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Encyclopedia > Great Books of the Western World
The Great Books
The Great Books

Great Books of the Western World is a series of books originally published in the United States in 1952 by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. in an attempt to present the western canon in a single package of 54 volumes. The series is now in its second edition and contains 60 volumes. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 4909 KB) The Great Books of the Western World. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 4909 KB) The Great Books of the Western World. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. ... The Western canon is a canon of books and art (and specifically one with very loose boundaries) that has allegedly been highly influential in shaping Western culture. ...

Contents

History

The project got its start at the University of Chicago. University president Robert Hutchins collaborated with Mortimer Adler to develop a course, generally aimed at businessmen, for the purpose of filling in gaps in education, to make one more well-rounded and familiar with the "Great Books" and ideas of the past three millennia. Among the original students was William Benton, future US Senator and then CEO of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was he who proposed a series of books presenting the greatest works of the canon, complete and unabridged, to be edited by Hutchins and Adler and published by Encyclopædia Britannica. Hutchins was wary, fearing that the works would be sold and treated as encyclopedias, cheapening the great books they were. Nevertheless, he was persuaded to agree to the project and pay $60,000 for it. The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... Robert Hutchins around 1963 Robert Maynard Hutchins (January 17, 1899, Brooklyn, New York – May 17, 1977, Santa Barbara, California) was an educational philosopher, a president (1929-1945) of the University of Chicago and its chancellor (1945-1951). ... Mortimer Adler around 1963 Mortimer Jerome Adler (December 28, 1902 – June 28, 2001) was an American aristotelian philosopher and author. ... Great Books refers to a curriculum and a book list. ... William Burnett Benton (April 1, 1900 - March 18, 1973) was a U.S. senator from Connecticut (1949-1953) and publisher of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1943-1973). ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general encyclopedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. ...


After several debates about what was to be included and how the work was to be presented, and the budget exploding to $2,000,000, the project was ready for publication. It was presented at a gala at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City on April 15, 1952. In a speech made that night, Hutchins said "This is more than a set of books, and more than a liberal education. Great Books of the Western World is an act of piety. Here are the sources of our being. Here is our heritage. This is the West. This is its meaning for mankind." It was decided that the first two volumes would be presented to Queen Elizabeth and President Truman. The hotels name with a single hyphen is engraved and gilded over the entrance. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC, City That Never Sleeps, The Concrete Jungle, The City So Nice They Named It Twice Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1676 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... For the victim of Mt. ...


Sales were initially poor. After 1,863 were sold in 1952, less than one-tenth that number were sold the following year. A financial debacle loomed, until Encyclopædia Britannica altered the marketing strategy and sold the set (as Hutchins had feared) through experienced door-to-door encyclopedia salespeople. Through this method 50,000 sets were sold in 1961. In 1963 the editors published Gateway to the Great Books, a ten-volume set of readings designed as an introduction to the authors and themes in the Great Books series. Each year from 1961 to 1998 the editors published The Great Ideas Today, an annual update on the applicability of the Great Books to current issues. 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Gateway to the Great Books is a 10-volume series of books originally published by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ...


The works

Originally published in 54 volumes, The Great Books of the Western World covers topics including fiction, history, poetry, natural science, mathematics, philosophy, drama, politics, religion, economics, and ethics. The first volume, titled The Great Conversation, contains an introduction and discourse on liberal education by Hutchins. The next two volumes, "The Great Ideas: A Syntopicon", were conceived by Adler as a way of emphasizing the unity of the set and, by extension, of Western thought in general. A team of indexers spent months compiling references in all the works to such topics as "Man's freedom in relation to the will of God" and "The denial of void or vacuum in favor of a plenum". They were grouped into 102 chapters, for which Adler wrote 102 introductions. The volumes contained the following works: Fiction (from the Latin fingere, to form, create) is storytelling of imagined events and stands in contrast to non-fiction, which makes factual claims about reality. ... History studies the past in human terms. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... The lunar farside as seen from Apollo 11 Natural science is the rational study of the universe via rules or laws of natural order. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... This article is 58 kilobytes or more in size. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ethics (from the Ancient Greek Ä“thikos, the adjective of Ä“thos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of a person or group and covers the analysis and employment of concepts such as right and wrong, good and evil, and responsibility. ... The Great Conversation is a characterization of references and allusions made by authors in the Western Canon to the works of their predecessors. ... In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ...



Volume 1


Volume 2 The Great Conversation is a characterization of references and allusions made by authors in the Western Canon to the works of their predecessors. ...


Volume 3 A Gothic angel in ivory, c1250, Louvre An angel is a supernatural being found in many religions. ... Digimon, the only known animals. ... The Ancient Greek term aristocracy originally meant a system of government with rule by the best. The word is derived from two words, aristos meaning the best and kratein to rule. Aristocracies have most often been hereditary plutocracies (see below), where a sense of historical gravitas and noblesse oblige demands... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926). ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy is the science of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as auroras and cosmic background radiation). ... Many people see natural beauty in the rose. ... In ontology, a being is anything that can be said to be, either transcendantly or immanently. ... Chance can be used in any of the following contexts: Probability Luck Randomness See also the Ancient Greek concept of Chance Chance, a 1913 novel by Joseph Conrad. ... Look up Change in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... Fortitudo, by Sandro Botticelli Courage, also known as fortitude, is the ability to confront fear, pain, danger, uncertainty or intimidation. ... In law, custom, or customary law consists of established patterns of behaviour that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting. ... A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated or generally accepted rules, norms, standards or criteria, often taking the form of a custom. ... A definition is a form of words which states the meaning of a term. ... In social psychology, interpersonal attraction is the attraction between people which leads to friendships and romantic relationships. ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a synthesis of the opposing assertions, or at least a qualitative transformation in the direction of the dialogue. ... Duty is a term loosely appliedDuty to any action (or course of action) whichDutyDuty is regarded as morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any external compulsion. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Many ancient philosophies used a set of archetypal classical elements to explain patterns in nature. ... Emotional redirects here. ... While in the popular mind, eternity often simply means existing for an infinite, i. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Look up Experience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This article discusses the general concept of experience. ... A family in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 A family consists of a domestic group of people (or a number of domestic groups), typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by analogous or comparable relationships — including domestic partnership, cohabitation, adoption, surname and (in some cases) ownership (as occurred in the... For other uses of Fate, see Fate Destiny refers to a predetermined course of events. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In religion and ethics, evil refers to the morally objectionable aspects of the behaviour and reasoning of human beings — those which are deliberately void of conscience, and show a wanton penchant for destruction. ... Habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition of a stimulus. ... “Happy” redirects here. ... History studies the past in human terms. ... Honor (or honor) comprises the reputation, self-perception or moral identity of an individual or of a group. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An idea (Greek: ιδέα) is a specific thought which arises in the mind. ... For the Celine Dion song, see Immortality (Celine Dion song). ... Aristotle appears first to establish the mental behaviour of induction as a category of reasoning. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... A judgment or judgement (see spelling note below), in a legal context, is synonymous with the formal decision made by a court following a lawsuit. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... Personification of knowledge (Greek Επιστημη, Episteme) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey. ... Lady Justice is a personification of the law. ... Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation), Lives (disambiguation) or Living (disambiguation), Living Things (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος logos (the word), is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Love is any of a number of emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong affection or profound oneness. ...


Volume 4 Michelangelos David is widely considered to be one of the finest artistic portrayals of a man. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mechanics (Greek ) is the branch of physics concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effect of the bodies on their environment. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Imagination is accepted as the innate ability and process to invent partial or complete personal realms within the mind from elements derived from sense perceptions of the shared world. ... Plato and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome). ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A monarchy, from the Greek μονος, one, and αρχειν, to rule, is a form of government that has a monarch as head of state. ... Galunggung in 1982, showing a combination of natural events. ... This article is about the law definition of necessity. ... In philosophy and logic, contingency is the status of facts that are not logically necessary. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ... Look up one in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A quantifier that can be used with count nouns and is often preceded by as or too or so or that; amounting to a large but indefinite number; many temptations; the temptations are many; a good many; a great many; many directions; take as many apples as you like; too... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up Opposition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is 58 kilobytes or more in size. ... Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the fundamental laws of the universe and their precise formulation in a mathematical framework. ... Pleasure is a positive sensation, which by analogy to pain, can be physiologically described as either peripheral or central (euphoria). ... For other uses, see Pain (disambiguation). ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... A principle (not principal) is something, usually a rule or norm, that is part of the basis for something else. ... Progress can refer to: The idea of a process in which societies or individuals become better or more modern (technologically and/or socially). ... Prophecy in a broad sense, is the prediction of future events or the speaking of divine words (divine Revelation) through chosen human messengers (prophets). ... Prudence, by Luca Giordano Allegory of Prudence, by Simon Vouet Look up Prudence, prudence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Punishment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Talib Kweli album Quality (album) Quality can refer to a. ... Quantity is a kind of property which exists as magnitude or multitude. ... Reasoning is the act of using reason to derive a conclusion from certain premises. ... Look up Relation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In mathematics, a relation is a generalization of arithmetic relations, such as = and <, which occur in statements, such as 5 < 6 or 2 + 2 = 4. See relation (mathematics), binary relation (of set theory and logic) and relational algebra. ... The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has been contested since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in Universities. ... See: In logic, sameness is synonymous with identity. ... The Other or constitutive other (also referred to as othering) is a key concept in continental philosophy, opposed to the Same. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... In general linguistics Ferdinand de Saussure described a sign as a combination of a concept and a sound-image. ... Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral rule or the state of having committed such a violation. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... The soul, acording to many religious and philosophical traditions, is a self-aware ethereal substance particular to a unique living being. ... Space has been an interest for philosophers and scientists for much of human history. ... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... Temperance is the practice of moderation. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Common dictionary definitions of truth mention some form of accord with fact or reality. ... This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ... Universals (used as a noun) are either properties, relations, or types, but not classes. ... In metaphysics, particulars are, one might say, identified by what they are not: they are not abstract, not multiply instantiated. ... Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... Vice is the opposite of virtue. ... Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The symbol of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, which has become a widely recognized peace symbol. ... Wealth from the old English word weal, which means well-being or welfare. The term was originally an adjective to describe the possession of such qualities. ... // For the racing driver, see Will Power. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Antarctica Oceania Africa Asia Europe North America South America Middle East Caribbean Central Asia East Asia North Asia South Asia Southeast Asia SW. Asia Australasia Melanesia Micronesia Polynesia Central America Latin America Northern America Americas C. Africa E. Africa N. Africa Southern Africa W. Africa C. Europe E. Europe N...


Volume 5 Homer (Greek: , Hómēros) was a legendary early Greek poet and aoidos (rhapsode) traditionally credited with the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... The Iliad is, with The Odyssey, one of the two major Greek epic poems traditionally attributed to Homer, a blind Ionian poet. ... Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ...


Volume 6 Bust of Aeschylus from the Capitoline Museums, Rome Aeschylus (525 BC—456 BC; Greek: Ασχύλος) was a playwright of Ancient Greece. ... The Suppliants (Greek Hiketides, also translated as The Suppliant Maidens) is a play by Aeschylus. ... The Persians (Πέρσαι) is a tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright Aeschylus. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Επτά επί Θήβας The Seven Against Thebes is a mythic narrative that finds its classic statement in the play by Aeschylus (467 BCE) concerning the battle between the Seven led by Polynices and the army of Thebes headed by Eteocles and his supporters, traditional Theban... Prometheus Bound is an Ancient Greek play. ... The Oresteia is a trilogy of tragedies about the end of the curse on the House of Atreus, written by Aeschylus. ... The Oresteia is a trilogy of tragedies about the end of the curse on the House of Atreus, written by Aeschylus. ... The Oresteia is a trilogy of tragedies about the end of the curse on the House of Atreus, written by Aeschylus. ... The Oresteia is a trilogy of tragedies about the end of the curse on the House of Atreus, written by Aeschylus. ... Sophocles (ancient Greek: ; 495 BC - 406 BC) was the second of three great ancient Greek tragedians. ... The Oedipus Cycle consists of Sophocless works concerning Oedipus. ... Oedipus the King (Greek , Oedipus Tyrannos), also known as Oedipus Rex, is a Greek tragedy, written by Sophocles and first performed in 428 BC. The play was the second of Sophocles three Theban plays to be produced, but comes first in the internal chronology of the plays, followed by Oedipus... Oedipus at Colonus (also Oedipus Coloneus, and in Greek Οἰδίπους ἐπὶ Κολωνῷ) is one of the three Theban plays of the Athenian tragedian Sophocles. ... Antigone (Greek: Ἀντιγόνη) is a tragedy written just before or in 441 BC[1] by Sophocles. ... Ajax is a play by Sophocles. ... Electra or Elektra is a Greek tragic play by Sophocles. ... The Trachiniae (or The Women of Trachis) is a play by Sophocles, notable mainly for the unsympathetic portrayal of Heracles. ... The Philoctetes is a play by Sophocles written about 410 BC. Its subject is Philoctetes, the friend of Herakles, who was also a participant in the Trojan War. ... A statue of Euripides Euripides (Greek: Ευριπίδης) (c. ... Rhesus, possibly 450 BC, was once thought to be the earliest play by Euripides. ... Medea is a tragedy written by Euripides, based on the myth of Jason and Medea and first produced in 431 BCE. Along with the plays Philoctetes, Dictys and Theristai, which were all entered as a group, it won the third prize at the Dionysia festival. ... Euripides wrote two tragedies dealing with the myth of Hippolytus, which in ancient times were distinguished as: Hippolytus Veiled, or Hippolytos Kalyptomenos, or Hippolytos with his head covered Hippolytus Bearer of the Garland, or Hippolytos Stephanephoros, or Hippolytus with a garland Only the latter survives. ... Alcestis is one of the earliest surviving works of the Greek playwright Euripides. ... Heracleidae is a play by Euripides c. ... The Suppliants (also known as The Suppliant Women) 423 BC, is an ancient Greek play by Euripides. ... The Trojan Women (in Greek, Troiades) is a tragedy by the Greek playwright Euripides. ... Ion is an ancient Greek play by Euripides, thought to be wrtten between 414 and 412 BC. It follows the orphan Ion in the discovery of his origins. ... Helen is a drama by Euripides, probably first produced in 412 BC for the Dionysia. ... Andromache (c. ... Euripides Electra was probably written in the mid 410s BC, likely after 413 BC. It is unclear whether it was first produced before or after Sophocles version of the Electra story. ... The Bacchae (also known as The Bacchantes) is a tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright Euripides. ... Hecuba is a tragedy by Euripides written c. ... Heracles, also known as Heracles Mad, is a play by Euripides (c. ... The Phoenician Women (Also known by the Greek title, Phoenissae) is a tragedy by Euripides based on the same story as Aeschylus play Seven Against Thebes. ... Orestes (408 BCE) is an Ancient Greek play by Euripides that follows the events of Orestes after he had murdered his mother. ... Iphigeneia in Tauris (in Greek: ) is a drama by the playwright Euripides, written sometime between 414 BC and 412 BC. It bears much in common with another of Euripides plays, Helen, and is often described as a romance, a melodrama, or an escape play. ... Iphigeneia at Aulis, written in 410 BC, is the last surviving work of the playwright Euripides. ... The Cyclops is an Ancient Greek satyr play by Euripides, the only complete satyr play that has survived. ... Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , c. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Acharnians in Greek The Acharnians (Ancient Greek: / Akharneĩs) is a comedic play by the ancient Greek satirist Aristophanes. ... Aristophanes play The Knights is an unbridled criticism of Cleon, one of the most powerful men in ancient Athens. ... The Clouds (Νεφέλαι) is a comedy written by the Ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes lampooning the sophists and the intellectual trends of late fifth-century Athens. ... The Wasps is a comedy by Aristophanes. ... Peace is a comedy written and produced by the ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes. ... The Birds (Ornithes) is a comedy written by the Ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes in 414 BC, and performed that year for the Festival of Dionysus. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Frogs in Greek Frogs (Βάτραχοι (Bátrachoi)) is a comedy written by the Ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes. ... Lysistrata (Attic: Λυσιστράτη, Doric: Λυσιστράτα), Aristophanes anti-war comedy, written in 411 BC, has female characters, led by the eponymous Lysistrata, barricading the public funds building and withholding sex from their husbands to secure peace and end the Peloponnesian War. ... Thesmophoriazusae (Women Celebrating the Thesmophoria) is a comedy written by the Greek playwright Aristophanes. ... Aristophanes Assemblywomen (or in Greek Ecclesiazousae ) is a play similar in theme to Lysistrata in that a large portion of the comedy comes from women involving themselves in politics. ... In Greek mythology, Plutus (wealth) was a son of Demeter and Iasion and was the personification of wealth. ...


Volume 7 This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Histories of Herodotus by Herodotus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... History of the Peloponnesian War is an account of the battles, conflicts, and politics of the Peloponnesian War, fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens), written by an Athenian general who served in the war, Thucydides. ...


Volume 8 For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... The Charmides (Greek: ) is a dialogue of Plato, discussing the nature and utility of temperance. ... Lysis is one of the socratic dialogues written by Plato and discusses the nature of friendship. ... Laches, also known as Courage, is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato, and concerns the topic of courage. ... Protagoras is the title of one of Platos dialogues. ... Euthydemus (Euthydemos), written 380 BCE, is dialogue by Plato which satirizes the logical fallacies of the Sophists. ... Cratylus (Κρατυλος) is the name of a dialogue by Plato, written in approximately 360 BC. In the dialogue, Socrates is asked by two men, Cratylus and Hermogenes, to advise them whether names are conventional or natural, that is, whether language is a system of arbitrary signs or whether words have an... The Phaedrus, written by Plato, is a dialogue between Platos main protagonist, Socrates, and Phaedrus, an interlocutor in several dialogues. ... Platos Ion aims to give an account of poetry in dialogue form. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Meno is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato. ... Euthyphro is one of Platos known early dialogues. ... (The) Apology (of Socrates) is Platos version of the speech given by Socrates as he defends himself against the charges of being a man who corrupted the young, did not believe in the gods, and created new deities. Apology here has its earlier meaning (now usually expressed by the... The Crito (IPA [kriːtɔːn]; in English usually [ˈkɹiːtɘʊː]) is a short but important dialogue by the ancient Greek philosopher, Plato. ... It has been suggested that Phaidon be merged into this article or section. ... Gorgias is an important dialogue in which Plato sets the rhetorician, whose specialty is persuasion, in opposition to the philosopher, whose specialty is dissuasion, or refutation. ... The Republic (Greek: ) is an influential work of philosophy and political theory by the Greek philosopher Plato, written in approximately 360 BC. It is written in the format of a Socratic dialogue. ... Timaeus is a theoretical treatise of Plato in the form of a Socratic dialogue, written circa 360 BC The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world. ... Critias, a dialogue of Platos, speaks about a variety of subjects. ... Parmenides is one of the dialogues of Plato. ... The Theætetus (Θεαίτητος) is one of Platos dialogues concerning the nature of knowledge. ... The Sophist (Greek: Σοφιστής) is one of the late Dialogues of Plato, which was written much more lately than the Parmenides and the Theaetetus, probably in 360 BC.After he criticized his own Theory of Forms in the Parmenides, Plato proceeds in the Sophist with a new conception of the Forms... The Statesman, or Politikos in Greek and Politicus in Latin, is a four part dialogue contained within the work of Plato. ... Philebus is among the last of the late Socratic dialogues of the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. ... The Laws is Platos last and longest dialogue. ...


Volume 9 Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Categories (or Categoriae) is a text from Aristotles Organon that enumerates all the possible kinds of thing which can be the subject or the predicate of a proposition. ... De Interpretatione or Hermeneutics (Peri Hermeneias) is a work of the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, mainly on the philosophy of language. ... Prior Analytics is Aristotles work on deductive reasoning, part of his Organon, the organ of logical and scientific methods. ... Posterior Analytics (or Analytica Posteriora) is a text by Aristotle. ... Topics (or Topica) is a text by Aristotle. ... On Sophistical Refutations (or De Sophisticis Elenchis) is a text by Aristotle. ... Aristotles Physics, frontispice of an 1837 edition Physics (or Physica, or Physicae Auscultationes meaning lessons) is a key text in the philosophy of Aristotle. ... On Generation and Corruption (or De Generatione et Corruptione) is a text by Aristotle. ... Meteorology (or Meteorologica) is a text by Aristotle which contains his theories about the earth sciences. ... // The title of the work is (literally, of the things after physics). This is generally supposed to mean that this is just a collection of works that later editors placed after Aristotles treatises on physics, but it may well mean that the budding philosopher should study these subjects after... On the Soul (or De Anima) is a writing by Aristotle, outlining his philosophical views on the nature of living things. ...


Volume 10 Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... History of Animals (or Historia Animalium, or On the History of Animals) is a text by Aristotle. ... On the Parts of Animals (or De Partibus Animalium) is a text by Aristotle. ... On the Motion of Animals (or De Motu Animalium) is a text by Aristotle on the general principles of motion in animals. ... On the Gait of Animals (or De Motu Animalium, or On the Progression of Animals or On the Movement of Animals) is a text by Aristotle. ... On the Generation of Animals (or De Generatione Animalium) is a text by Aristotle. ... Nicomachean Ethics (sometimes spelled Nichomachean), or Ta Ethika, is a work by Aristotle on virtue and moral character which plays a prominent role in defining Aristotelian ethics. ... From the Greek word polis(state-city), the Politics or Ta Politika of Aristotle is the second half of a single treatise of which his Ethics is the first. ... The Constitution of the Athenians or of Athens (or Athenaion Politeia, or The Athenians) is the name of either of two texts from Classical antiquity, one probably by Aristotle, the other attributed to Xenophon, but not by him. ... Aristotles Rhetoric (or Ars Rhetorica, or The Art of Rhetoric or Treatise on Rhetoric) places the discipline of public speaking in the context of all other intellectual pursuits at the time. ... Aristotles Poetics aims to give an account of poetry. ...

  • Hippocrates
    • Works
  • Galen
    • On the Natural Faculties


Volume 11 Hippocrates of Cos II or Hippokrates of Kos (c. ... Galen (Greek: Γαληνός, Galinos; Latin: Claudius Galenus; AD 129 – 200) of Pergamum was a prominent ancient Greek physician, whose theories dominated medical science for over 1300 years. ...


Volume 12 Euclid(Greek: ), also known as Euclid of Alexandria, was a Greek mathematician who flourished in Alexandria, Egypt, almost certainly during the reign of Ptolemy I (323–283 BC). ... The frontispiece of Sir Henry Billingsleys first English version of Euclids Elements, 1570 Euclids Elements (Greek: ) is a mathematical and geometric treatise, consisting of 13 books, written by the Hellenistic mathematician Euclid in Alexandria circa 300 BC. It comprises a collection of definitions, postulates (axioms), propositions (theorems... Archimedes (Greek: ; c. ... The Sand Reckoner is a work of Archimedes in which he creates the first known (Greek) system of number-naming that can be expanded beyond the needs of everyday life. ... Apollonius of Perga [Pergaeus] (c. ... On Conic Sections Is a modern name for the only surviving work of Apollonius of Perga, known as the great geometer. ... Nicomachus (c. ... Introduction to Arithmetic was written by Nicomachus almost two thousand years ago, and contains both philosophical prose and very basic mathematical ideas. ...


Volume 13 == ... Not to be confused with The Nature of Things, a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation television show about natural science. ... Epictetus (c. ... Discourses or The Discourses may refer to: Discourses, a series of books by Greek Stoic philosopher Epictetus (c. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121[1] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. ... Marcus Aurelius Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121 - March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ...


Volume 14 A bust of Virgil, from the entrance to his tomb in Naples, Italy. ... The Eclogues is one of three major works by the Latin poet Virgil. ... The Georgics, written in 29 BC, is the second major work by the Latin poet Virgil. ... The Aeneid is a Latin epic written by Vergil in the 1st century BC that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who traveled to Italy where he became the ancestor of the Romans. ...


Volume 15 Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was an Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Plutarchs Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. ...


Volume 16 Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... The Annals, or, in Latin, Annales, is a history book by Tacitus covering the reign of the 4 Roman Emperors succeeding to Caesar Augustus. ... The Histories (Latin: Historiae) is a book by Tacitus, written c. ...


Volume 17 A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; c. ... Almagest is the Arabic name of an astronomical/astrological treatise proposing the complex motions of the stars and planetary paths, originally written in Greek as Hè Megalè Syntaxis by Ptolemy of Alexandria, Egypt, sometime around the 2nd century, and accepted for over a thousand years in Arabic and European societies... Nicolaus Copernicus (February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was the Polish [3][4] astronomer who formulated the first modern heliocentric theory of the solar system. ... Title page of De revolutionibus De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (English: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, Polish: O obrotach sfer niebieskich) is the seminal work on heliocentric theory and the masterpiece of the great Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. ... Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German Lutheran mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and a key figure in the 17th century astronomical revolution. ... Harmonice Mundi (1619) is a book by Johannes Kepler. ...


Volume 18 Plotinus Plotinus (Greek: ) (ca. ... The Six Enneads is a book whose title is sometimes abbreviated to The Enneads or Enneads, and was written by the Neo-Platonist Plotinus; it was edited and compiled by his last student Porphyry, in a short period c. ...


Volume 19 Augustinus redirects here. ... Confessions is the name of a series of thirteen autobiographical books by St. ... The City of God, opening text, created c. ... On Christian Doctrine is the primary text written by St. ...


Volume 20 Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... Summa theologiae, Pars secunda, prima pars. ...


Volume 21 Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... Summa theologiae, Pars secunda, prima pars. ...


Volume 22 Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ...


Volume 23 Geoffrey Chaucer (c. ... Troilus and Criseyde is Geoffrey Chaucers poem in rhyme royal re-telling the tragic love story of Troilus, a Trojan prince, and Criseyde. ... Canterbury Tales Woodcut 1484 The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century (two of them in prose, the rest in verse). ...


Volume 24 Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (May 3, 1469 – June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright. ... Il Principe (The Prince) is a political treatise by the Florentine public servant and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli. ... Hobbes redirects here. ... Frontispiece of Leviathan, etching by Abraham Bosse, with input from Hobbes For other uses, see Leviathan (disambiguation). ...


Volume 25 François Rabelais François Rabelais (ca. ... Gargantua and Pantagruel is a connected series of five novels written in the 16th century by François Rabelais. ...


Volume 26 Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (February 28, 1533 - September 13, 1592) was an influential French Renaissance writer, generally considered to be the inventor of the personal essay. ... Essays is the title of a book written by Michel de Montaigne that was first published in 1580. ...


Volume 27 Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... King Henry VI Part 1 is one of the history plays of William Shakespeare. ... The play we know as King Henry VI Part II was originally known as The First Part of the Contention betwixt the Two Famous Houses of York and Lancaster. ... Henry VI Part III is the third of William Shakespeares plays set during the lifetime of King Henry VI of England, and prepares the ground for one of his best-known and most controversial plays: the tragedy of King Richard III (Richard III of England). ... The Life and Death of King Richard III is William Shakespeares version of the short career of Richard III of England, who receives a singularly unflattering depiction. ... The Comedy of Errors is an early play by William Shakespeare, written between 1592 and 1594. ... Title page of the first quarto edition (1594) The Tragedy of Titus Andronicus may be Shakespeares earliest tragedy. ... Taming of the Shrew by Augustus Egg The Taming of the Shrew is a comedy by William Shakespeare. ... The Two Gentlemen of Verona is a comedy by William Shakespeare from early in his career. ... Title page of the first quarto (1598) Loves Labours Lost is one of William Shakespeares early comedies; it is believed to have been written around 1595-1596 and is probably contemporaneous with Romeo and Juliet and A Midsummer Nights Dream. ... For other meanings see Romeo (disambiguation) and Juliet (disambiguation). ... Richard II is a play written by William Shakespeare in 1595 and based on the life of King Richard II of England. ... A Midsummer Nights Dream is a romantic comedy by William Shakespeare written sometime in the mid-1590s. ... King John is one of the so-called Shakespearean histories, plays written by William Shakespeare and based on the history of England. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) The Merchant of Venice is one of William Shakespeares best-known plays, written sometime between 1594 and 1597. ... Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare, widely considered the greatest of the histories. ... Henry IV, Part 2 is a history play by William Shakespeare. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) Much Ado about Nothing is a comedy by William Shakespeare. ... Henry V is a play by William Shakespeare based on the life of King Henry V of England. ... The Tragedy of Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare probably written in 1599. ... Scene from As you like it, Francis Hayman, c. ...


Volume 28 Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Twelfth Night has at least three meanings: Twelfth Night (holiday), celebrated by some Christians Twelfth Night, or What You Will, a comedic play by William Shakespeare Twelfth Night (band), a progressive rock band This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark is a tragedy by William Shakespeare and one of his most well-known and oft-quoted plays. ... Title page of the 1602 quarto The Merry Wives of Windsor is a comedy by William Shakespeare featuring the fat knight Sir John Falstaff. ... The History of Troilus and Cressida is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written around 1602, shortly after the completion of Hamlet. ... Alls Well That Ends Well is a comedy by William Shakespeare, and is often considered one of his problem plays, so-called because they cannot be easily classified as tragedy or comedy. ... Claudio and Isabella (1850) by William Holman Hunt Measure for Measure is a play by William Shakespeare, written in 1603. ... Title page of the first quarto edition, published in 1608 King Lear is generally regarded as one of William Shakespeares greatest tragedies. ... Scene from Macbeth, depicting the witches conjuring of an apparition in Act IV, Scene I. Painting by William Rimmer Macbeth is among the most famous of William Shakespeares plays, as well as his shortest tragedy. ... Antony and Cleopatra is a historical tragedy by William Shakespeare, originally printed in the First Folio of 1623. ... Coriolanus is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, based on the life of the legendary Roman leader. ... Timon of Athens is a play by William Shakespeare written around 1607. ... Title page of the 1611 quarto edition of the play Pericles, Prince of Tyre is a play written (at least in part) by William Shakespeare and included in modern editions of his collected plays despite some questions over its authorship. ... Dame Ellen Terry as Imogen This article is about Shakespeares play. ... Autolycus (1836) by Charles Robert Leslie This article is about the play by Shakespeare. ... Miranda and Ferdinand, Angelica Kauffmann, 1782 For other uses, see The Tempest (disambiguation). ... Henry VIII (1613) was one of the last plays conceived by the English playwright William Shakespeare. ... Title page from 1609 edition of Shake-Speares Sonnets Dedication page from The Sonnets SHAKE-SPEARES SONNETS, or simply The Sonnets comprise a collection of 154 poems in sonnet form written by William Shakespeare that deal with such themes as love, beauty, politics, and mortality. ...


Volume 29 William Gilbert, or less commonly Gilberd, was born May 24, 1544, Colchester, England and died November 30, 1603, in London, probably of the plague, was an English physician to Elizabeth I and James I and natural philosopher known for his investigations of magnetism and electricity. ... De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tellure (On the Magnet and Magnetic Bodies, and on That Great Magnet the Earth) is a scientific work published in 1600 by the English physician and scientist William Gilbert. ... KDFSAJFKASJDKFJASDKLJFDKLASJFLKJASKLFJLAKSJFLKSJALFKJSKLJFto the Sun-centered solar system which Galileo supported. ... The Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences (1638) was Galileos final book and a sort of scientific testament covering much of his work in physics over the preceding thirty years. ... William Harvey William Harvey (April 1, 1578 – June 3, 1657) was an English medical doctor, who is credited with being the first to correctly describe, in exact detail, the properties of blood being pumped around the body by the heart. ... Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus, (An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals) is physician William Harveys most well-known work. ... On the Generation of Animals (or De Generatione Animalium) is a text by Aristotle. ...


Volume 30 Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (September 29, 1547 – April 23, 1616) was a Spanish novelist, poet and playwright. ... Statues of Don Quixote (left) and Sancho Panza (right) Don Quixote de la Mancha (pronounced /don kixote ðe la mant&#643;a/) is a novel by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes. ...


Volume 31 Sir Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans (January 22, 1561 - April 9, 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, and essayist. ... The Novum Organum is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon. ... Francis Bacon, in The New Atlantis (1626), depicts a mythical land, Bensalem, to which he sailed. ...


Volume 32 René Descartes (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ... This article should be transwikied to Wikisource RULES FOR THE DIRECTION OF THE MIND René Descartes (summary) Rule One -The aim of our studies should be to direct the mind with a view to forming true and sound judgements about whatever comes before it. ... The Discourse on Method is a philosophical and mathematical treatise published by René Descartes in 1637. ... Meditations on First Philosophy (subtitled In which the existence of God and the real distinction of mind and body, are demonstrated) is a philosophical treatise written by René Descartes first published in Latin in 1641. ... Meditations on First Philosophy (subtitled In which the existence of God and the real distinction of mind and body, are demonstrated) is a philosophical treatise written by René Descartes first published in Latin in 1641. ... La Géométrie was published in 1637 and written by René Descartes. ... Baruch Spinoza Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 _ February 21, 1677), named Baruch Spinoza by his synagogue elders and known as Bento de Spinoza or Bento dEspiñoza in the community in which he grew up. ... Ethics (from the Ancient Greek Ä“thikos, the adjective of Ä“thos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of a person or group and covers the analysis and employment of concepts such as right and wrong, good and evil, and responsibility. ...


Volume 33 For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Title page of the first edition (1667) Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton. ... An Etching of Samson, from an 1882 German Bible Samson Agonistes (Greek: Samson the agonist) is a work of blank verse tragedy by John Milton. ... First page of the 1644 edition of Areopagitica Areopagitica: A speech of Mr John Milton for the liberty of unlicensed printing to the Parliament of England is a prose tract or polemic by John Milton, published November 23, 1644, at the height of the English Civil War. ...


Volume 34 John Blaise Pascal (pronounced ), (June 19, 1623–August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ... The Lettres provinciales (Provincial letters) are a series of eighteen letters written by French philosopher and theologian Blaise Pascal under the pseudonym Louis de Montalte. ... The Pensées (literally, thoughts) represented an apology for the Christian religion by Blaise Pascal, the renowned 17th century philosopher and mathematician. ...


Volume 35 Sir Isaac Newton in Knellers portrait of 1689. ... Newtons own copy of his Principia, with hand written corrections for the second edition. ... Opticks or a treatise of the reflections, refractions, inflections and colours of light Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704. ... Christiaan Huygens Christiaan Huygens (approximate pronunciation: HOW-khens; SAMPA /h9yGEns/ or /h@YG@ns/) (April 14, 1629&#8211;July 8, 1695), was a Dutch mathematician and physicist; born in The Hague as the son of Constantijn Huygens. ...


Volume 36 This article is about John Locke, the English philosopher. ... A Letter Concerning Toleration by John Locke was originally published in 1689. ... The Two Treatises of Government (or Two Treatises of Government: In the Former, The False Principles and Foundation of Sir Robert Filmer, And His Followers, are Detected and Overthrown. ... An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is one of John Lockes two most famous works, the other being his Second Treatise on Civil Government. ... George Berkeley (IPA: ) (12 March 1685 – 14 January 1753), also known as Bishop Berkeley, was an influential Irish philosopher whose primary philosophical achievement is the advancement of a theory dubbed immaterialism by Berkeley himself (also later called subjective idealism). This theory, summed up in his dictum, Esse est percipi (To... Wikisource has original text related to this article: A Treatise concerning the principles of human knowledge A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (Commonly called Treatise when referring to Berkleys works) is a 1710 work by the Irish Empiricist philosopher George Berkeley. ... David Hume (April 26, 1711 – August 25, 1776)[1] was a Scottish philosopher, economist, and historian. ... An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is a book by philosopher David Hume, published in 1748. ...


Volume 37 Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish priest, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer, and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and A Tale of a Tub. ... First Edition of Gullivers Travels Gullivers Travels (1726, amended 1735), officially Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, is a novel by Jonathan Swift that is both a satire on human nature and a parody of the travellers tales literary sub-genre. ... Laurence Sterne Laurence Sterne (November 24, 1713 – March 18, 1768) was an Anglo-Irish novelist and clergyman. ... The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (or, more briefly, Tristram Shandy) is a novel by Laurence Sterne. ...


Volume 38 Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (often known simply as Tom Jones) is a comic novel by Henry Fielding. ...


Volume 39 Montesquieu in 1728. ... The Spirit of the Laws (French: De lesprit des lois) is a book on political theory by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, published in 1748. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 - July 2, 1778) was a Swiss-French philosopher, writer, political theorist, and self-taught composer of The Age of Enlightenment Biography of Rousseau The tomb of Rousseau in the crypt of the Panthéon, Paris Rousseau was born in Geneva, Switzerland... Jean Jacques Rousseaus Discourse on Inequality, written for the Academy of Dijon in 1754, is an attempt to answer the question What is the origin of inequality among men, and is it authorized by natural law? Rousseau had won a previous competition with his 1st Discourse and was not... Social contract is a phrase used in philosophy, political science, and sociology to denote a real or hypothetical agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens, or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members. ...


Volume 40 Adam Smith (baptized June 5, 1723 O.S. / June 16 N.S. – July 17, 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneering political economist. ... An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is the magnum opus of Adam Smith, published in 1776. ...


Volume 41 Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of Eighteenth Century, was written by the British historian, Edward Gibbon. ...


Volume 42 Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of Eighteenth Century, was written by the British historian, Edward Gibbon. ...


Volume 43 Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... The Critique of Pure Reason is widely regarded as the philosopher Immanuel Kants major work, first published in 1781, with a second edition in 1787. ... The Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals (Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten, 1785) is a work by Immanuel Kant meant to establish the fundamental rational and a priori basis for morality. ... The Critique of Practical Reason is the second of Immanuel Kants three critiques, first published in 1788. ... The Metaphysics of Morals (Die Metaphysik der Sitten, 1797) is a major work of moral philosophy by Immanuel Kant. ... The Critique of Judgement (Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790), also known as the third critique, is a philosophical work by Immanuel Kant. ...


Volume 44 U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is the document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ... The Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document of the United States of America. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America and is... Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), an American politician and fourth President of the United States of America (1809–1817), was one of the most influential Founders of the United States. ... John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat, writer, and a jurist. ... Title page of an early Federalist compilation. ... John Stuart Mill (20th May 1806 – 8th May 1873), a British philosopher and political economist, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... On Liberty is a philosophical work in the English language by 19th century philosopher John Stuart Mill, first published in 1859. ... Utilitarianism (1861), see Utilitarianism (book). ...


Volume 45 James Boswell James Boswell (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... In English literature, Life of Johnson was a biography of Dr. Samuel Johnson written by James Boswell in 1791. ...


Volume 46 Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 _ May 8, 1794) was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (March 21, 1768 - May 16, 1830) was a French mathematician and physicist who is best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their application to problems of heat flow. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ...


Volume 47 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel [] (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Hegels Elements of the Philosophy of Right (Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts) was published in 1820, though the books original title page dates it to 1821. ...


Volume 48  , IPA: , (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832), commonly known as Goethe, was a German poet, novelist, theorist, and scientist who is considered one of the giants of the literary world. ... It has been suggested that Faust Part One, Faust Part Two be merged into this article or section. ...


Volume 49 Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, essayist and poet. ... Moby-Dick book cover Moby-Dick - the official title of the first edition - is a novel by Herman Melville. ...


Volume 50 For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal... The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by British naturalist Charles Darwin was first published in 1871. ...


Volume 51 Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Das Kapital (Capital, in the English translation) is a very lengthy treatise on political economy written by Karl Marx in German. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820, Wuppertal – August 5, 1895, London), a 19th-century German political philosopher, developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ... Malayalam editon of the Manifesto The Communist Manifesto, also known as The Manifesto of the Communist Party, first published on February 21, 1848 by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is one of the worlds most historically influential political tracts. ...


Volume 52 Leo Nikolayevitch Tolstoy (Russian: &#1051;&#1077;&#1074; &#1053;&#1080;&#1082;&#1086;&#1083;&#1072;&#769;&#1077;&#1074;&#1080;&#1095; &#1058;&#1086;&#1083;&#1089;&#1090;&#1086;&#769;&#1081;) (September 9 (August 28, O.S.), 1828 - November 20 (November 7, O.S.), 1910) was a Russian novelist, reformer, and moral thinker, notable for... War and Peace (Russian: Война и мир, Voyna i mir; in original orthography: Война и мiръ, Voyna i mir) is an epic novel by Leo Tolstoy, first published from 1865 to 1869 in Russki Vestnik, which tells the story of Russian society during the Napoleonic Era. ...


Volume 53 Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... The Brothers Karamazov (Братья Карамазовы in Russian, ) is the last novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky, generally considered the culmination of his lifes work. ...


Volume 54 For other people named William James see William James (disambiguation) William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was a pioneering American psychologist and philosopher. ... The Principles of Psychology is a monumental text in the history of psychology, written by William James and published in 1890. ...

Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud) May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939; (IPA pronunciation: [] in German, [] in English) was a Jewish-Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... A modern English edition of The Interpretation of Dreams. ... On Narcissism was a 1914 book by Sigmund Freud widely considered an introduction to Freuds theories of narcissism. ... A repressed memory, according to some theories of psychology, a memory (often traumatic) of an event or environment which is stored by the unconscious mind but outside the awareness of the conscious mind. ... Beyond the Pleasure Principle Published in 1920, Beyond the Pleasure Principle marked a turning point for Freud, and a major modification of his previous theoretical approach. ... The Ego and the Id was written by Sigmund Freud in 1923. ... Civilization and Its Discontents is a book written by Sigmund Freud in the decade preceding his death in 1938. ...

Second edition

In 1990 a second edition of the Great Books of the Western World was published, this time with updated translations and six more volumes of material covering the 20th century, an era of which the first edition was nearly devoid. A number of pre-20th century books were also added, and four were dropped from the set: Apollonius' On Conic Sections, Laurence Sterne's Tristram Shandy, Henry Fielding's Tom Jones, and Joseph Fourier's Analytical Theory of Heat. Adler later expressed regret about dropping On Conic Sections and Tom Jones. Adler also voiced disagreement with the addition of Voltaire's Candide to the set, and said that the Syntopicon should have been expanded to include references to the Qur'an. He addressed criticisms that the set was too heavily Western European and did not adequately represent women and minority authors. MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901&#8211;2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900&#8211;1999... Apollonius of Perga [Pergaeus] (c. ... On Conic Sections Is a modern name for the only surviving work of Apollonius of Perga, known as the great geometer. ... Laurence Sterne Laurence Sterne (November 24, 1713 – March 18, 1768) was an Anglo-Irish novelist and clergyman. ... The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (or, more briefly, Tristram Shandy) is a novel by Laurence Sterne. ... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (often known simply as Tom Jones) is a comic novel by Henry Fielding. ... Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (March 21, 1768 - May 16, 1830) was a French mathematician and physicist who is best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their application to problems of heat flow. ... On Conic Sections Is a modern name for the only surviving work of Apollonius of Perga, known as the great geometer. ... The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (often known simply as Tom Jones) is a comic novel by Henry Fielding. ... François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and philosopher known for his wit, philosophical writings, and defense of civil liberties, including freedom of religion and the right to a fair trial. ... Candide, ou lOptimisme, (Candide, or Optimism) (1759) is a picaresque novel by the Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎, literally the recitation; also called ‎ The Noble Qurān; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


The pre-20th century books added (volume numbering is not strictly compatible with the first edition due to rearrangement of some books—see the complete table of contents for the second edition):



Volume 20


Volume 23 John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvins seminal work on Protestant theology. ...


Volume 31 Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Hans Holbeins witty marginal drawing of Folly (1515), in the first edition, a copy owned by Erasmus himself (Kupferstichkabinett, Basle) The Praise of Folly (Greek title: Morias Enkomion (Μωρίας Εγκώμιον), Latin: Stultitiae Laus, sometimes translated as In Praise of Folly, Dutch title: Lof der Zotheid) is an essay written in 1509...


Volume 34 Molière, engraved frontispiece to his Works Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, better known as Molière (January 15, 1622 - February 17, 1673), was a French theatre writer, director and actor, one of the masters of comic satire. ... Lécole des femmes (The School for Wives) is a theatrical comedy written by Molière. ... Tartuffe is a comedy by Molière, and is one of the most famous French plays of all time. ... Don Juan is a legendary fictional libertine, whose story has been told many times by different authors. ... LAvare is a five-act satirical comedy by French playwright Molière. ... Le Malade imaginaire (roughly The Hypochondriac or The Imaginary Invalid) is a play and the last work by Molière. ... Jean Racine. ... Bérénice is a tragedy by the French 17th-century playwright Jean Racine. ... Phèdre was a 1677 play by Jean Racine, based on both the play Hippolytus by Euripides, and a later Roman play Phaedra by Seneca the Younger. ...


Volume 43 François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and philosopher known for his wit, philosophical writings, and defense of civil liberties, including freedom of religion and the right to a fair trial. ... Candide, ou lOptimisme, (Candide, or Optimism) (1759) is a picaresque novel by the Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire. ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ...


Volume 44 Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA:  ; 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian, generally recognized as the first existentialist philosopher. ... Fear and Trembling Fear and Trembling (original Danish title: Frygt og Bæven) is a philosophical work by Søren Kierkegaard, published in 1843 under the pseudonym Johannes de Silentio. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 to August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a German philosopher. ... Vintage Internationals 1989 edition of Walter Kaufmanns celebrated translation of Beyond Good and Evil. ...


Volume 45 For other uses, see Tocqueville (disambiguation) Alexis-Charles-Henri Clérel de Tocqueville (b. ... De la démocratie en Amérique (published in two volumes, the first in 1835 and the second in 1840) is a classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville on the United States in the 1830s and its strengths and weaknesses. ...


Volume 46 Balzac redirects here. ... La Cousine Bette (English: Cousin Bette) is an 1846 novel by Honoré de Balzac. ...


Volume 47 Jane Austen (16 December 1775 – 18 July 1817) was an English novelist whose works, the most famous of which include Pride and Prejudice, Sense and Sensibility, and Emma, are widely regarded as classics. ... Emma is a comic novel by Jane Austen, first published in 1816, about the perils of misconstrued romance. ... George Eliots birthplace at South Farm, Arbury George Eliot is the pen name of Mary Anne Evans[1] (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880), who was an English novelist. ... See also Middlemarch, New Zealand. ...


Volume 48 Dickens redirects here. ... Little Dorrit is a serial novel by Charles Dickens published originally between 1855 and 1857. ...


Volume 52 Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, satirist, writer, and lecturer. ... Mark Twain Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884) by Mark Twain is commonly accounted as one of the first Great American Novels. ...


The six volumes of 20th century material consisted of the following: Photo of Henrik Ibsen in his older days Henrik Johan Ibsen (March 20, 1828 – May 23, 1906) was a major Norwegian playwright who was largely responsible for the rise of the modern realistic drama. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: A Dolls House A Dolls House (original Norwegian title: Et dukkehjem) is an 1879 play by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. ... The Wild Duck (original Norwegian title: Vildanden) is a 1884 play by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. ... Actress Cate Blanchett in the title role of Hedda Gabler Hedda Gabler is both a play and a fictional character created by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. ... The Master Builder (Norwegian: Bygmester Solness) is a play by Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen. ...



Volume 55


Volume 56 For other people named William James see William James (disambiguation) William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was a pioneering American psychologist and philosopher. ... Pragmatism is a school of epistemology that originated with Charles Sanders Peirce (who first stated the pragmatic maxim) and came to fruition in the early twentieth-century philosophies of William James and John Dewey. ... Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859–January 4, 1941) was a major French philosopher, influential in the first half of the 20th century. ... Introduction to Metaphysics (Introduction à la Métaphysique) is a 1903 essay by Henri Bergson that explores the concept of reality. ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... Alfred North Whitehead, OM (February 15, 1861 Ramsgate, Kent, England – December 30, 1947 Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) was an English-born mathematician who became a philosopher. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell OM FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, and mathematician. ... Introduction The Problems of Philosophy, one of Russells defining writings, is Bertrand Russels attempt to create a brief and accessible guide to the problems of philosophy. ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (pronounced ) was an influential German philosopher, best known as the author of Being and Time (1927). ... Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 – April 29, 1951) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking works to contemporary philosophy, primarily on the foundations of logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind. ... Book cover of the Blackwell edition of Philosophical Investigations Philosophical Investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen) is, along with the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, one of the two major works by 20th-century philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. ... Karl Barth. ...


Volume 57 Jules Henri Poincaré (April 29, 1854 – July 17, 1912) (IPA: [][1]) was one of Frances greatest mathematicians and theoretical physicists, and a philosopher of science. ... Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947) was a German physicist. ... Alfred North Whitehead, OM (February 15, 1861 Ramsgate, Kent, England – December 30, 1947 Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) was an English-born mathematician who became a philosopher. ... Note: Albert Einstein is also the birth name of Albert Brooks. ... One of Sir Arthur Stanley Eddingtons papers announced Einsteins theory of general relativity to the English-speaking world. ... Niels (Henrik David) Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1922. ... G. H. Hardy Godfrey Harold Hardy (February 7, 1877 &#8211; December 1, 1947) was a prominent British mathematician, known for his achievements in number theory and mathematical analysis. ... A Mathematicians Apology is a 1940 essay by British mathematician G. H. Hardy (ISBN 0521427061). ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics, and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (August 12, 1887 – January 4, 1961) was an Austrian physicist who achieved fame for his contributions to quantum mechanics, especially the Schrödinger equation, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1933. ... What is Life? is a non-fiction book on science for the lay reader written by physicist Erwin Schrödinger (ISBN 0521427088). ... Theodosius Grigorevich Dobzhansky (Russian — Феодосий Григорьевич Добржанский; sometimes anglicized to Theodore Dobzhansky; January 25, 1900 - December 18, 1975) was a noted geneticist and evolutionary biologist. ... Genetics and the Origin of Species (ISBN 0231054750) is a 1937 book by the Ukrainian-American evolutionary biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky and one of the important books of the modern evolutionary synthesis. ... Conrad Hal Waddington (1905 &#8212; 1975) was a biologist, paleontologist, embryologist and philosopher. ...


Volume 58 Thorstein Bunde Veblen (born Tosten Bunde Veblen July 30, 1857 – August 3, 1929) was a Norwegian-American sociologist and economist and a founder, along with John R. Commons, of the Institutional economics movement, most famous for his Theory of the Leisure Class (1899). ... The Theory of the Leisure Class is a book, first published in 1899, by the American economist Thorstein Veblen while he was a professor at the University of Chicago. ... Richard Henry Tawney (R.H. Tawney) (1880 - 1962) was an English writer, economist, historian, social critic and university professor and a leading advocate of Christian Socialism Born in Calcutta, India, Tawney was educated at Rugby School and Balliol College, Oxford where he studied modern history. ... John Maynard Keynes (right) and Harry Dexter White at the Bretton Woods Conference John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, CB (pronounced canes, IPA ) (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was a British economist whose ideas, called Keynesian economics, had a major impact on modern economic and political theory as well... The General Theory of Employment Interest and Money is generally considered to be the masterwork of the English economist John Maynard Keynes. ...


Volume 59 Sir James George Frazer (January 1, 1854 - May 7, 1941), a social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion, was born in Glasgow, Scotland. ... The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion is a wide-ranging comparative study of mythology and religion by Scottish anthropologist Sir James George Frazer (1854–1941). ... For other persons named Max Weber, see Max Weber (disambiguation). ... Johan Huizinga (b. ... The Autumn of the Middle Ages, or The Waning of the Middle Ages, (published in 1919 as Herfsttij der Middeleeuwen and translated into English in 1924) is the best-known work by the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. ... Claude L vi-Strauss (born November 28, 1908) is a French anthropologist who became one of the twentieth centurys greatest intellectuals by developing structuralism as a method of understanding human society and culture Biography Claude L vi-Strauss was born in Brussels and studied law and philosophy at the... Structural anthropology had its heyday in the 1960s and 1970s. ...


Volume 60 For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ... The Beast in the Jungle is a 1903 novella by Henry James, first published as part of the collection, The Better Sort. ... George Bernard Shaw (George) Bernard Shaw[1] (born Dublin, 26 July 1856 – died 2 November 1950 in Hertfordshire) was an Irish playwright based in England. ... Saint Joan is a 1923 play by G. Bernard Shaw that he wrote shortly after the Roman Catholic Church canonized Joan of Arc. ... Joseph Conrad. ... Heart of Darkness is a novella by Joseph Conrad. ... Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: IPA: ) was a Russian physician, short story writer, and playwright. ... Anton Chekhov (left) and Maxim Gorky in Yalta. ... Luigi Pirandello (June 28, 1867 – December 10, 1936) was an Italian dramatist, novelist, and short story writer awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1934. ... Six Characters in Search of an Author (Sei personaggi in cerca dautore) is the most famous play of Italian playwright Luigi Pirandello. ... “Proust” redirects here. ... In Search of Lost Time (fr. ... In Search of Lost Time (fr. ... Willa Cather photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1936 Wilella Sibert Cather (December 7, 1873[1] – April 24, 1947) is among the most eminent American authors. ... Willa Cathers A Lost Lady was first published in 1923. ... For other persons named Thomas Mann, see Thomas Mann (disambiguation). ... The novella Death in Venice was written by the German author Thomas Mann, and was first published in 1912 as Der Tod in Venedig. ... James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish Séamus Seoighe; 2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish writer and poet, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ... A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a semi-autobiographical novel by James Joyce, first serialized in The Egoist from 1914 to 1915 and published in book form in 1916. ...

Virginia Woolf (née Stephen) (January 25, 1882 – March 28, 1941) was an English novelist and essay writer who is regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth century. ... To the Lighthouse (1927) is a novel by Virginia Woolf. ... Kafka at the age of five Franz Kafka (IPA: ) (July 3, 1883 – June 3, 1924) was one of the major German-language fiction writers of the 20th century. ... The Metamorphosis (in German: Die Verwandlung) is a novella by Franz Kafka, first published in 1915, and arguably the most famous of his works along with the longer works The Trial and The Castle. ... D. H. Lawrence David Herbert Lawrence (11 September 1885 - 2 March 1930) was one of the most important, certainly one of the most controversial, English writers of the 20th century, who wrote novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, and letters. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot (September 26, 1888 - January 4, 1965), was a major Modernist Anglo-American poet, dramatist, and literary critic. ... T. S. Eliot (by E. O. Hoppe, 1919) The Waste Land (1922), sometimes mistakenly written as The Wasteland, is a highly influential 433-line modernist poem by T. S. Eliot. ... Eugene Gladstone ONeill (October 16, 1888 – November 27, 1953) was a Nobel and Pulitzer Prize-winning American playwright. ... Mourning Becomes Electra is the title for a trilogy of plays by Eugene ONeill, first performed in 1931. ... Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an Irish American Jazz Age author of novels and short stories . ... The Great Gatsby is a novel by the American author F. Scott Fitzgerald. ... William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American novelist and poet whose works feature his native state of Mississippi. ... A Rose for Emily, a short story by William Faulkner first published on April 30, 1930, is distinctive for its unusual use of First-person plural point of view and non-chronological ordering of episodes. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mother Courage and Her Children (German: Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder) was a play written in 1939 by the German dramatist and poet Bertolt Brecht (1898 - 1956) with significant contributions from his mistress at the time, Margarete Steffin. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber was a short story by Ernest Hemingway set in Africa published in 1936 concurrently with The Snows of Kilimanjaro. ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was a British author and journalist. ... Animal Farm is a novel by George Orwell, and is regarded in the literary field as one of the most famous satirical allegories of Soviet totalitarianism. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... Vladimir (left) and Estragon (right) hold Pozzo aloft (from a production by Naqshineh Theatre). ...

Criticisms and responses

The Great Books of the Western World have received their share of criticism from the time of their publication. The stress Hutchins placed on the monumental importance of these works was an easy target for those who dismissed the project as elites in their ivory tower pretending to save the world. Likewise the project has been attacked for further promoting the deification of dead white males, while ignoring contributions of females and minorities to the canon. This mostly emerged later with the feminist and civil rights movements. The term Ivory Tower designates a world or atmosphere where intellectuals engage in pursuits that are disconnected from the practical concerns of everyday life. ... Dead white males or Dead White European Males (DWEM) is a derisive term referring to a tradition of thought and pedagogy, like the Great Books focus of educational essentialism and Educational perennialism, which is believed to stress the importance and contributions of individual European males from the past, while largely... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In his Europe: A History, Norman Davies criticizes the compilation for overrepresenting selected parts of the western world, especially Britain and the U.S., while ignoring the other, particularly Central and Eastern Europe. According to his calculation, in 151 authors included in both editions, there are 49 English or American authors, 27 Frenchmen, 20 Germans, 15 ancient Greeks, 9 ancient Romans, 6 Russians, 4 Scandinavians, 3 Spaniards, 3 Italians, 3 Irishmen, 3 Scots, and 3 Eastern Europeans. Prejudices and preferences, he concludes, are self-evident. Norman Davies, Warsaw (Poland), October 7, 2004 Norman Davies (born June 8, 1939 in Bolton, Lancashire) is an English historian of Welsh descent, noted for his publications on the history of Poland, Europe and the British Isles. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked salmon):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium...


In response, such criticisms have been discounted as ad hominem and unfairly discriminatory in themselves. The counter-argument maintains that such criticisms appear to dismiss or diminish the importance of books solely because of generic, imprecise and possibly irrelevant characteristics of the books' authors, rather than because of the content of the books themselves. It has been suggested that Personal attack be merged into this article or section. ...


Others thought that while the selected authors were worthy, there was too much emphasis on the complete works of a single author (even less notable ones) rather than a wider selection of authors and representative works (for instance, all of Shakespeare's plays are included, but no Christopher Marlowe or Ben Jonson.) Defenders of the set have pointed out that any reasonable number of volumes cannot possibly represent all authors or works that some readers might find desirable, and that any selection of authors and works is bound to be controversial to some extent. The second edition of the set already contains 130 authors and 517 individual works. Ironically, the inclusion of so many writers and so much material has led to complaints of cramped typography. The editors point out that the guides to additional reading for each topic in the Syntopicon refer the interested reader to many more authors—including, incidentally, Marlowe and Jonson. Shakespeare redirects here. ... Christopher (Kit) Marlowe (baptised 26 February 1564 – 30 May 1593?) was an English dramatist, poet, and translator of the Elizabethan era. ... Benjamin Jonson (circa June 11, 1572 – August 6, 1637) was an English Renaissance dramatist, poet and actor. ...


The scientific and mathematical selections also came under criticism for being incomprehensible to the average reader, especially absent any sort of critical apparatus. The second edition did drop two scientific works, by Apollonius and Fourier, at least in part because of their perceived difficulty for the average reader. On the other hand, the editors have maintained from the beginning of the project that average readers may be capable of understanding far more than some academic critics deem possible. Robert Hutchins stated this view in the introduction to the first edition: Apollonius of Perga [Pergaeus] (c. ...

Because the great bulk of mankind have never had the chance to get a liberal education, it cannot be "proved" that they can get it. Neither can it be "proved" that they cannot. The statement of the ideal, however, is of value in indicating the direction that education should take.

Yet another criticism was that the series was in reality more for show than for substance. Adler insisted on adding the Syntopicon in order to emphasize the unity of the set and encourage readers, but many dismissed it as unwieldy and useless. As the great majority of the works were still in print, some critics noted that the company could have saved 2 million dollars and simply written a list. While the sales were good through the aggressive promotion Encyclopædia Britannica put forth, the percentages of those purchased that were actually read to any significant extent, let alone completed, must still be rather small. Some argued that their main use was to create the illusion of being cultured, without any real substance behind it, only a modest financial investment. Furthermore the translations used were generally seen to be poor, given the scope and aim of the project, which certainly did not encourage readership. In an effort to keep ballooning costs down, the publishers decided to use only translations that were in the public domain, and often quite dated. This combined with the dense formatting did not help its readability. A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge&#8212;writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others&#8212;in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


The second edition obtained translations that were generally considered an improvement, though the problem of cramped typography may be unavoidable in a set that includes so much material. As for the charge that many sets go unread, the same could quite possibly be said for many other books sold every year. Through reading plans and the indexed treatment of subjects in the Syntopicon, the editors have made efforts to provide readers with some guidance on reading in the set.


Robert M. Pirsig, in his autobiographic novel Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance, has his main character Phædrus criticize the Great Books project radically for misestimating the value of the books: Robert Maynard Pirsig (born September 6, 1928, Minneapolis, Minnesota) is an American philosopher, mainly known as the author of the book Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Values (1974), which has sold millions of copies around the world. ... Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Values is the first of Robert M. Pirsigs texts in which he explores a Metaphysics of quality. ...

"He came to hate them vehemently, and to assail them with every kind of invective he could think of, not because they were irrelevant but for exactly the opposite reason. The more he studied, the more convinced he became that no one had yet told the damage to this world that had resulted from our unconscious acceptance of their thought."

To which the editors respond that the set contains wide-ranging debates representing many viewpoints on significant issues, not a monolithic presentation of a particular school of thought. Mortimer Adler argued in the introduction to the second edition:

Presenting a wide variety and divergence of views or opinions, among which there is likely to be some truth but also much more error, the Syntopicon [and by extension the larger set itself] invites readers to think for themselves and make up their own minds on every topic under consideration.

External links

  • Official Britannica web page for the Great Books
  • Great Books web pages by Alan Nicoll
  • The Great Conversation, a Britannica Great Books of the Western World reading and discussion group.
  • University of Chicago announcement of an exhibition offers some history of the Great Books concept
  • The Book-of-the-Millennium Club, a New Yorker article from 1952 critical of the Great Books
  • The Great Books list a contemporary and progressive list of the great books

  Results from FactBites:
 
ADLER ARCHIVE: The Great Books of 2066 (1791 words)
Great books are universally relevant and always contemporary; that is, they deal with the common problems of thought and action that confront men in every age and every clime.
Great books are the only books that may be deemed indispensable, every one of them, to a genuine, sound liberal education.
Great books are addressed to human beings, not to some special group of students, scholars or experts; they are seldom written by professors and, if they are, they are never written exclusively for professors.
Selecting Works for 1990 Edition of GBWW (1655 words)
In a book entitled "The Great Conversation", which is not a part of the set's second edition but which accompanies it as an introduction to the set and as a guide to its use, we have demonstrated this point by two devices.
Many of the great books are relevant to a much larger number of the 102 great ideas, as many as 75 or more great ideas, a few to all 102 great ideas.
Many of the great books have exerted great influence upon later generations, but that by itself was not the reason for their inclusion.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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