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Encyclopedia > Great Artesian Basin
Lightning Ridge bathing thermes supplied by artesian bore water
Hot water bore hole into the Great Artesian Basin in Thargomindah

The Great Artesian Basin provides the only reliable source of water through much of inland Australia. The basin is the largest and deepest artesian basin in the world. It underlies 23% of the continent, including most of Queensland, the south-east corner of the Northern Territory, the north-east part of South Australia, and northern New South Wales. The basin is 3000 metres (10,000 ft) deep in places and is estimated to contain 64,900 cubic kilometres of groundwater.[1] The Great Artesian Basin Coordinating Committee (GABCC) [1] coordinates activity between the various levels of government and community organisations. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (1936 × 1296 pixel, file size: 982 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (1936 × 1296 pixel, file size: 982 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lightning Ridge is a town of approximately 2000 persons in north-western New South Wales, Australia. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (1278 × 855 pixel, file size: 497 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (1278 × 855 pixel, file size: 497 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The township of Thargomindah is located in south west Queensland, Australia, approximately 1100 kilometres west of the state capital, Brisbane, and 200 kilometres west of the town of Cunnamulla. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Geological strata giving rise to an Artesian well. ... Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Peter Beattie (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd)  - Product per capita  $40,170/person (6th) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  4,164,590 (3rd)  - Density  2. ... Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $10,418 (8th)  - Product... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... Capital Sydney Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Professor Marie Bashir Premier Morris Iemma (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 50  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $305,437 (1st)  - Product per capita  $45,153/person (4th) Population (End of March 2006)  - Population  6,817,100 (1st)  - Density  8. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ...

Contents

Geology

The sandstone was laid down by continental erosion of higher ground during the Triassic, Jurassic, and early Cretaceous periods. During a time when much of what is now inland Australia was below sea level, the sandstone was then covered by a layer of marine sedimentary rock shortly afterwards. The eastern edge of the basin was uplifted when the Great Dividing Range formed. The other side was created from the landforms of the Central Eastern Lowlands and the Great Western Plateau to the west. The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... A tectonic uplift is a geological process most often caused by plate tectonics which increases elevation. ... The Great Divide runs around the entire eastern and south-eastern edge of Australia The Great Dividing Range, also known as the Eastern Highlands, is Australias most substantial mountain range. ... A landform comprises a geomorphological unit. ... The Western Plateau is Australias largest drainage division and is composed predominantly of the remains of the ancient rock shield of Gondwanaland. ...


Most recharge water enters the rock formations from relatively high ground near the eastern edge of the basin (in Queensland and New South Wales) and very gradually flows towards the south and west. (A much smaller amount enters along the western margin in arid central Australia, flowing to the south and east.) Because the sandstones are permeable, water gradually makes its way through the pores between the sand grains, flowing at a rate of one to five metres per year. Patterns in the sand Sand is a granular material made up of fine rock particles. ...


Discharge water eventually exits through a number of springs and seeps, mostly in the southern part of the basin. It takes up to two million years for water to travel to the springs in the Lake Eyre area. A natural spring on Mackinac Island in Michigan. ... A seep is a wet place, where a liquid, usually water, has oozed from the ground to the surface. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Water source

The Great Artesian Basin is an important water supply for cattle raising, irrigation, and stock and domestic usage, and is a vital life line for rural Australia. To tap it, bores are drilled down to a suitable rock layer, where the pressure of the water forces it up, mostly without pumping. Ranching is the raising of cattle or sheep on rangeland, although one might also speak of ranching with regard to less common livestock such as elk, bison or emu. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bore may refer to: A wave in a river caused by an incoming tide - see tidal bore The diameter of a pipe or tube, or the caliber of a gun The diameter of a cylinder and piston in a piston engine (See also: Stroke) A person who is boring The... An electrically driven pump (electropump) for waterworks near the Hengsteysee, Germany. ...


The discovery and use of water held underground in the Great Artesian Basin opened up thousands of square miles of country in inland New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia, previously unavailable for pastoral activities. European discovery of the basin dates from 1878 when a shallow bore near Bourke, New South Wales produced flowing water. There were similar discoveries in 1886 at Back Creek east of Barcaldine, Queensland, and in 1887 near Cunnamulla, Queensland.[2] See also: 1877 in Australia, other events of 1878, 1879 in Australia and the Timeline of Australian history. ... Location of Bourke in New South Wales (red) Bourke is a town and Local Government Area in the north of New South Wales, Australia. ... Barcaldine is a small town located in Western Queensland, Australia, approximately 520 kilometres by road west of the city of Rockhampton. ... Location of Cunnamulla in Queensland (red) 0 Cunnamulla (aboriginal meaning Dry water hole( ) is a small town which lies on the Warrego River in south west Queensland, Australia, 206 kilometres south of Charleville, and approximately 750 kilometres west of the state capital, Brisbane. ...


In 1983 there were klose to 18 000 bores providing 1575 million litres of water. This included just under 2000 freely flowing bores and more than 9000 that required mechanical power to bring water to the surface. Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Klose is a surname, and may refer to Adolf Klose (1844 - 1923), German railroad engineer and inventor Bob Klose, (* 1945), British musician and photographer Dennie Klose, (* 1979), German Comedian Friedrich Klose, (1862 - 1942), German composer Hanna Klose-Greger, (1892 - 1973), German editor and painter Hans-Ulrich Klose, (* 1937), German politician... In physics and engineering, mechanical advantage (MA) is the factor by which a mechanism multiplies the force put into it. ...


Additionally, the basin has provided water via a 1.2 km deep bore for a geothermal power station at Birdsville. The heated water is 98 °C (208 °F) and provides 25% of the towns needs. Ergon Energy is expanding the 80 kW plant to completely meet Birdville's electricity requirements [citation needed]. Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal power is the use of geothermal heat to generate electricity. ... Location of Birdsville in Queensland (red) Birdsville () is a small town located in Western Queensland, Australia. ... Ergon is a corporation owned by the Government of Queensland. ...


Whole of Basin Management

As the Great Artesian Basin underlies parts of Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia and the Northern Territory, which each operate under different legislative frameworks, policies and resource management approaches, a coordinated "whole-of-Basin" approach to the management of this important natural resource is required. The Great Artesian Basin Coordinating Committee (GABCC) provides advice from community organisations and agencies to State, Territory and Australian Government Ministers on efficient, effective and sustainable whole-of-Basin resource management and to coordinate activity between stakeholders.


Membership of the Committee comprises all State, Territory and Australian Government agencies with responsibilities for management of parts of the Great Artesian Basin, community representatives nominated by agencies; and sector representatives. The primary role of the Committee is to provide advice to State, Territory and Australian Government Ministers on efficient, effective and sustainable whole-of-Basin resource management and to coordinate activity between stakeholders.


The GABCC website provides up to date information and links regarding the Great Artesian Basin and can be accessed through their website www.gabcc.org.au [2].


Current scientific thinking

A comprehensive background to the Great Artesian Basin, including an overview of the nature of the Basin, the extraction of water and the impacts of that extraction, can be found in the Great Artesian Basin Resource Study, developed by the GABCC to support the Great Artesian Basin Strategic Management Plan. This document can be found at [3]. A summary of this document can be found at [4].


External links

  • [5] L.A. Endersbee, "A New Understanding of the Groundwater Resources of the Great Artesian Basin", Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering

References

  1. ^ The Great Artesian Basin (PDF). Facts: Water Series. Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Water. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  2. ^ Nicol, Sally (2005). The Great Artesian Basin: past, present and future. Water management. The State of Queensland (Department of Natural Resources and Water). Retrieved on 2007-03-02.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Great Artesian Basin (281 words)
The Great Artesian Basin is a 1.7 million square kilometre bed of porous water holding sedimentary rock lying on average 1000meters beneath most of northeastern Australia (22% of Australia’s total land area).
The basin was created during the Mesozoic period, 65 to 248 million years ago, where the area slumped under the weight of an Inland Sea and it's deposits.
It is sealed in the basin by impervious rock layers (aquitard).
Tas Walker's Biblical Geology - Application to GAB (1904 words)
Together with some associated peripheral basins it covers a significant portion of the Australian continent and is, indeed, the largest artesian basin of its kind in the world.
Artesian water is held under pressure in porous sandstone aquifers capped by impervious shale beds.
The effect of this erosion is illustrated in the adjacent cross-section of the Great Artesian Basin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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