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Encyclopedia > Great Barrier Reef
Great Barrier Reef*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

State Party Flag of Australia Australia
Type Natural
Criteria vii, viii, ix, x
Reference 154
Region Asia-Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription 1981  (5th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
Region as classified by UNESCO.

The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system,[1][2] composed of over 2,900 individual reefs[3] and 900 islands stretching for 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres (133,000 sq mi).[4][5] The reef is located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland in northeast Australia. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 535 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (945 × 1058 pixel, file size: 200 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of Great Barrier Reef. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Asia, Australia and the Pacific (Australasia). ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Map of the Coral Sea Islands A political map of the South Pacific. ... For other uses, see Queensland (disambiguation). ...


The Great Barrier Reef can be seen from outer space and is the world's biggest single structure made by living organisms.[6] This reef structure is composed of and built by billions of tiny organisms, known as coral polyps.[7] The Great Barrier Reef supports a wide diversity of life, and was selected as a World Heritage Site in 1981.[1][2] CNN has labelled it one of the seven natural wonders of the world.[8] The Queensland National Trust has named it a state icon of Queensland.[9] Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Anatomy of a coral polyp. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... For other uses, see Wonders of the World (disambiguation). ...


A large part of the reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, which helps to limit the impact of human use, such as overfishing and tourism. Other environmental pressures to the reef and its ecosystem include water quality from runoff, climate change accompanied by mass coral bleaching, and cyclic outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns starfish. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park protects a large part of Australias Great Barrier Reef from activities that would damage it. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Run-off or runoff may refer to one of the following. ... Warm pink and yellow host coral organism due to stress. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) is a starfish with thorn-like spines sprouting all over its body for protection. ...

Contents

Physiography

The Great Barrier Reef is a distinct physiographic province of the larger East Australian Cordillera division. It encompasses the smaller Murray Islands physiographic section.[10]


Geology and geography

Satellite image of part of the Great Barrier Reef adjacent to the Queensland coastal areas of Proserpine and Mackay
Satellite image of part of the Great Barrier Reef adjacent to the Queensland coastal areas of Proserpine and Mackay
The Great Barrier Reef is clearly visible from jet planes flying over it
The Great Barrier Reef is clearly visible from jet planes flying over it

Australia has moved northwards at a rate of 7 cm (2.8 in) per year, starting during the Cainozoic.[11] Eastern Australia experienced a period of tectonic uplift, leading to the drainage divide in Queensland moving 400 km (250 mi) inland. Also during this time, Queensland experienced volcanic eruptions leading to central and shield volcanoes and basalt flows.[12] Some of these granitic outcrops have become high islands.[13] After the Coral Sea Basin was formed, coral reefs began to grow in the Basin, but until about 25 million years ago, northern Queensland was still in temperate waters south of the tropics - too cool to support coral growth.[14] The history of the development of the Great Barrier Reef is complex; after Queensland drifted into tropical waters, the history is largely influenced by how reefs fluctuate (grow and recede) as the sea level changes.[15] They can increase in diameter from 1 to 3 centimetres (0.39 to 1.2 in) per year, and grow vertically anywhere from 1 to 25 centimetres (0.4–12 in) per year; however, they are limited to growing above a depth of 150 metres (490 ft) due to their need for sunlight, and cannot grow above sea level.[16] The land that formed the substrate of the current Great Barrier Reef was a coastal plain formed from the eroded sediments of the Great Dividing Range with some larger hills (some of which were themselves remnants of older reefs[17] or volcanoes[13]).[11] When Queensland moved into tropical waters 24 million years ago, some coral grew,[18] but a sedimentation regime quickly developed with erosion of the Great Dividing Range; creating river deltas, oozes and turbidites, which would have been unsuitable conditions for coral growth. 10 million years ago, the sea level significantly lowered, which further enabled the sedimentation. The substrate of the GBR may have needed to build up from the sediment until the edge of the substrate was too far away for suspended sediments to have an inhibiting effect on coral growth. In addition, approximately 400,000 years ago there was a particularly warm interglacial period with higher sea levels and a 4 degree Celsius change in water temperature.[19] Image File history File links GreatBarrierReef-EO.JPG The Great Barrier Reef by Orlando Bloom Description: Satelite image of the Great Barrier Reef in German: Teil des Great Barrier Reef nordöstlich von Australien. ... Image File history File links GreatBarrierReef-EO.JPG The Great Barrier Reef by Orlando Bloom Description: Satelite image of the Great Barrier Reef in German: Teil des Great Barrier Reef nordöstlich von Australien. ... Wikipedia Encyclopedia Proserpine is a town situated on the Bruce Highway in the state of Queensland, Australia. ... Mackay Marina. ... Plates in the crust of the earth, according to the plate tectonics theory Continental drift refers to the movement of the Earths continents relative to each other. ... The Cenozoic or Cainozoic era (sometimes Caenozoic Era) is the most recent of the four classic geological eras. ... A tectonic uplift is a geological process most often caused by plate tectonics which increases elevation. ... Main European drainage divides (red lines) separating catchments (gray regions). ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... High Island is the name of several places in the United States: Communities High Island, Texas Islands High Island (Michigan) High Island (New York) High Island (Connecticut) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Map of the Coral Sea Islands A political map of the South Pacific. ... A basin is the inverse of a dome: a symmetrically-dipping syncline that appears on a geologic map as roughly circular or elliptical, with concentric layers. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A coastal plain is an area of flat, low-lying land adjacent to a seacoast and separated from the interior by other features. ... The Great Dividing Range, also known as the Eastern Highlands, is Australias most substantial mountain range. ... Sedimentation describes the motion of particles in solutions or suspensions in response to an external force such as gravity, centrifugal force or electric force. ... The Great Dividing Range, also known as the Eastern Highlands, is Australias most substantial mountain range. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... Pelagic sediments, also known as marine sediments, are those that accumulate in the abyssal plain of the deep ocean, far away from terrestrial sources that provide terrigenous sediments; the latter are primarily limited to the continental shelf, and deposited by rivers. ... USGS image Turbidite geological formations have their origins in turbidity current deposits, deposits from a form of underwater avalanche that are responsible for distributing vast amounts of clastic sediment into the deep ocean. ...


The Reef Research Centre, a Cooperative Research Centre, has found coral 'skeleton' deposits that date back half a million years.[20] The GBRMPA considers the earliest evidence to suggest complete reef structures to have been 600,000 years ago.[21] Cooperative Research Centres are key bodies for Australian scientific research. ... Deposit may refer to: Finance A deposit is a specific sum of money taken and held on account, by a bank as a service provided for its clients. ...


According to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, the current, living reef structure is believed to have begun growing on the older platform about 20,000 years ago.[21] The Australian Institute of Marine Science agrees, which places the beginning of the growth of the current reef at the time of the Last Glacial Maximum. At around that time, the sea level was 120 metres (390 ft) lower than it is today. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park protects a large part of Australias Great Barrier Reef from activities that would damage it. ... The Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) is a state-of-the-art marine research centre located primarily at Cape Ferguson, 50km south of Townsville in North Queensland, Australia. ... Temperature proxies for the last 40,000 years The Last Glacial Maximum refers to the time of maximum extent of the ice sheets during the last glaciation, approximately 21 thousand years ago. ...

Heron Island, a coral cay in the southern Great Barrier Reef
Heron Island, a coral cay in the southern Great Barrier Reef

From 20,000 years ago until 6,000 years ago, the sea level rose steadily. As it rose, the corals could then grow higher on the hills of the coastal plain. By around 13,000 years ago the sea level was 60 metres (200 ft) lower than the present day, and corals began to grow around the hills of the coastal plain, which were, by then, continental islands. As the sea level rose further still, most of the continental islands were submerged. The corals could then overgrow the hills, to form the present cays and reefs. Sea level on the Great Barrier Reef has not risen significantly in the last 6,000 years.[17]The CRC Reef Research Centre estimates the age of the present, living reef structure at 6,000 to 8,000 years old.[20] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (816x616, 280 KB) Photo I took in Jan 2005 - Heron Island, Australia - View of Heron Island from helicopter File links The following pages link to this file: Heron Island ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (816x616, 280 KB) Photo I took in Jan 2005 - Heron Island, Australia - View of Heron Island from helicopter File links The following pages link to this file: Heron Island ... Heron Island from helicopter, looking north-northeast. ... Sea level measurements from 23 long tide gauge records in geologically stable environments show a rise of around 20 centimeters per century (2 mm/year). ... For other uses of island or islands, see Island (disambiguation). ... Heron Island, Australia A cay (also spelled key or quay; pronounced as key IPA: /kiː/) is a small, low-elevation, sandy island formed on the surface of coral reefs. ...


The remains of an ancient barrier reef similar to the Great Barrier Reef can be found in The Kimberley, a northern region of Western Australia.[22] The Kimberley is one of the nine regions of Western Australia, consisting of the local government areas of Broome, Derby-West Kimberley, Halls Creek and Wyndham-East Kimberley. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person...


The Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area has been divided into 70 bioregions,[23] of which 30 are reef bioregions,[24] and 40 are non-reef bioregions.[25] In the northern part of the Great Barrier Reef, ribbon reefs and deltaic reefs have formed; these structures are not found in the rest of the Great Barrier Reef system.[20] There are no atolls in the system,[26] and reefs attached to the mainland are rare.[11] There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... An ecoregion is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef. ... Portion of a Pacific atoll showing two islets on the ribbon or barrier reef separated by a deep pass between the ocean and the lagoon. ...


Fringing reefs are distributed widely, but are most common towards the southern part of the Great Barrier Reef, attached to high islands, for example, the Whitsunday Islands. Lagoonal reefs are also found in the southern Great Barrier Reef, but there are some of these found further north, off the coast of Princess Charlotte Bay. Cresentic reefs are the most common shape of reef in the middle of the Great Barrier Reef system, for example the reefs surrounding Lizard Island. Cresentic reefs are also found in the far north of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, and in the Swain Reefs (20-22 degrees South). Planar reefs are found in the northern and southern parts of the Great Barrier Reef, near Cape York, Princess Charlotte Bay, and Cairns. Most of the islands on the reef are found on planar reefs.[27] Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef. ... Whitehaven beach on Whitsunday Island Hill inlet, north of Whitehaven beach The Whitsunday Islands are a collective of continental islands of various sizes off the coast of Queensland, Australia, situated between Townsville and Mackay and some 900km north of Brisbane. ... Princess Charlotte Bay is a large bay on the coast of far-north Queensland at the base of Cape York Peninsula, 350 km north northwest of Cairns. ... Lizard Island is a national park in Queensland (Australia), 1624 km northwest of Brisbane and part of the Lizard Island Group that also includes Palfrey Island. ...


Ecology

Green sea turtle on the Great Barrier Reef
Green sea turtle on the Great Barrier Reef

The Great Barrier Reef supports a diversity of life, including many vulnerable or endangered species, some of which may be endemic to the reef system.[28][29] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (972x1296, 218 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (972x1296, 218 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758) This page redirects from Chelonia, which is the genus name of this turtle, but has also been used for the order Testudines of all turtles and tortoises. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ...


Thirty species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises have been recorded in the Great Barrier Reef, including the dwarf minke whale, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, and the humpback whale. Large populations of dugongs live there.[30][31][29] Binomial name Lacepede, 1804 Balaenoptera bonaerensis Burmeister, 1867 Minke Whale range Antarctic Minke Whale range Dwarf Minke Whale range The Minke Whale or Lesser Rorqual is a marine mammal belonging to the suborder of baleen whales. ... Binomial name Osbeck, 1765 Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Chinese White Dolphin) range Sousa plumbea Cuvier, 1829 Indian Humpback Dolphin range Sousa teuszi Kükenthal, 1892 Atlantic Humpback Dolphin range The Humpback Dolphin is a member of the genus Sousa. ... Binomial name Borowski, 1781 Humpback Whale range The Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is a baleen whale. ... Binomial name (Müller, 1776) Natural range of . ...


Six species of sea turtles come to the reef to breed – the green sea turtle, leatherback sea turtle, hawksbill turtle, loggerhead sea turtle, flatback turtle, and the olive ridley. The green sea turtles on the Great Barrier Reef have two genetically distinct populations, one in the northern part of the reef and the other in the southern part.[32] Fifteen species of seagrass in beds attract the dugongs and turtles,[30] and provide a habitat for fish.[33] The most common genera of seagrasses are Halophila and Halodule.[34] Genera Family Cheloniidae (Oppel, 1811) Caretta Chelonia Eretmochelys Lepidochelys Natator Family Dermochelyidae Dermochelys Family Protostegidae (extinct) Family Toxochelyidae (extinct) Family Thalassemyidae (extinct) Sea turtles (Superfamily Chelonioidea) are turtles found in all the worlds oceans except the Arctic Ocean . ... Binomial name Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758) This page redirects from Chelonia, which is the genus name of this turtle, but has also been used for the order Testudines of all turtles and tortoises. ... Binomial name Dermochelys coriacea (Vandelli, 1761) The Leatherback Sea Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) is the biggest of all living turtles, reaching a length of over 2. ... Binomial name Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus, 1766 Range of the Hawksbill turtle subspecies Eretmochelys imbricata bissa (Rüppell, 1835) Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766) Synonyms Eretmochelys imbricata squamata junior synonym The hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) is a critically endangered sea turtle belonging to the family Cheloniidae. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta) is a sea turtle and the only member of the genus Caretta. ... Binomial name (Garman, 1880) The Flatback Turtle, Natator depressus, is a sea turtle that is endemic to the continental shelf of Australia. ... Binomial name Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) The Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) is one of the smallest species of sea turtle. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ...


Salt water crocodiles live in mangrove and saltmarshes on the coast near the reef.[35] Nesting has not been reported, and the salt water crocodile population in the GBRWHA is wide-ranging and with a low population density.[36] Around 125 species of shark, stingray, skates or chimera live on the reef,[37][38] including the irukandji jellyfish. Close to 5,000 species of mollusc have been recorded on the reef, including the giant clam and various nudibranchs and cone snails.[30] Forty-nine species of pipefish and nine species of seahorse have been recorded.[36] At least seven species of frog can be found on the islands.[39] Binomial name Crocodylus porosus (Schneider, 1801) The saltwater or estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the largest of all existing reptiles, and is often said to be the most dangerous to humans. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The giant clam, Tridacna gigas, or traditionally, pa’ua, is the largest living bivalve mollusc. ... A nudibranch (pronounced ) common name sea slug, is any member of a suborder of soft-bodied, shell-less marine gastropod mollusks noted for their often extraordinary colors and striking forms. ... Genera Asprella Chelyconus Conus Floraconus Leptoconus The cone snails or cone shells, sometimes simply known as cones, (family Conidae), are a taxonomic family of medium-sized to large, sophisticated predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks. ... Genera See text. ... This article is about the animal. ...


215 species of birds (including 22 species of seabirds and 32 species of shorebirds) are attracted to the reef or nest or roost on the islands,[40] including the white-bellied sea eagle and roseate tern.[30] Most nesting sites are on islands in the northern and southern regions of the Great Barrier Reef, with 1.4-1.7 million birds using the sites to breed.[41][42] The islands of the Great Barrier Reef also support 2,195 known plant species; three of these are endemic. The northern islands have 300-350 plant species which tend to be woody, whereas the southern islands have 200 which tend to be herbaceous; the Whitsunday region is the most diverse, supporting 1,141 species. The plant species are spread by birds.[39] Binomial name Haliaeetus leucogaster Gmelin, 1788 The White-bellied Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus leucogaster) is a large bird of prey in the family Accipitridae which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as kites, buzzards and harriers. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Seventeen species of sea snake live on the Great Barrier Reef. They take three or four years to reach sexual maturity and are long-lived but with low fertility. They are usually benthic, but the species that live on the soft sediment differ from those that live on the reefs themselves. They live in warm waters up to 50 metres (164 ft) deep and are more common in the southern than in the northern part of the reef. None of the sea snakes found in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area are endemic to the reef, nor are any of them endangered.[36] For sea snakes in mythology and cryptozoology, see Sea serpent. ... In marine geology and biology, benthos are the organisms and habitats of the sea floor; in freshwater biology they are the organisms and habitats of the bottoms of lakes, rivers, and creeks. ...


More than 1,500 species of fish live on the reef, including the clownfish, red bass, red-throat emperor, and several species of snapper and coral trout.[30] Forty-nine species are known to mass spawn, with eighty-four other species found on the reef spawning elsewhere in their range.[43] Genera Amphiprion Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Premnas Cuvier, 1816 Clownfish and anemonefish are fishes from the subfamily Amphiprioninae in the family Pomacentridae. ... Genera Aphareus Aprion Apsilus Etelis Hemilutjanus Hoplopagrus Lipocheilus Lutjanus Macolor Ocyurus Paracaesio Pinjalo Pristipomoides Randallichthys Rhomboplites Symphorus Snapper can also refer to the Snapping turtle. ...


There are at least 330 species of ascidians found on the reef system, ranging in size from 1 mm-10 cm in diameter. Between 300-500 species of bryozoans are found on the reef system.[38] Orders Aplousobranchia Enterogona Phlebobranchia Pleurogona Stolidobranchia Ascidiacea (commonly known as the ascidians) is an order in the Urochordata subphylum of sac-like marine filter feeders. ... Fossilized Bryozoa, Ordovician limestone, Batavia, Ohio Bryozoans (moss animals) are tiny colonial animals that generally build stony skeletons of calcium carbonate, superficially similar to coral. ...


Four hundred species of corals, both hard corals and soft corals are found on the reef.[30] The majority of these spawn gametes, breeding in mass spawning events that are controlled by the rising sea temperatures of spring and summer, the lunar cycle, and the diurnal cycle. Reefs in the inner Great Barrier Reef spawn during the week after the full moon in October, but the outer reefs spawn in November and December.[44] The common soft corals on the Great Barrier Reef belong to 36 genera.[45] Five hundred species of marine algae or seaweed live on the reef,[30] including thirteen species of the genus Halimeda, which deposit calcareous mounds up to 100 metres (110 yd) wide, creating mini-ecosystems on their surface which have been compared to rainforest cover.[46] Families Suborder Astrocoeiina   Acroporidae   Astrocoeniidae   Pocilloporiidae Suborder Caryophylliina   Caryophylliidae Suborder Dendrophylliina   Dendrophylliidae Suborder Faviina   Astrangiidae   Faviidae   Meandrinidae   Mirulinidae   Mussidae   Oculinidae   Pectiniidae   Trachyphyllidae Suborder Fungiina   Agariciidae   Fungiidae   Poritidae   Siderastreidae   Thamnasteriidae Scleractinia, also called Stony star corals, are exclusively marine animals; they are very similar to sea anemones but generate a hard... Families Suborder Alcyoniina Suborder Calcaxonia Suborder Holaxonia Suborder Protoalcyonaria Suborder Scleraxonia Suborder Stolonifera Suborder Incertae sedis Wikispecies has information related to: Alcyonacea Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Category:Alcyonaria The Alcyonacea, or the soft corals are an order of corals which do not produce calcium carbonate cups. ... Reproductive synchrony, or synchronous spawning is a term used in evolutionary biology and behavioural ecology to describe the way in which many species time reproduction to a proximate cue. ... Seaweed-covered rocks in the UK For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Biologists, specifically marine biologists, consider seaweed to be any of a large number of marine benthic algae that are multicellular, macrothallic, and thus differentiated from most algae that tend to be microscopic in size [1]. Many phycologists... Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ... Type species Halimeda tuna (J. Ellis & Solander) J.V. Lamouroux, 1816 Species[1] see text. ...


Environmental threats

Bioerosion (coral damage) such as this may be caused by coral bleaching.
Bioerosion (coral damage) such as this may be caused by coral bleaching.[47]

The most significant threat to the Great Barrier Reef is climate change.[48][49] Mass coral bleaching events due to rising ocean temperatures occurred in of the summers of 1998, 2002 and 2006,[50] and coral bleaching will likely become an annual occurrence.[51] Climate change has implications for other forms of life on the Great Barrier Reef as well - some fish's preferred temperature range lead them to seek new areas to live, thus causing chick mortality in seabirds that prey on the fish. Climate change will also affect the population and available habitat of sea turtles.[52] The Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest coral reef system,[1][2] composed of roughly 3,000 individual reefs and 900 islands that stretch for 2,600 kilometres (1,616 mi) and cover an area of approximately 344,400 km².[3][4] The reef is located in the... A coral reef tha has undergone bioerosion. ... A coral reef tha has undergone bioerosion. ... Bioerosion describes the erosion of hard ocean substrates by living organisms by a number of mechanisms. ... Warm pink and yellow host coral organism due to stress. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Warm pink and yellow host coral organism due to stress. ...

Sea temperature and bleaching of the Great Barrier Reef
Sea temperature and bleaching of the Great Barrier Reef

Another key threat faced by the Great Barrier Reef is pollution and declining water quality. The rivers of north eastern Australia provide significant pollution of the Reef during tropical flood events with over 90% of this pollution being sourced from farms.[53] Farm run-off is polluted as a result of overgrazing and excessive fertiliser and pesticide use. Due to the range of human uses made of the water catchment area adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef, water quality has declined owing to the sediment and chemical runoff from farming, and to loss of coastal wetlands which are a natural filter.[54][55][56] It is thought that the mechanism behind poor water quality affecting the reefs is due to increased light and oxygen competition from algae.[57] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 415 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (540 × 779 pixel, file size: 83 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sea Temperature and Algae File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 415 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (540 × 779 pixel, file size: 83 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sea Temperature and Algae File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities, which can be harmful to organisms and... Runoff flowing into a stormwater drain Surface runoff is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle[1][2]. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... Trees in this Bangladesh forest are in competition for light. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ...

Crown-of-thorns starfish
Crown-of-thorns starfish

The crown-of-thorns starfish is a coral reef predator which preys on coral polyps. Large outbreaks of these starfish can devastate reefs. In 2000, an outbreak contributed to a loss of 66% of live coral cover on sampled reefs in a study by the CRC Reefs Research Centre.[58] Outbreaks are believed to occur in natural cycles, exacerbated by poor water quality and overfishing of the starfish's predators.[58][59] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1500, 920 KB) Summary Crown-of-Thorns starfish near Qamea Island in Fiji. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1500, 920 KB) Summary Crown-of-Thorns starfish near Qamea Island in Fiji. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) is a starfish with thorn-like spines sprouting all over its body for protection. ...


The unsustainable overfishing of keystone species, such as the Giant Triton, can cause disruption to food chains vital to life on the reef. Fishing also impacts the reef through increased pollution from boats, by-catch of unwanted species (such as dolphins and turtles) and reef habitat destruction from trawling, anchors and nets.[60] As of the middle of 2004, approximately one-third of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park is protected from species removal of any kind, including fishing, without written permission.[61] The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Species Charonia tritonis Charonia variegata Triton is the name given to various large sea snails of the genus Charonia, named after the Greek god Triton, son of Poseidon, god of the Sea. ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ... In fisheries science, by-catch refers to species caught in a fishery intended to target another species, as well as reproductively-immature juveniles of the target species. ... Habitat destruction is a process of land use change in which one habitat-type is removed and replaced with another habitat-type. ... Trawling is a method of fishing that involves actively pulling a large fishing net through the water behind one or more boats. ... For alternate meanings see anchor (disambiguation) The purpose of a ships or boats anchor is to attach the vessel to the ground at a specific point. ... The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park protects a large part of Australias Great Barrier Reef from activities that would damage it. ...


Other threats to the Great Barrier Reef include shipping accidents, oil spills, and tropical cyclones.


Human use

The Great Barrier Reef has long been known to and utilised by the Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Aboriginal Australians have been living in the area from at least 40,000 years ago,[62] and Torres Strait Islanders since about 10,000 years ago.[63] For these 70 or so clan groups, the reef is also an important part of their culture and spirituality.[64] Australian Aborigines are the indigenous peoples of Australia. ... Torres Strait Islanders are the indigenous people of the Torres Strait Islands, part of Queensland, Australia. ...


The reef first became known to Europeans when the HM Bark Endeavour, captained by explorer James Cook, ran aground there on June 11, 1770, sustaining considerable damage. It was finally saved after lightening the ship as much as possible and re-floating it during an incoming tide.[65] One of the most famous wrecks was that of the HMS Pandora, which sank on August 29, 1791, killing 35. The Queensland Museum has been leading archaeological digs to the Pandora since 1983.[66] However, as there were no atolls on the reef system, it was largely unstudied in the 19th century.[26] During this time, some of the islands on the Great Barrier Reef were mined for deposits of guano, and lighthouses were built as beacons through the system,[67] as in Raine Island, the earliest example.[68] The Great Barrier Reef Committee was set up in 1922 which carried out much of the early research on the reef.[69] This article deals with the European people as an ethnic group or ethnic groups. ... HMB Endeavour was a small 18th century British sailing ship, famous for being the vessel commanded by Lt. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the village in Queensland, see 1770, Queensland. ... HMS Pandora was a 24-gun frigate of the Royal Navy, built by Adams and Barnard at Deptford, and launched on 17 May 1779. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Queensland Museum — 1862–1869 The Windmill in Wickham Terrace ( Queensland Museums first home ) Queensland Museum — 1879–1899 cnr. ... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ... A Green Turtle. ...

Starfish on coral - typically, tourists photograph the natural beauty of the reef.
Starfish on coral - typically, tourists photograph the natural beauty of the reef.

Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 210 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 210 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Management

After the Royal Commissions' findings, in 1975 the Government of Australia created the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and defined what activities were prohibited on the Great Barrier Reef.[70] The park is managed, in partnership with the Government of Queensland, through the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority to ensure that it is widely understood and used in a sustainable manner. A combination of zoning, management plans, permits, education and incentives (such as eco-tourism certification) are used in the effort to conserve the Great Barrier Reef. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park protects a large part of Australias Great Barrier Reef from activities that would damage it. ... The Commonwealth of Australia is a federative constitutional monarchy under a parliamentary democracy. ... For the public park of the same name, see Marine Park, Brooklyn. ... Queensland Government Logo The Government of Queensland is commonly known as the Queensland Government. ... Ecotourism essentially means ecological tourism, where ecological has both environmental and social connotations. ...


In July 2004, a new zoning plan was brought into effect for the entire Marine Park, and has been widely acclaimed as a new global benchmark for the conservation of marine ecosystems.[71] The rezoning was based on the application of systematic conservation planning techniques, using the MARXAN software.[72] While protection across the Marine Park was improved, the highly protected zones increased from 4.5% to over 33.3%.[73] At the time, it was the largest marine protected area in the world, although as of 2006, the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands National Monument is the largest.[74] Marine ecosystems are part of the earths aquatic ecosystem. ... MARXAN is a piece of software designed to aid systematic reserve design on conservation planning. ... The term Marine Protected Area is often used as an umbrella term covering a wide range of marine areas with some level of restriction to protect living, non-living, cultural, and/or historic resources. ... The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument is the largest Marine Protected Area in the world and is one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. ...


In 2006, a review was undertaken of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act 1975. Some recommendations of the review are that there should be no further zoning plan changes until 2013, and that every five years, a peer-reviewed Outlook Report should be published, examining the health of the Great Barrier Reef, the management of the reef, and environmental pressures.[5][75] Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ...

A scuba diver looking at a giant clam on the Great Barrier Reef
A scuba diver looking at a giant clam on the Great Barrier Reef

Image File history File links Giant clams are the largest of all clam species and can grow until 1. ... Image File history File links Giant clams are the largest of all clam species and can grow until 1. ...

Tourism

Due to its vast biodiversity, warm clear waters and its accessibility from the floating guest facilities called 'live aboards', the reef is a very popular destination for tourists, especially scuba divers. Many cities along the Queensland coast offer daily boat trips to the reef. Several continental and coral cay islands have been turned into resorts, including the pristine resort island of Lady Elliot Island. Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Live aboard (noun or verb) refers to living aboard a boat for some period of time, either as a residence or as part of a multi-day diving trip. ... Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ... Resorts combine a hotel and a variety of recreations, such as swimming pools. ... Lady Elliot Island as seen from the air. ...


As the largest commercial activity in the region, it was estimated in 2003 that tourism in the Great Barrier Reef generates over AU$4 billion annually.[76] (A 2005 estimate puts the figure at AU$5.1 billion.[77]) Approximately two million people visit the Great Barrier Reef each year.[78] Although most of these visits are managed in partnership with the marine tourism industry, there are some very popular areas near shore (such as Green Island) that have suffered damage due to overfishing and land based run off. ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia 6 countries and territories Kiribati Nauru Tuvalu Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Norfolk Island Inflation 4. ... ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia, Kiribati, Nauru, Tuvalu, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island Inflation 4% (Australia only) Source Reserve Bank of Australia, June 2006 Subunit 1/100 cent Symbol $ or AUD Coins 5c, 10c, 20c, 50c , $1, $2 Banknotes $5, $10, $20, $50, $100 Central... Tourist redirects here. ... of_Australia | name = Green Island National Park | iucn_category = II | image = Australia_Locator_Map. ...


A variety of boat tours and cruises are offered, from single day trips, to longer voyages. Boat sizes range from dinghies to superyachts.[79] Glass-bottomed boats and underwater observatories are also popular, as are helicopter flights. By far, the most popular tourist activities on the Great Barrier Reef are snorkelling and diving, for which pontoons are often used, and the area is often enclosed by nets. The outer part of the Great Barrier Reef is favoured for such activities, due to water quality. A dinghy is either a small utility boat used to tend a larger boat, or it is a boat developed from these tenders but now used in its own right as a form of leisure sailing and/or rowing. ... The term luxury yacht refers to a very expensive privately owned yacht which is professionally crewed. ... The interior of a glass bottom boat A glass bottom boat is a boat with sections of glass (or other suitable transparent material) below the waterline allowing passengers to observe the underwater environment from within the boat. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... Snorkeling is the practice of swimming at the surface of a body of water (typically of the sea) equipped with a mask and a short tube called a snorkel, to explore the underwater environment. ...


Management of tourism in the Great Barrier Reef is geared towards making tourism ecologically sustainable. A daily fee is levied that goes towards research of the Great Barrier Reef.[77] This fee ends up being 20% of the GBRMPA's income.[80] Plans of management are also in place for the popular tourist destinations of Cairns and the Whitsunday Islands, which account for 85% of the tourism in the region.[77] Policies on cruise ships, bareboat charters, and anchorages limit the traffic on the Great Barrier Reef.[77] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sustainable development. ... Whitehaven beach on Whitsunday Island Hill inlet, north of Whitehaven beach The Whitsunday Islands are a collective of continental islands of various sizes off the coast of Queensland, Australia, situated between Townsville and Mackay and some 900km north of Brisbane. ... A cruise ship or a cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ships amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. ... A bareboat charter is an arrangement for the hiring of a boat, whereby no crew or provisions are included as party of the agreement; instead, the people who rent the boat from the owner are responsible for taking care of such things. ...


Fishing

The fishing industry in the Great Barrier Reef, controlled by the Queensland Government, is worth AU$1 billion annually.[81] It employs approximately 2000 people, and fishing in the Great Barrier Reef is pursued commercially, for recreation, and as a traditional means for feeding one's family.[64] Wonky holes in the reef provide particularly productive fishing areas. Salmon for sale at a marketplace The Fishing industry is the commercial activity of fishing and producing fish and other seafood products. ... ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia 6 countries and territories Kiribati Nauru Tuvalu Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Norfolk Island Inflation 4. ... A Wonky hole is the Australian term for submarine freshwater springs on the seabed in the Great Barrier Reef of Queensland. ...


See also

The seven wonders of the world are usually taken to be the seven wonders of the ancient world, the name of a list of the most impressive achievements of ancient civilizations in the east of the Mediterranean world. ...

References

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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Iowa State University of Science and Technology (ISU) is a public land-grant and space-grant university located in Ames, Iowa, USA. Iowa State has produced a number of astronauts, Nobel laureates, Pulitzer Prize winners and a variety of other notable individuals in their respective fields. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Daily Telegraph is a tabloid newspaper published in Sydney, New South Wales, by Nationwide News, part of News Corporation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Bell, Peter (1998). AIMS: The First Twenty-five Years. Townsville: Australian Institute of Marine Science. ISBN 9780642322128. 
  • Bowen, James; Bowen, Margarita (2002). The Great Barrier Reef : history, science, heritage. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521824303. 
  • Done, T.J. (1982). "Patterns in the distribution of coral communities across the central Great Barrier Reef". Coral Reefs 1 (2): 95–107. doi:10.1007/BF00301691. 
  • Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publications
  • Lucas, P.H.C. et al. (1997). The outstanding universal value of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. ISBN 0642230285. 
  • (1993) in Mather, P.; Bennett, I.: A Coral Reef Handbook: A Guide to the Geology, Flora and Fauna of the Great Barrier Reef, 3rd edition, Chipping North: Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Ltd. ISBN 0949324477. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park protects a large part of Australias Great Barrier Reef from activities that would damage it. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Great Barrier Reef
  • Great Barrier Reef travel guide from Wikitravel
  • World heritage listing for Great Barrier Reef
  • Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority
  • CRC Reef Research Centre
  • Biological monitoring of coral reefs of the GBR
  • Great Barrier Reef (World Wildlife Fund)
  • Dive into the Great Barrier Reef from National Geographic

Coordinates: 18°17′10″S, 147°42′00″E Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Great Barrier Reef - MSN Encarta (1266 words)
In 1975 the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park was established as the largest marine protected area in the world (though it was overtaken in size by the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument in 2006).
A barrier reef lies parallel to a coastline and is always separated from the shore by a wide lagoon.
The growth of the Great Barrier Reef was subsequently interrupted by global changes in sea level and temperature during periods of glaciation, when more of the planet’s water was frozen in glaciers due to global cooling (see Ice Ages).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     

Jizzywooozap.
13th May 2010
Uhm, I couldnt find what i needed,ahh,danget!

-Good website though(:

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