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Encyclopedia > Great Black Swamp
The Great Black Swamp roughly covered the black area within the green shaded counties.
The Great Black Swamp roughly covered the black area within the green shaded counties.

The Great Black Swamp, or simply Black Swamp, was a glacially-caused wetland in northwest Ohio, extending into extreme northeastern Indiana, that existed from the end of the Wisconsin glaciation until the late 19th century. It comprised extensive swamps and marshes, with some higher, drier ground interspersed, and occupied what was formerly the southwestern part of Glacial Lake Maumee, a holocene precursor to Lake Erie. It was gradually drained and settled in the second half of the 19th century and is now highly productive farm land. Download high resolution version (881x627, 51 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (881x627, 51 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity and undergoes internal deformation. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... Northwest Ohio contains a number of counties that are sometimes considered parts of West Central Ohio or North Central Ohio including: Williams County, Ohio Fulton County, Ohio Lucas County, Ohio Ottawa County, Ohio Erie County, Ohio Sandusky County, Ohio Seneca County, Ohio Putnam County, Ohio Wood County, Ohio Hancock County... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... The Wisconsin (in North America), Weichsel (in Scandinavia), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland) and Würm glaciation (in the Alps) are the most recent glaciations of the Pleistocene, which ended around 10,000 BC. The general glacial advance began about 70,000 BC, and reached its maximum... A freshwater swamp This article is about the wetland type (a landform). ... Freshwater marsh in Florida In geography, a marsh is a type of wetland, featuring grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, cat tails, and other herbaceous plants (possibly with low-growing woody plants) in a context of shallow water. ... Glacial Lake Maumee was a proglacial lake that was an ancestor of present-day Lake Erie. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period that extends from the present day back to about 10,000 radiocarbon years, approximately 11,430 ± 130 calendar years BP (between 9560 and 9300 BC). ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the eleventh largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, it is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bales of hay on a farm near Ames, Iowa A farm is the basic unit in agriculture. ...


Its historical boundaries lie primarily within the watersheds of the Maumee, Auglaize, and Portage rivers in northwest Ohio. The boundary was determined primarily by ancient sandy beach ridges formed on the shores of Lakes Maumee and Whittlesey, after glacial retreat several thousand years ago. It stretched roughly from New Haven, Indiana in the west, to Toledo and Sandusky Ohio on the east. Additional watersheds partly or wholly within its former boundary include the Sandusky, Ottawa, Tiffin, and Blanchard rivers. A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (yellow outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (blue lines) of a contiguous area. ... The Maumee River at Grand Rapids, Ohio. ... The Auglaize River is a tributary of the Maumee River, approximately 100 mi (161 km) long, in northwestern Ohio in the United States. ... Two rivers are called Portage River in the USA: Portage River (St. ... River upstream of an Australian trout farm A river is a large natural waterway. ... New Haven is a city in Allen County, Indiana, United States. ... Nickname: The Glass City Location in the state of Ohio Country United States State Ohio County Lucas Mayor Carty Finkbeiner (D) Area    - City 217. ... Muddy brown water fills Sandusky Bay, just south of Lake Erie in this astronaut photograph. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (yellow outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (blue lines) of a contiguous area. ... The Sandusky River is a tributary to Lake Erie in north-central Ohio in the United States. ... This is about the river in Canada. ... The Tiffin River is a tributary of the Maumee River, approximately 75 mi (121 km) long, in southeastern Michigan and northwestern Ohio in the United States. ... Blanchard River can refer to: The Blanchard River in Ohio in the United States. ... River upstream of an Australian trout farm A river is a large natural waterway. ...


The area was not continuous swamp, but rather characterized by a variety of vegetation types (Sampson, 1930; Kaatz, 1955). In the lowest, flattest areas, prone to permanent inundation, deciduous swamp forests predominated, characterized especially by species of ash, elm, cottonwood and sycamore. In slightly higher areas with some topographic relief and better drainage, beech, maples, basswood, tuliptree and other more mesic species were dominant. On elevated beach ridges and moraines with good to excessive drainage, more xeric species, especailly of oak and hickory, were dominant. Unlike other swampy areas of the Great Lakes, such as northern Minnesota, there were no conifers (Sampson, 1930). There were also non-forested wetlands, particularly marsh and wet prairies, with marshes being particularly extensive along the Lake Erie shoreline between Toledo and Sandusky. Some of these exist today in modified form in state and federal wildlife refuges, such as Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge. Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants, and is, by far, the most abundant biotic element of the biosphere. ... Deciduous means temporary or tending to fall off (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off). ... Look up ash in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species See text. ... Species Populus deltoides L. Populus fremontii [[]] Populus nigra L. The cottonwoods are three species of poplars in the section Aegiros of the genus Populus, native to North America, Europe and western Asia. ... Sycamore is a name applied at various times and places to three very different types of trees, but with somewhat similar leaf forms. ... Species Fagus crenata - Japanese Beech Fagus engleriana - Chinese Beech Fagus grandifolia - American Beech Fagus hayatae - Taiwan Beech Fagus japonica - Japanese Blue Beech Fagus longipetiolata - South Chinese Beech Fagus lucida - Shining Beech Fagus mexicana - Mexican Beech or Haya Fagus orientalis - Oriental Beech Fagus sylvatica - European Beech Beech (Fagus) is a genus... Range of Maples Species See List of Acer species Maples are trees or shrubs of the genus Acer. ... Basswood is the common name of timbers of Tilia species. ... Species Liriodendron chinense (Hemsl. ... Stjepan Mesić (born December 24, 1934) has been the President of the Republic of Croatia since 2000. ... Moraine is the general term for debris of all sorts originally transported by glaciers or ice sheets that have since melted away. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus, and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Species See text Comparison of Carya nuts Ripe hickory nuts ready to fall, Andrews, SC Hickory is a tree of the genus Carya, including 17-19 species of deciduous trees with pinnately compound leaves and large nuts. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Prairie refers to an area of land of low topographic relief that historically supported grasses and herbs, with few trees, and having generally a mesic (moderate or temperate) climate. ...


Although much of the area to the east, south, and north was settled in the early 19th century, the difficulty of traveling through the swamp delayed its development by several decades. A corduroy road (from modern day Fremont to Perrysburg) was constructed in 1825 and paved with gravel in 1838, but travel in the wet season could still take days or even weeks. The impassability of the swamp became an obstacle during the so-called Toledo War (1835-36), when the Michigan and Ohio militias were unable to find each other, and thus were unable to battle. Settlement of the region was inhibited by the presence of endemic malaria, which continued to plague residents of the region until the area was drained. In the 1850s an organized attempt to drain the swamp for agricultural use and ease of travel began which lasted for 40 years, and the area was largely settled over the next three decades. The development of railroads and a local drainage tile industry are thought to have contributed greatly to drainage and settlement (Kaatz, 1955). Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Corduroy road A Corduroy road or log road is a type of road made by placing sand-covered logs perpendicular to the direction of the road over a low or swampy area. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Michigan Territory militia and citizens Ohio militia and citizens Commanders Acting Governor Stevens T. Mason, Militia Brigadier-General Joseph W. Brown Governor Robert Lucas, Militia General John Bell Casualties 1 wounded none The Toledo War (1835–1836; also known as the Ohio-Michigan War) was the largely bloodless outcome... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Malaria is an infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. ... // Events and Trends Technology Production of steel revolutionised by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Science Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Species, putting forward the theory of evolution...


References

Sampson, H.C. 1930. Succession in the swamp forest formation in northern Ohio. Ohio J Science 30:340-357.


Kaatz, M.R. 1955. The Black Swamp: A Study in Historical Geography. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 45(1):1-35.


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Great Black Swamp - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (593 words)
The Great Black Swamp, or simply Black Swamp, was a glacially-caused wetland in northwest Ohio, extending into extreme northeastern Indiana, that existed from the end of the Wisconsin glaciation until the late 19th century.
In the 1850s an organized attempt to drain the swamp for agricultural use and ease of travel began which lasted for 40 years, and the area was largely settled over the next three decades.
The Black Swamp Conservancy is an organization dedicated to preservation of the swamp.
Welcome to Historic Perrysburg (753 words)
It was the Great Black Swamp, an oozing mass of water, mud, snakes, wolves, wildcats, biting flies, and clouds of gnats and mosquitoes.
Much of the swamp was covered with an almost impenetrable forest of giant oak, sycamore, hickory, walnut, ash, elm, maple and cottonwood trees, except in a few prairie areas where limestone just under the surface would not support timber growth.
The Black Swamp was Ohio's last frontier, and beginning in the 1840s, it took several generations of determined farmers to drain it and make it the rich, flat farmland of today.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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