags that deal with moisture arguably better than hide or older synthetic bags. The Mixolydian mode is a musical mode or diatonic scale. ... Figure 1. ... In music, an octave (sometimes abbreviated 8ve or 8va) is the interval between one musical note and another with half or double the frequency. ... A keynote in literature, music or public speaking is the principal underlying theme of a larger idea — a literary story, an individual musical piece or event. ...

Contents

Regional usage

The GHB is widely used by both soloists and pipe bands (civilian and military), and is now played in countries around the world, particularly those with large Scottish and Irish emigrant populations, namely Canada, United States of America, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. It has also been adopted by many countries that were formerly part of the British Empire, such as India (where it replaced the local bagpipes, called moshak and shruti), Pakistan, Nepal (famous for their Gurka soldiers), Arabic countries such as Egypt and Oman, and Uganda (where Idi Amin forbade the export of African Blackwood, so as to encourage local bagpipe construction, during the 1970s). A Pipe band is a traditional Scottish musical group consisting of bagpipes and drums. ... This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ... Idi Amin Dada (1 January 1925?–16 August 2003) was an army officer and President of Uganda (1971–1979). ... Binomial name Dalbergia melanoxylon Guill. ...


The GHB was also adopted in Thailand; around 1921, King Rama VI ordered a set to accompany the marching exercises of the Sua Pa, or Wild Tiger Corps (a royal guard unit which had previously practiced to the sounds of an oboe called pi chawa). Although the bagpipes arrived from the British Isles with a user's manual, no one was able to figure out how to play them, so the bassoon player Khun Saman Siang-prajak went to the British Embassy and learned how to play the instrument with the British soldiers, until he was satisfied. He then returned to teach the Thai pipe band, until they could perform properly. The band, which plays Thai as well as Scottish tunes, still practices at Vachiravuth High School in Bangkok, which is named for Rama VI.[1] 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Vajiravudh (January 1, 1881 – November 25, 1925) (also known as Rama VI, reigning title Phra Mongkut Klao Chaoyuhua; Thai-script พระบาทสมเด็จพระมงกุฎเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว) was King of Siam (now Thailand) from 1910 until his death. ...


Pollig Monjarret introduced the GHB to Brittany during the Celtic revival of the 1920s Breton folk music scene, inventing the bagad, a pipe band incorporating the GHB, the Scottish pipe band drum section, the bombarde and recently, almost any added grouping of wind instruments, e.g. saxophones, brass instruments, such as the trumpet and trombone, etc. Well known bagads include Bagad Brieg, Bagad Kemper, and Bagad Cap Caval. In Brittany, the GHB is known as the biniou braz, in contrast to the biniou kozh, the small traditional Breton bagpipe. Traditional coat of arms Modern flag (Gwenn-ha-du) Historical province of Brittany région of Bretagne, see Bretagne. ... The Celtic Revival, also known as the Irish Literary Revival, was begun by Lady Gregory, Edward Martyn and William Butler Yeats in Ireland in 1896. ... Kevrenn an Arvorig here with dancer Bro ar Ster Goz A bagad is a Breton band, composed of biniou (Breton bagpipes), bombardes and snare drums. ... Biniou means bagpipe in the Breton language. ... Biniou means bagpipe in the Breton language. ...


In Ireland, a presumably related instrument is seen in a woodcut by Derrick (an Elizabethan Englishman), in his book, entitled, "Derrick's Image of Ireland", circa 1580, showing a piper leading a group of soldiers and playing a two drone instrument with a long chanter. This instrument apparently died out in Ireland during the 1700s. In the late 1800s a number of Irish pipers attempted a romantic revival with the Brian Boru pipe (see below). Another version of a revived "Irish" bagpipe was essentially a GHB with a bass drone and a single tenor. This has been coined the Irish Warpipes in recent times. Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... 1800 (MDCCC) was an exceptional common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. ... The Great Irish Warpipes, played for over 1000 years, are closely related to the Great Highland Bagpipe, with which they are essentially synonymous. ...


Design

The Great Highland Bagpipe is classified as a woodwind instrument, like the bassoon, oboe or clarinet, although its design is decidedly different from any other instrument. Although it is classified as a double-reed instrument, the reeds are all closed inside the wooden stocks, instead of being played directly by mouth as other woodwinds are. The GHB actually has four reeds; the chanter reed, two tenor drone reeds, and one bass drone reed. See Bagpipes. A woodwind instrument is a wind instrument in which sound is produced by blowing through a mouthpiece against an edge or by a vibrating reed, and in which the pitch is varied by opening or closing holes in the body of the instrument. ... A Fox Products bassoon. ... The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... A piper playing the Great Highland Bagpipe. ...


Music

The Gaelic word pìobaireachd simply means "pipe music", but it has been adapted into English as "pibroch" to refer to the high-register music of the bagpipe. In Gaelic, vernacular, low-register music (such as dance tunes) is referred to as Ceòl Beag, while the formal, high-register music is referred to as Ceòl Mòr. A pibroch (pÄ—`brÇ’ox) is an ancient type of music, native to the Scottish Highlands and performed exclusively on the Great Highland Bagpipe. ...


Ceòl Mòr consists of a slow ground movement (Gaelic ùrlar) which is a simple theme, then a series of increasingly complex variations on this theme, and ends with a return to the ground. Ceòl Beag includes marches (2/4, 4/4, 6/8, 3/4, etc), dance tunes (particularly strathspeys, reels, hornpipes, and jigs), slow airs, and more. The Ceòl Mòr style was developed by the well-patronized dynasties of bagpipers - MacArthurs, MacGregors, Rankins, and especially the MacCrimmons - and seems to have emerged as a distinct form during the seventeenth century.


Compared to many other musical instruments, the GHB is limited by its range (nine notes), lack of dynamics (ability to change the volume of the notes), and lack of rests. The latter due to the fact that the airflow to the reeds is continuous until the player stops playing completely. The GHB is a closed reed instrument, which means that the four reeds are completely encased within the instrument and the player cannot change the sound of the instrument via mouth position or tonguing. As a result, notes cannot be separated by simply stopping blowing or tonguing so gracenotes and combinations of gracenotes, called embellishments, are used for this purpose. These more complicated ornaments using two or more gracenotes include doublings, taorluaths, throws, grips, birls. There are also a set of ornaments usually used for piobaireachd, , for example the dare, vedare, chedare, darado, and crunluath. Some of these embellishments have found their way into light music over the course of the 20th century. These embellishments are also used for note emphasis, for example to emphasize the beat note or other phrasing patterns. These three single gracenotes (G, D, and E) are the most commonly used and are often played in succession. All gracenotes are performed rapidly, by quick finger movements, giving an effect similar to tonguing or articulation on modern wind instruments. Due to the lack of rests and dynamics, all expression in GHB music comes from the use of embellishments and to a larger degree by varying the duration of notes. Despite the fact that most GHB music is highly rhythmically regimented and structured, proper phrasing of all types of GHB music relies heavily on rubato, the ability of the player to stretch specific notes within a phrase or measure. In particular, the main beats of each bar and phrase are played in strict time, but the off-beats of sub-divisions within each beat are flexible. Piobaireachd (pė`brǒok) is the Scottish Gaelic name for a genre of traditional music played on the Great Highland Bagpipe. ... Tonguing is when a musician playing a wind instrument uses their tongue on the reed or mouthpiece to enunciate different notes. ...


Related instruments

Practice Chanter

A smaller, quieter instrument, the practice chanter, with a smaller, plastic reed than the GHB, Cane chanter reed, and lacking a bag or drones, is suitable for practice in settings where a great volume of sound would be inappropriate or unappreciated by neighbours or family members. It is used by beginning pipers to learn basic notes and movements before adding the complication of a bag and drones. It is not uncommon for a beginner to use only the practice chanter for a year or two before progressing onto pipes. Even after a piper progresses to the pipes, they will usually continue to return to the pratice chanter to learn new tunes, polish their skills, and/or practice with out the volume and complication of the pipes. Another practice instrument, called a goose, has a bag, with the practice chanter or sometimes a regular pipe chanter, but lacks drones, and allows a student to practice "winding" the pipe with the proper mix of breath and bag pressure. Practice chanters are often used by bands in order to work on technique or other issues where frequent stopping and starting is required, or where music is being used. Modern practice chanters usually use plastic reeds, unlike the cane reeds of the GHB chanter. A practice chanter made out of African Blackwood by R.G. Hardie The bagpipe practice chanter is a double reed woodwind instrument in appearance somewhat like that of a recorder. ...


Smallpipes and Border pipes

The Border pipe is a related instrument with similar construction to the GHB, but powered with a bellows and with the drones in a common stock and sometimes a baritone or alto drone tuned to the fifth of the chanter. As it is usually manufactured in the key of A, rather than the GHB's Bb, and the volume is approximately equal to other common folk instruments, it is often used by pipers wishing to play with folk groups or in informal sessions.


The smallpipes, although historically extant, essentially died out by the early 20th century in Scotland. In the early 1980s, Colin Ross and other makers developed a modern smallpipe that is internally derived from the Northumbrian smallpipe, but is played using GHB fingering. It became popular due to its attractive tone and is often a piper's second instrument.


Mouth blown versions of both of these are made by various makers, but due to the delicate nature of the reeds in these bagpipes, this is not always successful. A common compromise is to use plastic reeds, which does work effectively, but does not produce the same tone quality.


Notes

  1. ^ Roongruang, Panya (1999). "Thai Classical Music and its Movement from Oral to Written Transmission, 1930-1942: Historical Context, Method, and Legacy of the Thai Music Manuscript Project." Ph.D. dissertation. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University, p. 146.

See also

A piper playing the Great Highland Bagpipe. ... A Pipe band is a traditional Scottish musical group consisting of bagpipes and drums. ... Pipe Major is the director of bagpipe music in a Scottish Highland pipe band or pipes and drums. ... Pipes and drums are synonymous with pipe band, and both commonly refer to bands comprised of musicians who play the Scottish Highland bagpipes and drums. ... Canntaireachd is a oral means of transmitting musical compositions for the highland bagpipe through vocables that represent notes on the pipe scale as well as specific changes between notes i. ... Piobaireachd (pė`brǒok) is the Scottish Gaelic name for a genre of traditional music played on the Great Highland Bagpipe. ...

External links

  • Introduction to Bagpipe Music (Great Highland Bagpipe)
  • Bagpipe Web Directory - Exhaustive link directory.
  • Andrew Lenz's Bagpipe Journey - Reference information.
  • HUGH CHEAPE, The Book of the Bagpipe (Belfast: The Appletree Press, 1999).
  • FRANCIS COLLINSON, The Traditional and National Music of Scotland (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1966).
  • FRANCIS COLLINSON, The Bagpipe (London and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1975).
  • JOHN GIBSON, Old and New World Highland Bagpiping (Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2002).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Great Highland Bagpipe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1229 words)
The GHB is widely used by both soloists and pipe bands (civilian and military), and is now played in countries around the world, particularly those with large Scottish and Irish emigrant populations, namely Canada, United States of America, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
The GHB was also adopted in Thailand; around 1921, King Rama VI ordered a set to accompany the marching exercises of the Sua Pa, or Wild Tiger Corps (a royal guard unit which had previously practiced to the sounds of an oboe called pi chawa).
In Brittany, the GHB is known as the biniou braz, in contrast to the biniou kozh, the small traditional Breton bagpipe.
Bagpipes - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3410 words)
With the growth of the British Empire, often spearheaded by Highland regiments of the British Army, the Great Highland Bagpipe was diffused world-wide.
In the modern era the use of bagpipes has become a common tradition for military funerals and memorials in the anglophone world, and they are often used at the funerals of high-ranking civilian public officials as well.
Bagpipes today are probably as popular as they have ever been in history; one Scottish maker produces forty sets of pipes per week for sale worldwide, and while this is high, it is indicative of the state of the market.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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