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Encyclopedia > Great Fire of London
Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. The Tower of London is on the right and London Bridge on the left, with St. Paul's Cathedral in the distance, surrounded by the tallest flames.
Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. The Tower of London is on the right and London Bridge on the left, with St. Paul's Cathedral in the distance, surrounded by the tallest flames.

The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of London, England, from Sunday, 2 September to Wednesday, 5 September 1666.[1] The fire gutted the medieval City of London inside the old Roman City Wall. It threatened, but did not reach, the aristocratic district of Westminster (the modern West End), Charles II's Palace of Whitehall, and most of the suburban slums.[2] It consumed 13,200 houses, 87 parish churches, St. Paul's Cathedral, and most of the buildings of the City authorities. It is estimated that it destroyed the homes of 70,000 of the City's ca. 80,000 inhabitants.[3] The death toll from the fire is unknown and is traditionally thought to have been small, as only a few verified deaths were recorded. This reasoning has recently been challenged on the grounds that the deaths of poor and middle-class people were not recorded anywhere, and that the heat of the fire may have cremated many victims, leaving no recognisable remains. Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ... Image File history File links Great_Fire_London. ... Image File history File links Great_Fire_London. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... St Katharine Docks were one of the commercial docks serving London, on the north side of the river Thames just east (downstream) of the Tower of London and Tower Bridge. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... For other uses, see London Bridge (disambiguation). ... Old St. ... For other uses see fire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region Greater London Status sui generis, City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... London Wall was the defensive wall built by the Romans around Londinium, their strategically important port town on the river Thames in England. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... The interior of Covent Garden Market in the West End The West End of London is an area of central London, containing many of the citys major tourist attractions, businesses, and administrative headquarters. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... The Palace of Whitehall by Hendrick Danckerts. ... Slums in Delhi, India. ... Old St. ...


The fire started at the bakery of Thomas Farriner (or Farynor) in Pudding Lane shortly after midnight on Sunday, 2 September, and spread rapidly. The use of the major firefighting technique of the time, the creation of firebreaks by means of demolition, was critically delayed due to the indecisiveness of the Lord Mayor of London, Sir Thomas Bloodworth. By the time large-scale demolitions were ordered on Sunday night, the wind had already fanned the bakery fire into a firestorm which defeated such measures. The fire pushed north on Monday into the heart of the City. Order in the streets broke down as rumours arose of suspicious foreigners setting fires. The fears of the homeless focused on the French and Dutch, England's enemies in the ongoing Second Anglo-Dutch War; these substantial immigrant groups became victims of lynchings and street violence. On Tuesday, the fire spread over most of the City, destroying St. Paul's Cathedral and leaping the River Fleet to threaten Charles II's court at Whitehall, while coordinated firefighting efforts were simultaneously mobilising. The battle to quench the fire is considered to have been won by two factors: the strong east winds died down, and the Tower of London garrison used gunpowder to create effective firebreaks to halt further spread eastward. Pudding Lane looking northwards from the junction with Monument Street. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ... A firebreak is a usually-man-made gap in vegetation that is expected to slow or stop the progress of wildfires. ... Current Lord Mayor of London John Stuttard during the parade on November 11th, 2006 Michael Berry Savory, Previous Lord Mayor (2004–2005) The Right Honourable Lord Mayor of London is the Mayor of the City of London and head of the Corporation of London. ... Sir Thomas Bloodworth (sometimes spelled Bludworth) (1620-1682) was Lord Mayor of London from October 1665 to October 1666. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought between England and the United Provinces from 4 March 1665 until 31 July 1667. ... Lynching is a form of violence, usually execution, conceived of by its perpetrators as extrajudicial punishment for offenders or as a terrorist method of enforcing social domination. ... Entrance to the Fleet River, Samuel Scott, c. ... Whitehall, London, looking south towards the Houses of Parliament. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ...


The social and economic problems created by the disaster were overwhelming. Evacuation from London and settlement elsewhere were strongly encouraged by Charles II, who feared a London rebellion amongst the dispossessed refugees. Despite numerous radical proposals, London was reconstructed on essentially the same street plan used before the fire.[4]

Contents

London in the 1660s

Central London in 1666, with the burnt area shown in pink
Central London in 1666, with the burnt area shown in pink

By the 1660s, London was by far the largest city in Britain, estimated at half a million inhabitants, which was more than the next fifty towns in England combined.[5] Comparing London to the Baroque magnificence of Paris, John Evelyn called it a "wooden, northern, and inartificial congestion of Houses," and expressed alarm about the fire hazard posed by the wood and the congestion.[6] By "inartificial", Evelyn meant unplanned and makeshift, the result of organic growth and unregulated urban sprawl. A Roman settlement for four centuries, London had become progressively more overcrowded inside its defensive City wall. It had also pushed outwards beyond the wall into squalid extramural slums such as Shoreditch, Holborn, and Southwark and had reached to physically incorporate the independent city of Westminster.[7] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2369x1499, 3323 KB) Map of central London in 1666, showing landmarks related to the Great Fire of London. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2369x1499, 3323 KB) Map of central London in 1666, showing landmarks related to the Great Fire of London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... John Evelyn. ... Urban sprawl (also: suburban sprawl) is the spreading out of a city and its suburbs over rural land at the fringe of an urban area. ... London Wall was the defensive wall built by the Romans around Londinium, their strategically important port town on the river Thames in England. ... Slums in Delhi, India. ... Shoreditch Town Hall Shoreditch is a place in the London Borough of Hackney. ... Holborn (pronounced ho-bun or ho-burn) is a place in London, named after a tributary to the river Fleet that flowed through the area, the Hole-bourne (the stream in the hollow). ... For other places with the same name, see Southwark (disambiguation). ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ...


By the late 17th century, the City proper—the area bounded by the City wall and the river Thames—was only one part of London, covering 700 acres (2.8 km²),[8] and home to about 80,000 people, or one sixth of London's inhabitants. The City was surrounded by a ring of inner suburbs, where most Londoners lived. The City was then as now the commercial heart of the capital, the largest market and busiest port in England, dominated by the trading and manufacturing classes.[9] The aristocracy shunned the City and lived either in the countryside beyond the slum suburbs, or further west in the exclusive Westminster district (the modern West End), the site of Charles II's court at Whitehall. Wealthy people preferred to live at a convenient distance from the always traffic-jammed, polluted, unhealthy City, especially after it was hit by a devastating outbreak of bubonic plague in the "Plague Year" of 1665. Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is held by a small number of individuals from an elite or from noble families. ... The interior of Covent Garden Market in the West End The West End of London is an area of central London, containing many of the citys major tourist attractions, businesses, and administrative headquarters. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... A bill of mortality for the plague year of 1665. ...


The relationship between the City and the Crown was very tense. During the Civil War, 1642–1651, the City of London had been a stronghold of Republicanism, and the wealthy and economically dynamic capital still had the potential to be a threat to Charles II, as had been demonstrated by several Republican uprisings in London in the early 1660s. The City magistrates were of the generation that had fought in the Civil War, and could remember how Charles I's grab for absolute power had led to that national trauma.[10] They were determined to thwart any similar tendencies from his son, and when the Great Fire threatened the City, they refused the offers Charles made of soldiers and other resources. Even in such an emergency, the idea of having the unpopular Royal troops ordered into the City was political dynamite. By the time Charles took over command from the ineffectual Lord Mayor, the fire was already out of control. For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ...

Panorama of the City of London in 1616 by Claes Visscher. Note the tenement housing on London Bridge (far right), a notorious death-trap in case of fire, although much had been destroyed in an earlier fire in 1632.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2555x290, 338 KB) Cropped version of Image:Panorama of London by Claes Van Visscher, 1616. ... Categories: Stub | House types ... For other uses, see London Bridge (disambiguation). ...

Fire hazards in the City

The City was essentially medieval in its street plan, an overcrowded warren of narrow, winding, cobbled alleys. It had experienced several major fires before 1666, the most recent in 1632. Building with wood and roofing with thatch had been prohibited for centuries, but these cheap materials continued to be used.[11] The only major stone-built area was the wealthy centre of the City, where the mansions of the merchants and brokers stood on spacious lots, surrounded by an inner ring of overcrowded poorer parishes whose every inch of building space was used to accommodate the rapidly growing population. These parishes contained workplaces, many of which were fire hazards—foundries, smithies, glaziers—which were theoretically illegal in the City, but tolerated in practice. The human habitations mixed in with these sources of heat, sparks, and pollution were crowded to bursting-point and designed with uniquely risky features. "Jetties" (projecting upper floors) were characteristic of the typical six- or seven-storey timbered London tenement houses. These buildings had a narrow footprint at ground level, but would maximise their use of a given land plot by "encroaching", as a contemporary observer put it, on the street with the gradually increasing size of their upper storeys. The fire hazard posed when the top jetties all but met across the narrow alleys was well perceived—"as it does facilitate a conflagration, so does it also hinder the remedy", wrote one observer[12]—but "the covetousness of the citizens and connivancy [that is, the corruption] of Magistrates" worked in favour of jetties. In 1661, Charles II issued a proclamation forbidding overhanging windows and jetties, but this was largely ignored by the local government. Charles' next, sharper, message in 1665 warned of the risk of fire from the narrowness of the streets and authorised both imprisonment of recalcitrant builders and demolition of dangerous buildings. It too had little impact. Image File history File links Charles_II_of_England_cropped. ... Image File history File links Charles_II_of_England_cropped. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... [This article refers to London fires predating the fire of 1666. ... Thatching is the art or craft of covering a roof with vegetative materials such as straw, reed or sedge. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... A foundry is a factory which produces castings of metal, both ferrous and non-ferrous. ... For finery forges (making iron), see finery forge. ... Glazier is a profession in which the person cuts flat glass to size as well as carpentery tasks. ... Alternate meanings: See Jetty (web server) Alternate meanings: See Jetty (river, dock and maritime structures) A double jettied timber framed building. ... Categories: Stub | House types ... A magistrate is a judicial officer. ...


The riverfront was a key area for the development of the Great Fire. The Thames offered water for the firefighting effort and hope of escape by boat, but, with stores and cellars of combustibles, the poorer districts along the riverfront presented the highest conflagration risk of any. All along the wharves, the rickety wooden tenements and tar paper shacks of the poor were shoehorned amongst "old paper buildings and the most combustible matter of Tarr, Pitch, Hemp, Rosen, and Flax which was all layd up thereabouts."[13] London was also full of black powder (gunpowder), especially along the riverfront. Much of it was left in the homes of private citizens from the days of the English Civil War, as the former members of Cromwell's New Model Army still retained their muskets and the powder with which to load them. Five to six hundred tons of powder were stored in the Tower of London at the north end of London Bridge. The ship chandlers along the wharves also held large stocks, stored in wooden barrels. Tar paper is a heavy-duty paper used in construction. ... Tar can be produced from corn stalks by heating in a microwave. ... The pitch drop experiment. ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... Black powder was the original gunpowder and practically the only known propellant and explosive until the middle of the 19th century. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... The New Model Army became the best known of the various Parliamentarian armies in the English Civil War. ... A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smooth-bore long gun. ... For other uses, see London Bridge (disambiguation). ... A ship chandler is a retail dealer in special supplies or equipment for ships, who may also be responsible for the berthing and docking of the vessel before it arrives into port and is usually considered the liaison officer for the vessels needs and demands in a foreign port. ...


London Bridge, the only physical connection between the City and the south side of the river Thames, was itself covered with houses and had been noted as a deathtrap in the fire of 1632. By Sunday's dawn these houses were burning, and Samuel Pepys, observing the conflagration from the Tower of London, recorded great concern for friends living on the bridge.[14] There were fears that the flames would cross London Bridge to threaten the borough of Southwark on the south bank, but this danger was averted by an open space between buildings on the bridge which acted as a firebreak.[15] Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... Look up Borough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other places with the same name, see Southwark (disambiguation). ... A firebreak is a usually-man-made gap in vegetation that is expected to slow or stop the progress of wildfires. ...


The 18-foot (5.5 m) high Roman wall enclosing the City put the fleeing homeless at risk of being shut into the inferno. Once the riverfront was on fire and the escape route by boat cut off, the only way out was through the eight gates in the wall. During the first couple of days, few people had any notion of fleeing the burning City altogether: they would remove what they could carry of belongings to the nearest "safe house", in many cases the parish church, or the precincts of St. Paul's Cathedral, only to have to move again hours later. Some moved their belongings and themselves "four and five times" in a single day.[16] The perception of a need to get beyond the walls only took root late on the Monday, and then there were near-panic scenes at the narrow gates as distraught refugees tried to get out with their bundles, carts, horses, and wagons.


The crucial factor in frustrating firefighting efforts was the narrowness of the streets. Even under normal circumstances, the mix of carts, wagons, and pedestrians in the undersized alleys was subject to frequent traffic jams and gridlock. During the fire, the passages were additionally blocked by refugees camping in them amongst their rescued belongings, or escaping outwards, away from the centre of destruction, as demolition teams and fire engine crews struggled in vain to move in towards it.


Seventeenth-century firefighting

Firehooks used to fight a fire at Tiverton in Devon, England, 1612.
Firehooks used to fight a fire at Tiverton in Devon, England, 1612.
Advertisement for a comparatively small and manoeuvrable seventeenth-century fire engine on wheels: "These Engins, (which are the best) to quinch great Fire; are made by John Keeling in Black Fryers (after many years' Experience)."
Advertisement for a comparatively small and manoeuvrable seventeenth-century fire engine on wheels: "These Engins, (which are the best) to quinch great Fire; are made by John Keeling in Black Fryers (after many years' Experience)."

Fires were common in the crowded wood-built city with its open fireplaces, candles, ovens, and stores of combustibles. There was no police or fire department to call, but London's local militia, known as the Trained Bands or Train-band, was at least in principle available for general emergencies, and watching for fire was one of the jobs of the watch, a thousand watchmen or "bellmen" who patrolled the streets at night.[17] Self-reliant community procedures for dealing with fires were in place, and were usually effective. Public-spirited citizens would be alerted to a dangerous house fire by muffled peals on the church bells, and would congregate hastily to use the available techniques, which relied on demolition and water. By law, the tower of every parish church had to hold equipment for these efforts: long ladders, leather buckets, axes, and "firehooks" for pulling down buildings (see illustration right).[18] Sometimes taller buildings were levelled to the ground quickly and effectively by means of controlled gunpowder explosions. This drastic method for creating firebreaks was increasingly used towards the end of the Great Fire, and modern historians believe it was what finally won the struggle.[19] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3168x2500, 5003 KB) Firehooks used to fight a fire at Tiverton in Devon, England, 1612. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3168x2500, 5003 KB) Firehooks used to fight a fire at Tiverton in Devon, England, 1612. ... Tiverton is a town in the County of Devon, in England. ... Part of the seafront of Torquay, south Devon, at high tide Devon is a large county in South West England, bordered by Cornwall to the west, and Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... Image File history File links 17th. ... Image File history File links 17th. ... Fire Engine in South Bend, Indiana. ... Categories: City of London | Districts of London | London geography stubs ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an organization of citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... Trainbands, a contraction of trained bands, were companies of militia in England or The Americas, first organized in the 16th century and dissolved in the 18th. ... The Watch is the forty-sixth episode of the hit sitcom Seinfeld. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ...


Demolishing the houses downwind of a dangerous fire by means of firehooks or explosives was often an effective way of containing the destruction. This time, however, demolition was fatally delayed for hours by the Lord Mayor's lack of leadership and failure to give the necessary orders.[20] By the time orders came directly from the King to "spare no houses", the fire had devoured many more houses, and the demolition workers could no longer get through the crowded streets. Councillor Patrick (Pat) John Stannard, Lord Mayor of Oxford (2004). ...


The use of water to extinguish the fire was also frustrated. In principle, water was available from a system of elm pipes which supplied 30,000 houses via a high water tower at Cornhill, filled from the river at high tide, and also via a reservoir of Hertfordshire spring water in Islington.[21] It was often possible to open a pipe near a burning building and connect it to a hose to play on a fire, or fill buckets. Additionally, Pudding Lane was close to the river itself. Theoretically, all the lanes up to the bakery and adjoining buildings from the river should have been manned with double rows of firefighters passing full buckets up to the fire and empty buckets back down to the river. This did not happen, or at least was no longer happening by the time Pepys viewed the fire from the river at mid-morning on the Sunday. Pepys comments in his diary on how nobody was trying to put it out, but instead fleeing from it in fear, hurrying "to remove their goods, and leave all to the fire." The flames crept towards the riverfront with little interference from the overwhelmed community and soon torched the flammable warehouses along the wharves. The resulting conflagration not only cut off the firefighters from the immediate water supply of the river, but also set alight the water wheels under London Bridge which pumped water to the Cornhill water tower; the direct access to the river and the supply of piped water failed together. Species See Elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees making up the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, found throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Siberia to Indonesia, Mexico to Japan. ... The mushroom-shaped concrete water tower of Roihuvuori in Helsinki, Finland was built in the 1970s. ... Cornhill is one of the principal streets of the City of London, the historic nucleus of modern London. ... , Islington is the central district of the London Borough of Islington. ... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ...


London possessed advanced firefighting technology in the form of fire engines, which had been used in earlier large-scale fires. However, unlike the useful firehooks, these large pumps had rarely proved flexible or functional enough to make much difference. Only some of them had wheels, others were mounted on wheelless sleds.[22] They had to be brought a long way, tended to arrive too late, and, with spouts but no delivery hoses, had limited reach.[23] On this occasion an unknown number of fire engines were either wheeled or dragged through the streets, some from across the City. The piped water that they were designed for had already failed, but parts of the river bank could still be reached. As gangs of men tried desperately to manoeuvre the engines right up to the river to fill their reservoirs, several of the engines toppled into the Thames. The heat from the flames was by then too great for the remaining engines to get within a useful distance; they could not even get into Pudding Lane. Fire Engine in South Bend, Indiana. ...


Development of the fire

The personal experiences of many Londoners during the fire are glimpsed in letters and memoirs. The two most famous diarists of the Restoration, Samuel Pepys (1633–1703) and John Evelyn (1620–1706), recorded the events and their own reactions day by day, and made great efforts to keep themselves informed of what was happening all over the City and beyond. For example, they both travelled out to the Moorfields park area north of the City on the Wednesday—the fourth day—to view the mighty encampment of distressed refugees there, which shocked them. Their diaries are the most important sources for all modern retellings of the disaster. The most recent books on the fire, by Tinniswood (2003) and Hanson (2001), also rely on the brief memoirs of William Taswell (1651–82), who was a fourteen-year-old schoolboy at Westminster School in 1666. King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... John Evelyn. ... In London, the Moorfields were one of the last pieces of open land in the City of London, near the Moorgate. ... A memoir, as a literary genre, forms a sub-class of autobiography. ... For other uses, see Westminster School (disambiguation). ...


After two rainy summers in 1664 and 1665, London had lain under an exceptional drought since November 1665, and the wooden buildings were tinder-dry after the long hot summer of 1666. The bakery fire in Pudding Lane spread at first due west, fanned by an eastern gale. Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Sunday

Approximate damage by the evening of Sunday, 2 September.
Approximate damage by the evening of Sunday, 2 September.[24]
"It made me weep to see it." Samuel Pepys (1633–1703) painted by John Hayls in 1666, the year of the Great Fire.
"It made me weep to see it." Samuel Pepys (1633–1703) painted by John Hayls in 1666, the year of the Great Fire.

A fire broke out at Thomas Farriner's bakery in Pudding Lane a little after midnight on Sunday, 2 September. The family was trapped upstairs, but managed to climb from an upstairs window to the house next door, except for a maidservant who was too frightened to try, and became the first victim.[25] The neighbours tried to help douse the fire; after an hour the parish constables arrived and judged that the adjoining houses had better be demolished to prevent further spread. The householders protested, and the Lord Mayor Sir Thomas Bloodworth, who alone had the authority to override their wishes, was summoned. When Bloodworth arrived, the flames were consuming the adjoining houses and creeping towards the paper warehouses and flammable stores on the riverfront. The more experienced firefighters were clamoring for demolition, but Bloodworth refused, on the argument that most premises were rented and the owners could not be found. Bloodworth is generally thought to have been appointed to the office of Lord Mayor as a yes man, rather than for any of the needful capabilities for the job; he panicked when faced with a sudden emergency.[26] Pressed, he made the often-quoted remark "Pish! A woman could piss it out", and left. After the City had been destroyed, Samuel Pepys, looking back on the events, wrote in his diary on 7 September 1666: "People do all the world over cry out of the simplicity [the stupidity] of my Lord Mayor in general; and more particularly in this business of the fire, laying it all upon him." Image File history File links Fire_thumb_sunday. ... Image File history File links Fire_thumb_sunday. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Samuel_Pepys. ... Image File history File links Samuel_Pepys. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... John Hayls (1600 - 1679) was an English Baroque era painter. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In British history, a parish constable was a law enforcement officer, usually unpaid and part-time, serving a parish. ... Councillor Patrick (Pat) John Stannard, Lord Mayor of Oxford (2004). ... Sir Thomas Bloodworth (sometimes spelled Bludworth) (1620-1682) was Lord Mayor of London from October 1665 to October 1666. ... For other uses, see Yes man (disambiguation). ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ...


Around 7 a.m. on Sunday morning, Pepys, who was a significant official in the Navy Office, climbed the Tower of London to get an aerial view of the fire, and recorded in his diary that the eastern gale had turned it into a conflagration. It had burned down several churches and, he estimated, 300 houses, and reached the riverfront. The houses on London Bridge were burning. Taking a boat to inspect the destruction around Pudding Lane at close range, Pepys describes a "lamentable" fire, "everybody endeavouring to remove their goods, and flinging into the river or bringing them into lighters that layoff; poor people staying in their houses as long as till the very fire touched them, and then running into boats, or clambering from one pair of stairs by the water-side to another." Pepys continued westward on the river to the court at Whitehall, "where people come about me, and did give them an account dismayed them all, and word was carried in to the King. So I was called for, and did tell the King and Duke of Yorke what I saw, and that unless his Majesty did command houses to be pulled down nothing could stop the fire. They seemed much troubled, and the King commanded me to go to my Lord Mayor from him, and command him to spare no houses, but to pull down before the fire every way." Charles' brother James, Duke of York, offered the use of the Royal Life Guards to help fight the fire.[27] Lighter riding the current under Tower Bridge, London, circa 1928 A lighter is a type of flat-bottomed barge used to transfer goods to and from moored ships. ... Whitehall, London, looking south towards the Houses of Parliament. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Life Guards on parade The Life Guards is the senior regiment of the British Army. ...


A mile west of Pudding Lane, by Westminster Stairs, young William Taswell, a schoolboy who had bolted from the early morning service in Westminster Abbey, saw some refugees arrive in for-hire lighter boats, unclothed and covered only with blankets.[28] The services of the lightermen had suddenly become extremely expensive, and only the luckiest refugees secured a place in a boat. The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


The fire spread quickly in the high wind. By mid-morning on Sunday, people abandoned attempts at extinguishing the fire and fled; their moving human mass and their bundles and carts made the lanes impassable for firefighters and carriages. Pepys took a coach back into the city from Whitehall, but only reached St. Paul's Cathedral before he had to get out and walk. Handcarts with goods and pedestrians were still on the move, away from the fire, heavily weighed down. The parish churches not directly threatened were filling up with furniture and valuables, which would soon have to be moved further afield. Pepys found Mayor Bloodworth trying to coordinate the firefighting efforts and near collapse, "like a fainting woman", crying out plaintively in response to the King's message that he was pulling down houses. "But the fire overtakes us faster than we can do it." Holding on to his civic dignity, he refused James' offer of soldiers and then went home to bed.[29] Charles sailed down from Whitehall in the Royal barge to inspect the scene. He found that houses still were not being pulled down in spite of Bloodworth's assurances to Pepys, and daringly overrode the authority of Bloodworth to order wholesale demolitions west of the fire zone.[30] The delay rendered these measures largely futile, as the fire was already out of control.


By Sunday afternoon, 18 hours after the alarm was raised in Pudding Lane, the fire had become a raging firestorm which created its own weather. A tremendous uprush of hot air above the flames was driven by the chimney effect wherever constrictions such as jettied buildings narrowed the air current and left a vacuum at ground level. The resulting strong inward winds did not tend to put the fire out, as might be thought;[31] instead, they added fresh oxygen to the flames, and the turbulence created by the uprush made the wind veer erratically both north and south of the main, easterly, direction of the gale which was still blowing. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Stack effect is the ventilation in buildings and chimneys that results from thermal differences between indoor and outside temperature. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes. ...


In the early evening, with his wife and some friends, Pepys went again on the river "and to the fire up and down, it still encreasing." They ordered the boatman to go "so near the fire as we could for smoke; and all over the Thames, with one's face in the wind, you were almost burned with a shower of firedrops." When the "firedrops" became unbearable, the party went on to an alehouse on the south bank and stayed there till darkness came and they could see the fire on London Bridge and across the river, "as only one entire arch of fire from this to the other side of the bridge, and in a bow up the hill for an arch of above a mile long: it made me weep to see it." This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...


Monday

Approximate damage by the evening of Monday, 3 September.
Approximate damage by the evening of Monday, 3 September.
John Evelyn (1620–1706) in 1651.
John Evelyn (1620–1706) in 1651.

By dawn on Monday, 3 September, the fire was principally expanding north and west, the turbulence of the firestorm pushing the flames both more to the south and more to the north than the day before.[32] The push to the south was in the main halted by the river itself, but had torched the houses on London Bridge, and was threatening to cross the bridge and endanger the borough of Southwark on the south riverbank. Southwark was preserved by a pre-existent firebreak on the bridge, a long gap between the buildings which had saved the south side of the Thames in the fire of 1632 and now did so again.[33] The corresponding push to the north drove the flames into the heart of the City. Several observers emphasise the despair and helplessness which seemed to seize the Londoners on this second day, and the lack of efforts to save the wealthy, fashionable districts which were now menaced by the flames, such as the Royal Exchange—combined bourse and shopping mall—and the opulent consumer goods shops in Cheapside. The Royal Exchange caught fire in the late afternoon, and was a smoking shell within a few hours. John Evelyn, courtier and diarist, wrote: Image File history File links Fire_thumb_monday. ... Image File history File links Fire_thumb_monday. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (819x991, 84 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John Evelyn User:Frutti di Mare/Sandbox Great Fire of London ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (819x991, 84 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John Evelyn User:Frutti di Mare/Sandbox Great Fire of London ... John Evelyn. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other places with the same name, see Southwark (disambiguation). ... The term Royal Exchange can refer to: The Royal Exchange in London The Royal Exchange in Manchester The Royal Exchange Theatre in Manchester This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A stock exchange is an organization of which the members are stock brokers. ... This article is about the street in London. ...

The conflagration was so universal, and the people so astonished, that from the beginning, I know not by what despondency or fate, they hardly stirred to quench it, so that there was nothing heard or seen but crying out and lamentation, running about like distracted creatures without at all attempting to save even their goods, such a strange consternation there was upon them.[34]

Evelyn lived four miles (6 km) outside the City, in Deptford, and so did not see the early stages of the disaster. On Monday, joining many other upper-class people, he went by coach to Southwark to watch the view that Pepys had seen the day before, of the burning City across the river. The conflagration was much larger now: "the whole City in dreadful flames near the water-side; all the houses from the Bridge, all Thames-street, and upwards towards Cheapside, down to the Three Cranes, were now consumed."[35] In the evening, Evelyn reported that the river was covered with barges and boats making their escape piled with goods. He observed a great exodus of carts and pedestrians through the bottleneck City gates, making for the open fields to the north and east, "which for many miles were strewed with movables of all sorts, and tents erecting to shelter both people and what goods they could get away. Oh, the miserable and calamitous spectacle!" This article is about the district in London. ...

The London Gazette for September 3September 10, with an account of the Great Fire. Click on the image to enlarge and read.

Suspicion soon arose in the threatened city that the fire was no accident. The swirling winds carried sparks and burning flakes long distances to lodge on thatched roofs and in wooden gutters, causing seemingly unrelated house fires to break out far from their source and giving rise to rumours that fresh fires were being set on purpose. Foreigners were immediately suspect due to the ongoing Second Anglo-Dutch War. As fear and suspicion hardened into certainty on the Monday, reports circulated of imminent invasion, and of foreign undercover agents seen casting "fireballs" into houses, or caught with hand grenades or matches.[36] There was a wave of street violence.[37] William Taswell saw a mob loot the shop of a French painter and level it to the ground, and watched in horror as a blacksmith walked up to a Frenchman in the street and hit him over the head with an iron bar. The fears of terrorism received an extra boost from the disruption of communications and news as vital facilities were devoured by the fire. The General Letter Office in Threadneedle Street, through which post for the entire country passed, burned down early on Monday morning. The London Gazette just managed to put out its Monday issue before the printer's premises went up in flames (this issue contained mainly society gossip, with a small note about a fire that had broken out on Sunday morning and "which continues still with great violence"). The whole nation depended on these communications, and the void they left filled up with rumours. There were also religious alarms of renewed Gunpowder Plots. As suspicions rose to panic and collective paranoia on the Monday, both the Trained Bands and the Coldstream Guards focused less on firefighting and more on rounding up foreigners, Catholics, and any odd-looking people, arresting them, rescuing them from mobs, or both together. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1119, 191 KB) Summary The London Gazette, front page from Monday 3 - 10 September 1666, reporting on the Fire of London. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1119, 191 KB) Summary The London Gazette, front page from Monday 3 - 10 September 1666, reporting on the Fire of London. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Rain gutter A rain gutter (also known as eavestrough, guttering or just gutter) is a narrow channel, or trough, forming the component of a roof system which collects and diverts rainwater shed by the roof. ... The Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought between England and the United Provinces from 4 March 1665 until 31 July 1667. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... The British General Post Office (GPO) was officially established in 1660 by Charles II and it eventually grew to combine the functions of both the state postal system and telecommunications carrier. ... Threadneedle Street Threadneedle Street is a road in the City of London, leading from an intersection with Poultry, Cornhill, King William Street and Lombard Street, to Bishopsgate. ... The London Gazette , front page from Monday 3 - 10 September 1666, reporting on the Great Fire of London. ... <imagemap>: no valid link was found at the end of line 11 The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was a failed attempt by a group of provincial English Catholics to kill King James I of England, his family, and most of the Protestant aristocracy in a single attack by blowing up...


The inhabitants, especially the upper class, were growing desperate to remove their belongings from the City. This provided a source of income for the able-bodied poor, who hired out as porters (sometimes simply making off with the goods), and especially for the owners of carts and boats. Hiring a cart had cost a couple of shillings on the Saturday before the fire; on the Monday it rose to as much as forty pounds, a small fortune (equivalent to over £4000 in 2005).[38] Seemingly every cart and boat owner within reach of London made their way towards the City to share in these opportunities, the carts jostling at the narrow gates with the panicked inhabitants trying to get out. The chaos at the gates was such that the magistrates ordered the gates shut on Monday afternoon, in the hope of turning the inhabitants' attention from safeguarding their own possessions to the fighting of the fire: "that, no hopes of saving any things left, they might have more desperately endeavoured the quenching of the fire."[39] This headlong and unsuccessful measure was rescinded the next day. This article is about coinage. ...


Even as order in the streets broke down, especially at the gates, and the fire raged unchecked, Monday marked the beginning of organised action. Bloodworth, who as Lord Mayor was responsible for coordinating the fire-fighting, had apparently left the City; his name is not mentioned in any contemporary accounts of the Monday events.[40] In this state of emergency, Charles again overrode the City authorities and put his brother James, Duke of York, in charge of operations. James set up command posts round the perimeter of the fire, press-ganging any men of the lower classes found in the streets into teams of well-paid and well-fed firefighters. Three courtiers were put in charge of each post, with authority from Charles himself to order demolitions. This visible gesture of solidarity from the Crown was intended to cut through the citizens' misgivings about being held financially responsible for pulling down houses. James and his life guards rode up and down the streets all Monday, rescuing foreigners from the mob and attempting to keep order. "The Duke of York hath won the hearts of the people with his continual and indefatigable pains day and night in helping to quench the Fire", wrote a witness in a letter on September 8.[41] James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Look up Impressment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On the Monday evening, hopes that the massive stone walls of Baynard's Castle, Blackfriars, the western counterpart of the Tower of London, would stay the course of the flames were dashed and this historic royal palace was completely consumed, burning all night.[42] Baynards Castle was at various times a castle, house and palace that existed on the same site, in the south west corner of the City of London, for 600 years from the time of the Norman Conquest until the Great Fire of London. ... Categories: City of London | Districts of London | London geography stubs ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ...


Tuesday

Approximate damage by the evening of Tuesday, 4 September. The fire did not spread significantly on Wednesday, 5 September.
Approximate damage by the evening of Tuesday, 4 September. The fire did not spread significantly on Wednesday, 5 September.
St. Paul's Cathedral in flames. Oil painting by anonymous artist, ca. 1670.
St. Paul's Cathedral in flames. Oil painting by anonymous artist, ca. 1670.

Tuesday, 4 September, was the day of greatest destruction.[43] The Duke of York's command post at Temple Bar, at the conjunction of The Strand and Fleet Street, was supposed to stop the fire's westward advance towards the Palace of Whitehall itself. Making a stand with his firefighters from the Fleet Bridge and down to the Thames, James hoped that the River Fleet would form a natural firebreak. However, early on Tuesday morning, the flames jumped over the Fleet, driven by the unabated easterly gale, and outflanked them, forcing them to run for it. There was consternation at the palace as the fire continued implacably westward: "Oh, the confusion there was then at that court!" wrote Evelyn. Image File history File links Fire_thumb_tuesday. ... Image File history File links Fire_thumb_tuesday. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 493 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1066 × 1296 pixel, file size: 178 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) , oil on canvas, ca. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 493 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1066 × 1296 pixel, file size: 178 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) , oil on canvas, ca. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A statue of a griffin atop the Temple Bar monument, in front of the Royal Courts of Justice. ... The Strand refers to: The Strand (band) Strand, Cape Town a beach town on False Bay Strand Magazine Strand, London, a street; and Strand National Historic Landmark District in Galveston, Texas. ... Fleet Street in 2005 Fleet Street is a famous street in London, England, named after the River Fleet. ... Entrance to the Fleet River, Samuel Scott, c. ...


Working to a plan at last, James' firefighters had also created a large firebreak to the north of the conflagration. It contained the fire until late afternoon, when the flames leaped across and began to destroy the wide, affluent luxury shopping street of Cheapside. This article is about the street in London. ...


Everybody had thought St. Paul's Cathedral an absolute refuge, with its thick stone walls and natural firebreak in the form of a wide, empty surrounding plaza. It had been crammed full of rescued goods and its crypt filled with the tightly packed stocks of the printers and booksellers in adjoining Paternoster Row. The building was being repaired, however, and was covered with wooden scaffolding, which caught fire on Tuesday night. Leaving school, young William Taswell stood on Westminster Stairs a mile away and watched as the flames crept round the cathedral and the burning scaffolding ignited the timbered roof beams. Within half an hour, the lead roof was melting, and the books and papers in the crypt caught with a roar. "The stones of Paul's flew like grenados, the melting lead running down the streets in a stream, and the very pavements glowing with fiery redness, so as no horse, nor man, was able to tread on them", reported Evelyn in his diary. The cathedral was quickly a ruin. Old St. ... Crypt is also a commonly used name of water trumpets, aquatic plants. ... Paternoster Square, redeveloped in 2003, is an area of London next to St Pauls Cathedral. ... This article is about the temporary framework. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ...


During the day, the flames began to move due east from the neighbourhood of Pudding Lane, straight against the prevailing east wind towards the Tower of London with its gunpowder stores. After waiting all day for requested help from James' official firefighters, who were busy in the west, the garrison at the Tower took matters into their own hands and created firebreaks by blowing up houses in the vicinity on a large scale, halting the advance of the fire.


Wednesday

James, Duke of York, later James II.
James, Duke of York, later James II.

The wind dropped on Tuesday evening, allowing the firebreaks created by the garrison to finally begin to take effect on Wednesday, 5 September.[44] Pepys walked all over the smouldering city, getting his feet hot, and climbed the steeple of Barking Church, from which he viewed the destroyed City, "the saddest sight of desolation that I ever saw." There were many individual fires still burning themselves out, but the Great Fire was over. Pepys visited Moorfields, a large public park immediately north of the City, and saw a great encampment of homeless refugees, "poor wretches carrying their good there, and every body keeping his goods together by themselves", and noted that the price of bread in the environs of the park had doubled. Evelyn also went out to Moorfields, which was turning into the main point of assembly for the homeless, and was horrified at the numbers of distressed people filling it, some under tents, others in makeshift shacks: "Many [were] without a rag or any necessary utensils, bed or board... reduced to extremest misery and poverty."[45] Evelyn was impressed by the pride of these distressed Londoners, "tho' ready to perish for hunger and destitution, yet not asking one pennie for relief." Image File history File links James. ... Image File history File links James. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Steeple is a the name of a number of settlements: In the United Kingdom Steeple, Cumbria Steeple, Dorset Steeple, Essex Steeple is also an architectural term. ... All Hallows By The Tower Church All Hallows_by_the_Tower is an ancient Anglican church located in Byward Street in the City of London, overlooking the Tower of London. ... In London, the Moorfields were one of the last pieces of open land in the City of London, near the Moorgate. ...


Fears of foreign terrorists and of a French and Dutch invasion were as high as ever among the traumatised fire victims, and on Wednesday night there was an outbreak of general panic at the encampments at Moorfields and Islington. A light in the sky over Fleet Street started a story that 50,000 French and Dutch immigrants, widely rumoured to have started the fire, had risen and were marching towards Moorfields to finish what the fire had begun: to cut the men's throats, rape the women, and steal their few possessions. Surging into the streets, the frightened mob fell on any foreigners they happened to encounter, and were, according to Evelyn, only "with infinite pains and great difficulty" appeased and pushed back into the fields by the Trained Bands, troops of Life Guards, and members of the court. The mood was now so volatile that Charles feared a full-scale London rebellion against the monarchy. Food production and distribution had been disrupted to the point of non-existence, and Charles announced that supplies of bread would be brought into the City every day, and safe markets set up round the perimeter. These markets were for buying and selling; there was no question of distributing emergency aid. , Islington is the central district of the London Borough of Islington. ...


Deaths and destruction

The LONDONERS Lamentation, a broadside ballad published in 1666 giving an account of the fire, and of the limits of its destruction. Click on the image to enlarge and read.

Only a few deaths from the fire are officially recorded, and actual deaths are also traditionally supposed to have been few. Porter gives the figure as eight[46] and Tinniswood as "in single figures", although he adds that some deaths must have gone unrecorded and that, besides direct deaths from burning and smoke inhalation, refugees also perished in the impromptu camps.[47] Hanson takes issue with the whole notion that there were only a few deaths, enumerating known deaths from hunger and exposure among survivors of the holocaust, "huddled in shacks or living among the ruins that had once been their homes" in the cold winter that followed, including, for instance, the dramatist James Shirley and his wife. Hanson also maintains that "it stretches credulity to believe that the only papists or foreigners being beaten to death or lynched were the ones rescued by the Duke of York", that official figures say very little about the fate of the undocumented poor, and that the heat at the heart of the firestorms, far higher than the heat of an ordinary house fire, was sufficient to fully consume bodies, or leave only a few skull fragments. The fire, fed not merely by wood, fabrics, and thatch, but also by the oil, pitch, coal, tallow, fats, sugar, alcohol, turpentine, and gunpowder stored in the riverside district, melted the imported steel lying along the wharves (melting point between 1,250 °C (2,300 F) and 1,480 °C (2,700 F)) and the great iron chains and locks on the City gates (melting point between 1,100 °C (2,000 F) and 1,650 °C (3000 F)). Teeth alone might have resisted such temperatures, but the poor seldom had any. Nor would anonymous bone fragments have been of much interest to the hungry people sifting through the tens of thousands of tons of rubble and debris after the fire, looking for valuables, or to the workmen clearing away the rubble later for the rebuilding. Appealing to common sense and "the experience of every other major urban fire down the centuries", Hanson emphasises that the fire attacked the rotting tenements of the poor with furious speed, surely trapping at the very least "the old, the very young, the halt and the lame" and burying the dust and ashes of their bones under the rubble of cellars; making for a death toll not of four or eight, but of "several hundred and quite possibly several thousand."[48] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1210x882, 153 KB) Summary Rationale of PD-Art license: textual content is public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1210x882, 153 KB) Summary Rationale of PD-Art license: textual content is public domain. ... Printed lyrics of folk songs were extremely popular from the 16th century until the early 20th century. ... Smoke inhalation is the primary cause of death in victims of indoor fires. ... Look up exposure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... James Shirley (or Sherley) (September 1596 - October 29, 1666), was an English dramatist. ... Papist is a term, usually disparaging, referring to a member of the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ...


The material destruction has been computed at 13,200 houses, 87 parish churches, 44 Company Halls, the Royal Exchange, the Custom House, St. Paul's Cathedral, the Bridewell Palace and other City prisons, the General Letter Office, and the three western city gates, Ludgate, Newgate, and Aldersgate.[49] The monetary value of the loss, first estimated at £100,000,000 in the currency of the time, was later reduced to an uncertain £10,000,000[50] (over £1,000,000,000 in 2005 pounds).[51] Evelyn believed that he saw as many as "200,000 people of all ranks and stations dispersed, and lying along their heaps of what they could save" in the fields towards Islington and Highgate.[52] Livery Companies are trade associations based in the City of London. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Custom House is an area of the London Borough of Newham. ... The Pass Room at Bridewell from Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808–1811), drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin. ... The British General Post Office (GPO) was officially established in 1660 by Charles II and it eventually grew to combine the functions of both the state postal system and telecommunications carrier. ... Ludgate was the westernmost gate in London Wall. ... Newgate was a gate in the west of London Wall round the City of London. ... Aldersgate was a gate in the London Wall in the City of London, which has given its name to Aldersgate Street, a road leading north from the site of the gate, towards Clerkenwell in the London Borough of Islington. ... , Islington is the central district of the London Borough of Islington. ... View of Highgate, John Constable, 1st quarter of 19th century. ...


Aftermath

An example of the urge to identify scapegoats for the fire is the acceptance of the confession of a simple-minded French watchmaker, Robert Hubert, who claimed he was an agent of the Pope and had started the Great Fire in Westminster.[53] He later changed his story to say that he had started the fire at the bakery in Pudding Lane. Hubert was convicted, despite some misgivings about his fitness to plead, and hanged at Tyburn on September 28, 1666. After his death, it became apparent that he had not arrived in London until two days after the fire started.[54] These allegations that Catholics had started the fire were exploited as powerful political propaganda by opponents of pro-Catholic Charles II's court, mostly during the Popish Plot and the exclusion crisis later in his reign.[55] Robert Hubert (b. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... In the law of England and Wales, Fitness to Plead is covered in the Criminal Procedure (Insanity and Unfitness to Plead) Act 1991. ... Tyburn was a former village in the county of Middlesex close to the current location of Marble Arch. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... The Popish Plot was an alleged Catholic conspiracy. ...


In the chaos and unrest after the fire, Charles II feared another London rebellion. He encouraged the homeless to move away from London and settle elsewhere, immediately issuing a proclamation that "all Cities and Towns whatsoever shall without any contradiction receive the said distressed persons and permit them the free exercise of their manual trades." A special Fire Court was set up to deal with disputes between tenants and landlords and decide who should rebuild, based on ability to pay. The Court was in session from February 1667 to September 1672. Cases were heard and a verdict usually given within a day, and without the Fire Court, lengthy legal wrangles would have seriously delayed the rebuilding which was so necessary if London was to recover. Encouraged by Charles, radical rebuilding schemes for the gutted City poured in. If it had been rebuilt under these plans, London would have rivalled Paris in Baroque magnificence (see Evelyn's plan on the right). The Crown and the City authorities attempted to establish "to whom all the houses and ground did in truth belong" in order to negotiate with their owners about compensation for the large-scale re-modelling that these plans entailed, but that unrealistic idea had to be abandoned. Exhortations to bring workmen and measure the plots on which the houses had stood were mostly ignored by people worried about day-to-day survival, as well as by those who had left the capital; for one thing, with the shortage of labour following on the fire, it was impossible to secure workmen for the purpose. Apart from Wren and Evelyn, it is known that Robert Hooke, Valentine Knight and Richard Newcourt proposed rebuilding plans. For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 – March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ...

John Evelyn's plan never carried out, for rebuilding a radically different City of London.
John Evelyn's plan never carried out, for rebuilding a radically different City of London.
The Monument, London to commemorate the Great Fire of London, designed by Sir Christopher Wren
The Monument, London to commemorate the Great Fire of London, designed by Sir Christopher Wren

With the complexities of ownership unresolved, none of the grand Baroque schemes for a City of piazzas and avenues could be realised; there was nobody to negotiate with, and no means of calculating how much compensation should be paid. Instead, the old street plan was re-created in the new City, with improvements in hygiene and fire safety: wider streets, open and accessible wharves along the length of the Thames, with no houses obstructing access to the river, and, most importantly, buildings constructed of brick and stone, not wood. New public buildings were created on their predecessors' sites; perhaps the most famous is St. Paul's Cathedral and its smaller cousins, Christopher Wren's fifty new churches. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (873x521, 694 KB) John Evelyns proposed plan for rebuilding London after the Great Fire of 1666, never carried out. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (873x521, 694 KB) John Evelyns proposed plan for rebuilding London after the Great Fire of 1666, never carried out. ... John Evelyn. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region Greater London Status sui generis, City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ... Sir Christopher Wren by Godfrey Kneller, 1711, NPG 113. ... Sir Christopher Wren by Godfrey Kneller, 1711, NPG 113. ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 339 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 339 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London in London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. ...


On Charles' initiative, a Monument to the Great Fire of London, designed by Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke, was erected near Pudding Lane after the fire. Standing 61 metres tall and known simply as "The Monument", it is a familiar London landmark which has given its name to a tube station. In 1668 accusations against the Catholics were added to the Monument which read, in part: The Monument, London to commemorate the Great Fire of London, designed by Sir Christopher Wren The viewing platform The Monument seen from the ground The Monument to the Fire of London, more commonly known as The Monument, is a 61-metre (202-foot) tall stone Roman doric column in the... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 – March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ... For the station called Monument on the Tyne and Wear Metro, see Monument Metro station Bank and Monument are interlinked stations, spanning the length of King William Street in the City of London. ...

Here by permission of heaven, hell broke loose upon this Protestant city.....the most dreadful Burning of this City; begun and carried on by the treachery and malice of the Popish faction...Popish frenzy which wrought such horrors, is not yet quenched...

Aside from the four years of James II's rule from 1685 to 1689, the inscription remained in place until 1830 and the passage of the Catholic Emancipation Act.[56] James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Catholic Emancipation was a process in Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century which involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics which had been introduced by the Act of Uniformity and the Test Acts. ...


Another monument, the Golden Boy of Pye Corner in Smithfield, marks the spot where the fire stopped. According to the inscription, the fact that the fire started at Pudding Lane and stopped at Pye Corner was an indication that the Fire was evidence of God's wrath on the City of London for the sin of gluttony. Golden Boy of Pye Corner The Golden Boy of Pye Corner is located on the corner of Giltspur Street and Cock Lane in Smithfield, London. ... Smithfield is the name of several places in England, the United States of America, Ireland, Australia and South Africa. ... Gluttony can also refer to a character named Gluttony - a homonculus from the anime series Full Metal Alchemist Gluttony is the over-indulgence and over-consumption of food, drink, or intoxicants to the point of waste. ...


The Great Plague epidemic of 1665 is believed to have killed a sixth of London's inhabitants, or 80,000 people,[57] and it is sometimes suggested, given the fact that plague epidemics did not recur in London after the fire,[58] that the Great Fire saved lives in the long run by burning down so much unsanitary housing with the accompanying rats and their fleas (which transmitted the plague). Historians disagree as to whether the fire played a part in preventing future major outbreaks. The Museum of London website claims that there was a connection,[59] while historian Roy Porter points out that the fire left the most insalubrious parts of London, the slum suburbs, untouched.[60] Alternative epidemiological explanations have been put forward, along with the observation that the disease disappeared from almost every other European city at the same time.[61] A bill of mortality for the plague year of 1665. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... For other uses, see Flea (disambiguation). ... Interior showing the Mayors state coach The Museum of London documents the history of London from the Palaeolithic to the present day. ... Roy Porter (31 December 1946 to 3 March 2002) was a British historian noted for his work on the history of medicine. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ...


Notes

  1. ^ All dates are given according to the New Style.
  2. ^ Porter, 69–80.
  3. ^ Tinniswood, 4, 101.
  4. ^ Reddaway, 27.
  5. ^ Morgan, 293–4.
  6. ^ John Evelyn in 1659, quoted in Tinniswood, 3. The section "London in the 1660s" is based on Tinniswood, 1–11, unless otherwise indicated.
  7. ^ Porter, 80.
  8. ^ 330 acres is the size of the area within the Roman wall according to standard reference works (see, for instance, Sheppard, 37), although Tinniswood gives that area as a square mile (667 acres).
  9. ^ Hanson, 80.
  10. ^ See Hanson, 85–88, for the Republican temper of London.
  11. ^ Hanson, 77–80. The section "Fire hazards in the City" is based on Hanson 77–101 unless otherwise indicated.
  12. ^ Rege Sincera (pseudonym), Observations both Historical and Moral upon the Burning of London, September 1666, quoted by Hanson, 80.
  13. ^ Letter from an unknown correspondent to Lord Conway, September 1666, quoted by Tinniswood, 45–46.
  14. ^ All quotes from and details involving Samuel Pepys come from his diary entry for the day referred to.
  15. ^ Robinson, Bruce, "London's Burning: The Great Fire"
  16. ^ Gough MSS London14, the Bodleian Library, quoted by Hanson, 123.
  17. ^ Hanson, 82. The section "Fire hazards in the City" is based on Tinniswood, 46–52, and Hanson, 75–78 unless otherwise indicated.
  18. ^ A firehook was a heavy pole perhaps 30 feet (9 m) long with a strong hook and ring at one end, which would be attached to the roof trees of a threatened house and operated by means of ropes and pulleys to pull the building down. (Tinniswood, 49).
  19. ^ Reddaway, 25.
  20. ^ "Bludworth's failure of nerve was crucial" (Tinniswood, 52).
  21. ^ See Robinson, London:Brighter Lights, Bigger City" and Tinniswood, 48–49.
  22. ^ Compare Hanson, who claims they had wheels (76), and Tinniswood, who states they did not (50).
  23. ^ The fire engines, for which a patent had been granted in 1625, were single-acting force pumps worked by long handles at the front and back (Tinniswood, 50).
  24. ^ The information in the day-by-day maps comes from Tinniswood, 58, 77, 97.
  25. ^ Tinniswood 42–43.
  26. ^ Tinniswood, 44: "He didn't have the experience, the leadership skills or the natural authority to take charge of the situation."
  27. ^ Pepys' diary, 2 September 1666.
  28. ^ Tinniswood, 93.
  29. ^ Tinniswood, 53.
  30. ^ London Gazette, September 3, 1666.
  31. ^ See firestorm and Hanson, 102–105.
  32. ^ The section "Monday" is based on Tinniswood, 58–74, unless otherwise indicated.
  33. ^ Robinson, "London's Burning: The Great Fire".
  34. ^ All quotes from and details involving John Evelyn come from his diary.
  35. ^ Evelyn, 10.
  36. ^ Hanson, 139.
  37. ^ Reddaway, 22, 25.
  38. ^ Hanson, 156–57.
  39. ^ Quoted by Hanson, 158.
  40. ^ Tinnisworth, 71.
  41. ^ Spelling modernised for clarity; quoted by Tinniswood, 80.
  42. ^ Walter George Bell (1929) The Story of London's Great Fire: 109-11. John Lane: London.
  43. ^ The section "Tuesday" is based on Tinniswood, 77–96.
  44. ^ The section "Wednesday" is based on Tinniswood, 101–10, unless otherwise indicated.
  45. ^ Quoted Tinniswood, 104.
  46. ^ Porter, 87.
  47. ^ Tinniswood, 131–35.
  48. ^ Hanson, 326–33.
  49. ^ Porter, 87–88.
  50. ^ Reddaway, 26.
  51. ^ Purchasing Power of British Pounds from 1264 to 2005
  52. ^ Reddaway, 26.
  53. ^ The section "Aftermath" is based on Reddaway, 27 ff. and Tinniswood, 213–37, unless otherwise indicated.
  54. ^ Tinniswood, 163–68.
  55. ^ Porter, Stephen (October 2006). "The great fire of London". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved on 2006-11-28. 
  56. ^ Wilde, Robert. The Great Fire of London – 1666. About.com. Retrieved on 2006-11-28.
  57. ^ Porter, 84.
  58. ^ Hanson, 249–50.
  59. ^ Ask the experts, Museum of London, accessed 27 October 2006.
  60. ^ "The plague-ravaged parts—extramural settlements like Holborn, Shoreditch, Finsbury, Whitechapel and Southwark that housed the most squalid slums—were, sadly, little touched by the Fire (burning down was what they needed)" (Porter, 80).
  61. ^ Hanson, 249–50.

In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... John Evelyn. ... The title of Viscount Conway was created in the Peerage of England in 1624. ... Entrance to the Library, with the coats-of-arms of several Oxford colleges The Bodleian Library, the main research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe, and in England is second in size only to the British Library. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... The London Gazette , front page from Monday 3 - 10 September 1666, reporting on the Great Fire of London. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of About. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Interior showing the Mayors state coach The Museum of London documents the history of London from the Palaeolithic to the present day. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Holborn (pronounced ho-bun or ho-burn) is a place in London, named after a tributary to the river Fleet that flowed through the area, the Hole-bourne (the stream in the hollow). ... Shoreditch Town Hall Shoreditch is a place in the London Borough of Hackney. ... Finsbury is a place in the south of the London Borough of Islington. ... Whitechapel is a place in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, United Kingdom. ... For other places with the same name, see Southwark (disambiguation). ...

References

  • Evelyn, John (1854). Diary and Correspondence of John Evelyn, F.R.S.. London: Hursst and Blackett. Retrieved on 2006-11-05.  Also in text version:Evelyn, John (1857). Diary and Correspondence of John Evelyn, F.R.S.. Retrieved on 2007-01-01. 
  • Hanson, Neil (2001). The Dreadful Judgement: The True Story of the Great Fire of London. New York: Doubleday.  For a review of Hanson's work, see Lauzanne, Alain. Revue pluridisciplinaire du monde anglophone (English). Cercles. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  • Morgan (2000). Oxford Illustrated History of Britain. Oxford: Oxford. 
  • Pepys, Samuel (1995). in Robert Latham and William Matthews (eds.): The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Vol. 7. London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-499027-7.  First published between 1970 and 1983, by Bell & Hyman, London. Quotations from and details involving Pepys are taken from this standard, and copyright, edition. All web versions of the diaries are based on public domain 19th century editions and unfortunately contain many errors, as the shorthand in which Pepy's diaries were originally written was not accurately transcribed until the pioneering work of Latham and Matthews.
  • Porter, Roy (1994). London: A Social History. Cambridge: Harvard. 
  • Reddaway, T. F. (1940). The Rebuilding of London after the Great Fire. London: Jonathan Cape. 
  • Robinson, Bruce. London: Brighter Lights, Bigger City. BBC. Retrieved on 2006-08-12. 
  • Sheppard, Francis (1998). London: A History. Oxford: Oxford. 
  • Tinniswood, Adrian (2003). By Permission of Heaven: The Story of the Great Fire of London. London: Jonathan Cape. 

John Evelyn. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Evelyn. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... Robert Latham could refer to: Robert Gordon Latham (1812–1888) English ethnologist and philologist. ... William Matthews (November 11, 1942 – November 12, 1997) was an American poet and essayist. ... Roy Porter (31 December 1946 to 3 March 2002) was a British historian noted for his work on the history of medicine. ... Bruce Robinson (born May 1, 1946) is a British writer, actor and director, best known for his film Withnail and I. He was born in Broadstairs in Kent and studied at the Central School of Speech and Drama in London. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

A bill of mortality for the plague year of 1665. ... The night of 29 December/30 December 1940 was one of the most destructive air raids of the London Blitz, destroying many Livery Halls and gutting the medieval Great Hall of the Citys Guildhall. ... Illustration of the great fire, as seen from the High Level Bridge The Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead was a tragic and spectacular series of events starting on Friday 6 October 1854, in which a substantial amount of property in the two towns was destroyed in a series of... Artists rendering of the fire, by John R Chapin, originally printed in Harpers Weekly The Great Chicago Fire was a conflagration that burned from Sunday October 8 to early Tuesday October 10, 1871, killing hundreds and destroying about four square miles in Chicago, Illinois. ... Thomas Vincent (May 1634 – October 15, 1678) was a Puritan minister and author. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ...

External links

v  d  e
Part of a series of articles on the History of London
Evolution

Londinium · Lundenwic · City of London · City of Westminster · County of London · Greater London London has a recorded history that goes back over 2,000 years. ... London has a recorded history that goes back over 2,000 years. ... London has a recorded history that goes back over 2,000 years. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region Greater London Status sui generis, City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ... The City of Westminster is a borough of London, England with city status. ... The County of London was an administrative county and ceremonial county of England from 1889 to 1965. ... Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ...

Local government

Metropolitan Board of Works · London County Council · Greater London Council · Greater London Authority · London Assembly · Mayor of London The history of local government in London, England can be broken down into a number of periods: History of local government in the United Kingdom History of London ^ a b Barlow, I., Metropolitan Government, (1991) ^ Saint, A., Politics and the people of London: the London County Council (1889-1965), (1989... The Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW) was the principal instrument of London-wide government from 1855 until the establishment of the London County Council in 1889. ... London County Council emblem is still seen today on buildings, especially housing, from that era London County Council (LCC) was the principal local government body for the County of London from 1889 until 1965, when it was replaced by the Greater London Council. ... Arms of the Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ... The London Assembly is an elected body that supervises the Greater London Authority and the Mayor of London. ... Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ...

Events

Peasants' Revolt · Black Death · Great Plague · Great Fire of London · The Great Stink · The Great Exhibition · The Blitz · Swinging London · The London Plan · 7/7 bombings · Olympic Games (1908 · 1948 · 2012) The end of the revolt: Wat Tyler (also spelt Tighler) killed by Walworth while Richard II watches, and a second image of Richard addressing the crowd The Peasants Revolt, Tyler’s Rebellion, or the Great Rising of 1381 was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... A bill of mortality for the plague year of 1665. ... Michael Faraday giving his card to Father Thames, caricature commenting on a letter of Faradays on the state of the river in the Times in Summer 1855 The Great Stink or The Big Stink was a time in the summer of 1858 during which the smell of untreated sewage... The Great Exhibition in Hyde Park 1851. ... For other uses, see Blitz. ... Swinging London is a catchall term applied to a variety of dynamic cultural trends in the United Kingdom (centred in London) in the second half of the 1960s. ... Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ... Locations of the bombings, overlaid onto a real-path map of the London Underground The 7 July 2005 London bombings (also called the 7/7 bombings) were a series of coordinated terrorist bomb blasts that hit Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ... There have been two London Olympics (London hosting the Olympic Games), in 1908 and 1948, with a third scheduled for 2012. ... The 1908 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IV Olympiad, were held in 1908 in London, England. ... The Games of the XIV Olympiad were held in 1948 at Wembley Stadium in London, England. ... “London 2012” redirects here. ...

Structures

St Paul's Cathedral · Tower of London · Baynard's Castle · Westminster Hall · London Bridge · Westminster Abbey · The Monument This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... Baynards Castle was at various times a castle, house and palace that existed on the same site, in the south west corner of the City of London, for 600 years from the time of the Norman Conquest until the Great Fire of London. ... Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see London Bridge (disambiguation). ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... The Monument, London to commemorate the Great Fire of London, designed by Sir Christopher Wren The viewing platform The Monument seen from the ground The Monument to the Fire of London, more commonly known as The Monument, is a 61-metre (202-foot) tall stone Roman doric column in the...

City of London

Corporation of London · Lord Mayor of London · Guildhall · Livery Companies · Lord Mayor's Show · Bank of England Coat of arms of the City of London as shown on Blackfriars station. ... Current Lord Mayor of London John Stuttard during the parade on November 11th, 2006 Michael Berry Savory, Previous Lord Mayor (2004–2005) The Right Honourable Lord Mayor of London is the Mayor of the City of London and head of the Corporation of London. ... The Guildhall The Guildhall complex in c. ... Livery Companies are trade associations based in the City of London. ... In 1747, the Lord Mayor went to the City of Westminster on a barge via the River Thames. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ...

Services

Bow Street Runners · Metropolitan Police Service · London Ambulance Service · London Fire Brigade · London sewerage system 19th Century depiction of the Bow Street Magistrates Court, to which the Bow Street Runners were attached. ... The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) is the name currently used by the territorial police force which is responsible for Greater London other than the City of London (the responsibility of the City of London Police). ... The London Ambulance Service (LAS) is the largest ambulance service in the world that does not directly charge its patients for its services. ... The London Fire Brigade (LFB) is the statutory fire and rescue service for London, England. ... The new Abbey Mills Pumping Station The original Abbey Mills pumping station The London sewerage system is part of the water infrastructure serving London. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Great Fire of London. 1666. (743 words)
The Great Fire of London began on the night of September 2, 1666, as a small fire on Pudding Lane, in the bakeshop of Thomas Farynor, baker to King Charles II.
The fire leapt to the hay and feed piles on the yard of the Star Inn at Fish Street Hill, and spread to the Inn.
The one positive effect of the Great Fire was that the plague, which had ravished London since 1665, diminished greatly, due to the mass death of the plague-carrying rats in the blaze.
Great Fire of London - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1961 words)
Before this fire, two early fires of London, in 1133/1135 and 1212, both of which destroyed a large part of the city, were known by the same name.
The fire of 1666 was one of the biggest calamities in the history of London, coming at the end of the Great Plague of London (an outbreak of bubonic plague that killed perhaps hundreds of thousands).
The Great Fire came at the end of the Great Plague of London, and was thought to have brought a quicker end to the plague, by killing off any disease-carrying rats and their fleas.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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