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Encyclopedia > Great Emigration
A Polish exile, a 19th century graphic
A Polish exile, a 19th century graphic

The Great Emigration (Polish: Wielka Emigracja) was an emigration of political elites from Poland from 18311870. Since the end of the 18th century, a major role in Polish political life was played by people who carried out their activities outside the country as émigrés. Their fate was a consequence of the Partitions of Poland, which completely divided the lands of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth between the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria. Because of this emigration of political elites, much of the political and ideological activity of the Polish intelligentsia during the 18th and 19th centuries was done outside of the lands of partitioned Poland. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 493 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1472 × 1788 pixel, file size: 455 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 493 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1472 × 1788 pixel, file size: 455 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Émigré is a French term that shows how Martin B. loves stephanie. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Polish emigrants in Belgium, a 19th century graphic
Polish emigrants in Belgium, a 19th century graphic

Most of the political émigrés were based in France. The most important wave of emigration came after the November Uprising of 18301831. These Poles later fought and provided valuable support during the 1846 and 1848 revolutions in Poland. Their resistance was not limited to Polish revolutionary activity, as they also participated in various lands during the Revolutions of 1848, including France, the small principalities of Germany and Italy, Austria, Hungary, and the Danubian principalities Wallachia and Moldavia, South Americans Argentina and Uruguay "Guerra Grande" and later, War of Crimea. Additional waves of émigrés came after the failures of the attempted 1848 revolution and the January Uprising of 18631864. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 547 pixelsFull resolution (2140 × 1464 pixel, file size: 642 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 547 pixelsFull resolution (2140 × 1464 pixel, file size: 642 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Coat-of-arms of the November Uprising. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allies: French Empire United Kingdom Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease 130,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1854 - 1856) was fought between Imperial Russia... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Notable Poles of the Great Emigration living in exile:

Some Poles emigrated not because of politics, but to pursue their life's goals. This was the case of Maria Curie-Skłodowska, who was unable to get accepted into any Polish universities (due to her gender and repercussions of the January Uprising), and so decided to apply to the French universities. Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, in English: Adam George Czartoryski (January 14, 1770 — July 15, 1861), Polish szlachcic, statesman and author, son of Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski and Izabela Fleming (it is rumoured he was a fruit of her liaison with Russian ambassador to Poland Nikolai Repnin[1]). He was known... The only known photograph of Frédéric Chopin, believed to have been taken by Louis-Auguste Bisson in 1849. ... Adam Mickiewicz. ... Juliusz Słowacki Juliusz Słowacki (4 September 1809–3 April 1849) was one of the most famous Polish romantic poets. ... Categories: Literature stubs | 1821 births | 1883 deaths | Polish painters | Polish poets | Polish writers ... Categories: 1812 births | 1859 deaths | Polish poets | Polish writers | Stub ... Joachim Lelewel (Warsaw, March 22, 1786- May 29, 1861), was a Polish historian and politician, from a naturalized Polish family of Prussian background. ... Maurycy Mochnacki Maurycy Mochnacki (born 13 September 1803 - died 20 December 1834 in Auxerre) was a Polish publicist. ... Joseph Conrad. ... Guillaume Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (August 26, 1880 – November 9, 1918) was a poet, writer, and art critic. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-08-17, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...


See also

Chopins Polonaise - a Ball in Hôtel Lambert in Paris, water colour and gouache, 1849-1860, painted by Teofil Kwiatkowski, National Museum in Poznań. Hôtel Lambert is a palace on Île Saint-Louis in Paris and the name-sake of a Polish 19th century political faction. ... Polish Legions (Polish Legiony Polskie) was the name of Polish armed forces created in August of 1914 in Galicia. ... Związek Jedności Narodowej (English: Union/Association of National Unity) was a secret organization formed by followers of Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski. ...

External links

  • PolishPlanet (Polish Emigration in the UK)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Migration - LoveToKnow 1911 (4801 words)
Statistics of Emigration.-The direction of the modern movement is from Europe to America, Australia and South Africa, as shown in the following table: Emigration from Certain States of Europe, 1890-1905.1 1 The figures relate only to the emigrants of each nationality emigrating from their own country to countries outside of Europe.
Thus, for Great Britain and Ireland, while the emigration of persons of British and Irish origin was, in 1905, 262,077, the immigration of persons of the same category was 122,712, leaving a net emigration of only 139,365.
For instance, in 1891 the emigration from the provinces of West Prussia and Posen was extraordinarily heavy10.9 and Io 4 per mille respectively-but the excess of births over deaths was 19.6 per mille.
Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.2, Entry 19, EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION: Library of Economics and Liberty (6785 words)
The emigration during the last decade, 1870-79, far exceeds that of any previous decade, and the indications are that the number of emigrants will rather increase than diminish during the decade now passing.
In the twelfth century large numbers of the natives of the Netherlands were induced to emigrate to Germany and become farmers, and in the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries to England, and settled there as artisans.
The great Prussian rulers have cultivated the policy of immigration on a most extensive scale, and thus maintained the original character of their parent provinces as the colonial land of the German people.
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