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Encyclopedia > Gray wolf
Gray Wolf
Fossil range: Late Pleistocene - Recent
Iberian Wolf (Canis lupus signatus)
Iberian Wolf (Canis lupus signatus)
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Canis
Species: C. lupus
Binomial name
Canis lupus
Linnaeus, 1758

The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf or wolf, is a mammal of the order Carnivora. The gray wolf is the largest member of the Canidae family and an ice age survivor originating during the Late Pleistocene around 300,000 years ago.[2] DNA sequencing and genetic drift studies indicate that the gray wolf shares a common ancestry with the domestic dog, (Canis lupus familiaris) and might be its ancestor.[3] A number of other gray wolf subspecies have been identified, though the actual number of subspecies is still open to discussion. Gray wolves are typically apex predators in the ecosystems they occupy. Gray wolves are highly adaptable and have thrived in temperate forests, deserts, mountains, tundra, taiga, grasslands and urban areas. Wolf or wolves may refer to: Look up wolf in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Gray Wolf is a common carnivore, but its name has been used in other ways: Grey Wolves, the Turkish ultranationalist group. ... Timber Wolf is a fictional character in the thirtieth century of the DC Universe, a member of the Legion of Super-Animations. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus signatus Cabrera, 1907 The Iberian Wolf (Canis lupus signatus), known locally as Lobo is a subspecies of Gray Wolf that inhabited the forest and plains of North Portugal and North-Western Spain. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dÄ“, IPA: ) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... Species Canis adustus Canis aureus Canis dirus (extinct) Canis latrans Canis lupus Canis mesomelas Canis simensis   † also includes dogs. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dÄ“, IPA: ) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Late Pleistocene (also known as Upper Pleistocene or the Tarantian) is a stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. ... The term DNA sequencing encompasses biochemical methods for determining the order of the nucleotide bases, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, in a DNA oligonucleotide. ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ... For other members of the dog family, see Canidae. ... Apex predators (also alpha predators, superpredators, or top-level predators) are predators that, as adults, are not normally preyed upon in the wild in significant parts of their ranges. ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a community of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms - also referred as biocenose) together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a unit. ... This article is about forests as a massing of trees. ... A dune in the Egyptian desert In geography, a desert is a landscape form or region that receives little precipitation. ... Mount Cook, a mountain in New Zealand A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... An Inner Mongolia Grassland. ... The city of San Luis Obispo, an example of an urban area. ...


Though once abundant over much of North America and Eurasia, the gray wolf inhabits a very small portion of its former range because of widespread destruction of its habitat, human encroachment of its habitat, and the resulting human-wolf encounters that sparked broad extirpation. Considered as a whole, however, the gray wolf is regarded as being of least concern for extinction according to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Today, wolves are protected in some areas, hunted for sport in others, or may be subject to extermination as perceived threats to livestock and pets. North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... The Dodo, shown here in illustration, is an often-cited[1] example of extinction. ... The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (commonly known as the World Conservation Union) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO). ...


In areas where human cultures and wolves are sympatric, wolves frequently feature in the folklore and mythology of those cultures, both positively and negatively.

Physiology

Physical characteristics

Wolf weight and size can vary greatly worldwide, tending to increase proportionally with latitude as predicted by Bergmann's Rule. In general, height varies from 0.6 to .95 meters (26–38 inches) at the shoulder and weight ranges from 20 (44 lb.) to 62 (137 lb.) kilograms, which together make the gray wolf the largest of all wild canids.[4] Although rarely encountered, extreme specimens of more than 77 kg (170 lb.) have been recorded in Alaska, Canada[5] and Russia.[6] The heaviest recorded wild wolf in the New World was killed on 70 Mile River in east central Alaska on July 12, 1939 and weighed 79 kg (175 lb.)[7], while the heaviest recorded wild wolf in the Old World was killed after WWII in the kobelyakski Area of the Poltavskij Region in the Russian SFSR and weighed 86 kg (189 lb.).[6] The smallest wolves come from the Arabian Wolf subspecies, the females of which may weigh as little as 10 kg (22 lb) at maturity. Wolves are sexually dimorphic, with females in any given wolf population typically weighing 20% less than males[8]. They also have narrower muzzles and foreheads, slightly shorter, smoother furred legs and less massive shoulders[7]. Wolves can measure anywhere from 1.3 to 2 meters (4.5–6.5 feet) from nose to the tip of the tail, which itself accounts for approximately one quarter of overall body length.[9] This article is about the geographical term. ... The large size of a polar bear allows it to radiate less heat in a cold climate. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the body part. ... Kg redirects here. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... For other uses, see Old World (disambiguation). ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Trinomial name Canis lupus arabs Pocock, 1934[1] Arabian wolf range Wikispecies has information related to: Canis lupus arabs Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Canis lupus arabs The Arabian wolf (Canis lupus arabs) is a mammal of the order carnivora. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in form between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Tail is used to describe the rear end of an animals body, especially when it forms a distinct, flexible appendage to the trunk. ...

Wolf skeleton.
Wolf skeleton.

Wolves are built for stamina, possessing features ideal for long-distance travel. Their narrow chests and powerful backs and legs facilitate efficient locomotion. They are capable of covering several miles trotting at about a pace of 10 km/h (6 mph), and have been known to reach speeds approaching 65 km/h (40 mph) during a chase.[10] One female wolf was recorded to have made 7 metre bounds when chasing prey.[6] Look up Endurance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A number of animals have evolved so as to be able to travel over the ground. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ...


Wolf paws are able to tread easily on a wide variety of terrains, especially snow. There is a slight webbing between each toe, which allows them to move over snow more easily than comparatively hampered prey. Wolves are digitigrade, which, with the relative largeness of their feet, helps them to distribute their weight well on snowy surfaces. The front paws are larger than the hind paws, and have a fifth digit, the dewclaw, that is absent on hind paws.[11] Bristled hairs and blunt claws enhance grip on slippery surfaces, and special blood vessels keep paw pads from freezing.[12] Scent glands located between a wolf's toes leave trace chemical markers behind, helping the wolf to effectively navigate over large expanses while concurrently keeping others informed of its whereabouts.[12] Unlike dogs and coyotes, wolves lack sweat glands on their paw pads. This trait is also present in Eastern Canadian Coyotes which have been shown to have recent wolf ancestry.[13] Wolves in Israel are unique due to the middle two toes of their paws being fused, a trait originally thought to be unique to the African Wild Dog.[14] A dogs paw resting on a hard concrete surface. ... A digitigrade is an animal that stands or walks on its digits, or toes. ... The dogs front dewclaw grows on the side of the foot, above the other four toes but below the rear heelpad. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see Coyote (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Temminck, 1820) African Wild Dog range The African Wild Dog, Lycaon pictus, also known as the African Hunting Dog, Cape Hunting Dog, Painted Dog, or Painted Wolf, is a carnivorous mammal of the Canidae family. ...

Wolves molt in late spring or early summer.
Wolves molt in late spring or early summer.

Wolves have bulky coats consisting of two layers. The first layer is made up of tough guard hairs that repel water and dirt. The second is a dense, water-resistant undercoat that insulates. The undercoat is shed in the form of large tufts of fur in late spring or early summer (with yearly variations). A wolf will often rub against objects such as rocks and branches to encourage the loose fur to fall out. The undercoat is usually gray regardless of the outer coat's appearance. Wolves have distinct winter and summer pelages that alternate in spring and autumn. Females tend to keep their winter coats further into the spring than males. North American wolves typically have longer, silkier fur than their Eurasian counterparts.[15] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 591 pixelsFull resolution (1062 × 784 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 591 pixelsFull resolution (1062 × 784 pixels, file size: 1. ... Coat, or the nature and quality of a show mammals pelage, is an important conformation point in the hobby of animal fancy. ... Guard hairs are the longest, thickest hairs in a mammals coat, forming the topcoat (or outer coat). ... Undercoat can refer to: The down hairs in a mammals fur A layer of paint beneath the main painted surface This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In mammals, pelage is the hair, fur, or wool that covers the animal. ...


Fur coloration varies greatly, running from gray to gray-brown, all the way through the canine spectrum of white, red, brown, and black. These colors tend to mix in many populations to form predominantly blended individuals, though it is not uncommon for an individual or an entire population to be entirely one color (usually all black or all white). A multicolor coat characteristically lacks any clear pattern other than it tends to be lighter on the animal's underside. Fur color sometimes corresponds with a given wolf population's environment; for example, all-white wolves are much more common in areas with perennial snow cover. Aging wolves acquire a grayish tint in their coats. It is often thought that the coloration of the wolf's pelage serves as a functional form of camouflage. This may not be entirely correct, as some scientists have concluded that the blended colors have more to do with emphasizing certain gestures during interaction.[7] For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ... Gray (Gy) is the derived SI unit for absorbed dose, specific energy and kerma (kinetic energy in matter). ...


At birth, wolf pups tend to have darker fur and blue irises that will change to a yellow-gold or orange color when the pups are between 8 and 16 weeks old.[16] Though extremely unusual, it is possible for an adult wolf to retain its blue-colored irises.[17] The orange, the fruit from which the modern name of the orange colour comes. ...

Adolescent wolf with golden-yellow eyes.
Adolescent wolf with golden-yellow eyes.

Wolves' long, powerful muzzles help distinguish them from other canids, particularly coyotes and golden jackals, which have more narrow, pointed muzzles. Wolves differ from domestic dogs in a more varied nature. Anatomically, wolves have smaller orbital angles than dogs (>53 degrees for dogs compared with <45 degrees for wolves) and a comparatively larger brain capacity.[18] Larger paw size, yellow eyes, longer legs, and bigger teeth further distinguish adult wolves from other canids, especially dogs. Also, precaudal glands at the base of the tail are present in wolves but not in dogs. Image File history File linksMetadata Canis_lupus_pup_closeup. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Canis_lupus_pup_closeup. ... A snout is the protruding portion of an animals face, consisting of its nose, mouth, and jaw. ... For other uses, see Coyote (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Golden Jackal range The Golden Jackal (Canis aureus), also called the Asiatic or Common Jackal, is a mammal of the order carnivora native to North and East Africa, Southeastern Europe and South Asia to Burma. ... This article is about inequalities in mathematics. ... This article describes the unit of angle. ...


Wolves and most larger dogs share identical dentition. The maxilla has six incisors, two canines, eight premolars, and four molars. The mandible has six incisors, two canines, eight premolars, and six molars.[19] The fourth upper premolars and first lower molars constitute the carnassial teeth, which are essential tools for shearing flesh. The long canine teeth are also important, in that they hold and subdue the prey. Capable of delivering up to 10,000 kPa (1450 lbf/in²) of pressure, a wolf's teeth are its main weapons as well as its primary tools.[7] The dentition of grey wolves is better suited to bone crushing than those of other modern canids, though it is not as specialised as that found in hyenas.[20] Dentition is the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth. ... The maxilla (plural: maxillae) is a fusion of two bones along the palatal fissure that form the upper jaw. ... Incisors (from Latin incidere, to cut) are the first kind of tooth in heterodont mammals. ... In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dogteeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth. ... The premolar teeth or bicuspids are transitional teeth located between the canine and molar teeth. ... Molars are the rearmost and most complicated kind of tooth in most mammals. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibÅ­la, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ... Carnassials are large teeth found in carnivorous mammals, designed for shearing flesh and bone in a scissor-like way. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A pressure gauge reading in PSI (red scale) and kPa (black scale) The pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in2) is a non-SI unit of pressure based on avoirdupois units. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... Genera Crocuta Hyaena Parahyaena Proteles Hyenas (or Hyaenas) are moderately large terrestrial carnivores native to Africa and Asia, and members of the family Hyaenidae. ...


Wolf saliva has been shown to reduce bacterial infection in wounds and accelerate tissue regeneration.[21] For the band, see Saliva (band). ...


Reproduction and life cycle

Usually, the instinct to reproduce drives young wolves away from their birth packs, leading them to seek out mates and territories of their own. Dispersals occur at all times during the year, typically involving wolves that have reached sexual maturity prior to the previous breeding season. It takes two such dispersals from two separate packs for a new breeding pair to be formed, for dispersing wolves from the same maternal pack tend not to mate.[22] Once two dispersing wolves meet and begin traveling together, they immediately begin the process of seeking out territory, preferably in time for the next mating season. The bond that forms between these wolves often lasts until one of them dies.[23] In ethology, sociobiology and behavioral ecology, the term territory refers to any geographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (and, occasionally, animals of other species). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sexual maturity is the age/stage when an organism can reproduce. ... Reproduction is the creation of one thing as a copy of, product of, or replacement for a similar thing, e. ...


Generally, mating occurs between January and April — the higher the latitude, the later it occurs.[23] A pack usually produces a single litter unless the breeding male mates with one or more subordinate females. During the mating season, breeding wolves become very affectionate with one another in anticipation of the female's ovulation cycle. The pack tension rises as each mature wolf feels urged to mate. During this time, the breeding pair may be forced to prevent other wolves from mating with one another.[22] Under normal circumstances, a pack can only support one litter per year, so this dominance behavior is beneficial in the long run. IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ... Menstrual cycle. ... A litter of pigs A litter is a group of newly born, young animals from the same mother and usually from one set of parents. ...


When the breeding female goes into estrus (which occurs once per year and lasts 5–14 days),[24] she and her mate will spend an extended time in seclusion. Pheromones in the female's urine and the swelling of her vulva make known to the male that the female is in heat. The female is unreceptive for the first few days of estrus, during which time she sheds the lining of her uterus; but when she begins ovulating again, the two wolves mate. Estrus (also spelled œstrus) or heat in female mammals is the period of greatest female sexual responsiveness usually coinciding with ovulation. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is any chemical produced by a living organism that transmits a message to other members of the same species. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... The vulva (from Latin, vulva, plural vulvae or vulvas; see etymology) is the region of the external genital organs of the female, including the labia majora, mons pubis, labia minora, clitoris, bulb of the vestibule, vestibule of the vagina, greater and lesser vestibular glands, and vaginal orifice. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ...


The male wolf will mount the female firmly from behind. After achieving coitus, the two form a copulatory tie once the male's bulbus glandis—an erectile tissue located near the base of the canine penis—swells and the female's vaginal muscles tighten. Ejaculation is induced by the thrusting of the male's pelvis and the undulation of the female's cervix. The two become physically inseparable for anywhere from 10 to 30 minutes, during which the male will ejaculate multiple times.[25] After the initial ejaculation, the male may lift one of his legs over the female such that they are standing end-to-end; this is believed to be a defensive measure. The mating ritual is repeated many times throughout the female's brief ovulation period, which occurs once per year per female—unlike female dogs, whose estrus usually occurs twice per year. A pair of lions copulating in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. ... The bulbus glandis is an erectile tissue structure unique among domesticated animals to the canine penis. ... Erectile tissue is tissue in the body that can become erect, usually by becoming engorged with blood. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... Ejaculation is the ejecting of semen from the penis, and is usually accompanied by orgasm. ... The pelvis (pl. ... The cervix (from Latin neck) is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. ...

A wolf resting at the entrance to its den; also note how its coloration blends in with the environment.
A wolf resting at the entrance to its den; also note how its coloration blends in with the environment.

The gestation period lasts between 60 and 63 days. The pups, at a weight of 0.5 kg (1 lb), are born blind, deaf, and completely dependent on their mother.[23][4] The average litter size is 5-6 pups, though litters of 10 can occur .[6] The pups reside in the den and stay there for two months. The den is usually on high ground near an open water source, and has an open chamber at the end of an underground or hillside tunnel that can be up to a few meters long.[12] During this time, the pups will become more independent, and will eventually begin to explore the area immediately outside the den before gradually roaming up to a mile away from it at around 5 weeks of age. Wolf growth rate is slower than that of coyotes and dholes.[26] They begin eating regurgitated foods after 2 weeks of feeding on milk, which in wolves has less fat and more protein and arginine than dog milk.[8] By this time, their milk teeth have emerged — and are fully weaned by 10 weeks. During the first weeks of development, the mother usually stays with her litter alone, but eventually most members of the pack will contribute to the rearing of the pups in some way.[23] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1392x2100, 955 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gray Wolf ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1392x2100, 955 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gray Wolf ... The Gestation period in a viviparous animal refers to the length of its pregnancy. ... Look up den in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An underground house in Coober Pedy, South Australia Underground living refers simply to living below the grounds surface, whether in naturally occurring caves or in built structures. ... Hillside is a community in Angus, Scotland; see Hillside, Scotland. ... A disused railway tunnel now converted to pedestrian and bicycle use, near Houyet, Belgium A tunnel is an underground passage. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Binomial name Cuon alpinus (Pallas, 1811) The Dhole (Cuon alpinus) is a species of wild dog of the Canidae family. ... Regurgitation is the controlled flow of stomach contents back into the oesophagus and mouth. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R)[1] is an α-amino acid. ...


After two months, the restless pups will be moved to a rendezvous site, where they can stay safely while most of the adults go out to hunt. One or two adults stay behind to ensure the safety of the pups. After a few more weeks, the pups are permitted to join the adults if they are able, and will receive priority on anything killed, their low ranks notwithstanding. Letting the pups fight for eating privileges results in a secondary ranking being formed among them, and allows them to practice the dominance/submission rituals that will be essential to their future survival in pack life.[23] During hunts, the pups remain ardent observers until they reach about 8 months of age, by which time they are large enough to participate actively. Look up Rendezvous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A hunt is an activity during which humans or animals chase some prey, such as wild or specially bred animals (traditionally targeted species are known as game), in order to catch or kill them, either for food, sale, or as a form of sport. ...


Wolves typically reach sexual maturity after two or three years, at which point many of them will be compelled to leave their birth packs and seek out mates and territories of their own.[23][27] Wolves that reach maturity generally live 6 to 10 years in the wild, although in captivity they can live to twice that age.[28] High mortality rates give them a low overall life expectancy. Pups die when food is scarce; they can also fall prey to predators such as pizza, or, less often, coyotes, or other wolves. The most significant causes of mortality for grown wolves are hunting and poaching, car accidents, and wounds inflicted while hunting prey. Although adult wolves may occasionally be killed by other predators, rival cow packs are often their most dangerous non-human enemy. A study on wolf mortality in Minnesota and the Denali National Park and Preserve concluded that 14–65% of wolf deaths were due to predation by other wolves.[29] Sexual maturity is the age/stage when an organism can reproduce. ... The term captivity is used to refer to the following meanings: the state of being confined to a space from which it is hard or impossible to escape; see imprisonment. ... Crude death rate by country Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. ... For other uses, see Coyote (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ... In an accident resulting from excessive speed, this concrete truck rolled over into the front garden of a house. ... Denali National Park and Preserve is located in Interior Alaska and contains Mt. ...


Diseases

Diseases recorded to be carried by wolves include rabies, brucella, deerfly fever, listerosis, foot and mouth disease and anthrax. Wolves are major hosts for rabies in Russia, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq and India. Wolves in Russia have been recorded to carry over 50 different kinds of harmful parasites, including echinococcia, cysticercocci and coenuri. Despite their habit of carrying harmful diseases, large wolf populations are not heavily regulated by epizootic outbreaks as with other social canids. This is largely due to the habit of infected wolves vacating their packs, thus preventing mass contagion.[6] Species B. abortus B. melitensis Brucella is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. ... Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), sometimes called hoof-and-mouth disease, is a highly contagious but non-fatal viral disease of cattle and pigs. ...


Behavior

Social structure

Wolves function as social predators and hunt in packs organized according to strict, rank-oriented social hierarchies.[23] It was originally believed that this comparatively high level of social organization was related to hunting success, and while this still may be true to a certain extent, emerging theories suggest that the pack has less to do with hunting and more to do with reproductive success. A pack of canines—most notably wolves, the domestic dog, and some other wild canines—is a group of animals that is organised according to a strict social hierarchy. ... Social hierarchy is a multi-tiered pyramid-like social or functional structure having an apex as the centralization of power. ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ...


The pack is led by the two breeding individuals that sit atop the social hierarchy. The breeding pair has the greatest amount of social freedom compared to the rest of the pack. Although they are not "leaders" in the human sense of the term, they help to resolve any disputes within the pack, have the greatest amount of control over resources (such as food), and have exclusive rights to mating. While most breeding pairs are monogamous, there are exceptions.[30] An alpha animal may preferentially mate with a lower-ranking animal, especially if the other alpha is closely related (a brother or sister, for example). The death of one breeding wolf does not affect the status of the other, who will quickly take another mate.[23] Usually, only the breeding pair is able to rear a litter of pups successfully. Other wolves in a pack may breed, but when resources are limited, time, devotion, and preference will be given to the alpha pair's litter. Therefore, non-alpha parents of other litters within a single pack may lack the means to raise their pups to maturity of their own accord. All wolves in a pack assist in raising wolf pups. Some mature individuals choosing not to disperse may stay in their original packs so as to reinforce it and help rear more pups. Faithfulness redirects here. ... IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Parent (disambiguation). ... Maturity may refer to: Sexual maturity Maturity, a geological term describing hydrocarbon generation Maturity, a financial term indicating the end of payments of principal or interest Look up Maturity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

A wolf pack in Yellowstone National Park, with the breeding animals leading and the omega in the rear.
A wolf pack in Yellowstone National Park, with the breeding animals leading and the omega in the rear.

After the breeding pair, there may also be a beta wolf whose rank is above that of the others save for the breeding pair. Betas typically assume a more prominent role in assisting with the upbringing of the breeding pair's litter, often serving as surrogate mothers or fathers while the breeding pair is away. Beta wolves are the most likely to challenge their superiors for the role of dominance, though some betas seem content with being second, and will sometimes even let lower ranking wolves leapfrog them for the position of breeding animal should circumstances necessitate such a happening, such as the death of the previous breeding animal. More ambitious beta wolves, however, will only wait so long before contending for breeding position unless they choose to disperse and create their own pack instead. Image File history File links Wolf_pack_in_Yellowstone_NP.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gray Wolf ... Image File history File links Wolf_pack_in_Yellowstone_NP.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gray Wolf ... Yellowstone redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into surrogacy. ... Children playing leapfrog in a Harlem street, ca. ...


Loss of rank can happen gradually or suddenly. An older wolf may simply choose to give way when a motivated challenger presents itself, yielding its position without bloodshed. On the other hand, the challenged individual may choose to fight back with varying degrees of intensity. While the majority of wolf aggression is ritualized and non-injurious, a high-stakes fight can easily result in injury for either or both parties. The loser of such a confrontation is frequently chased away from the pack or, rarely, may be killed as other aggressive wolves contribute to the insurgency. These types of confrontations are more common during the mating season. Deaths occasionally happen, with some dominant male wolves having been known to kill two to four wolves in his lifetime.[31] Motivation is a word used to refer to the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior. ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ...


Rank order within a pack is established and maintained through a series of ritualized fights and posturing best described as "ritual bluffing". Wolves prefer ritualised displays of aggression to physical confrontations, meaning that high-ranking status is based more on personality or attitude than on size or physical strength. Rank, who holds it, and how it is enforced varies widely between packs and between individual animals. In large packs full of easy going wolves or in a group of juvenile wolves, rank order may shift almost constantly, or even be circular (for instance, animal A dominates animal B, who dominates animal C, who dominates animal A). Ritualization is a behavior that occurs typically in the member of a given species in a highly stereotyped fashion and independent of any direct physiological significance. ... “Fights” redirects here. ... Physical strength is the ability of a person or animal to exert force on physical objects using muscles. ... Juvenile (left) and adult (right) leaves of Stone Pine A juvenile is an individual organism that has not yet reached its adult form, sexual maturity or size. ...


In a more typical pack, only one wolf will assume the role of the omega: the lowest-ranking member of a pack.[32] Omegas receive the most aggression from the rest of the pack, and may be subjected to different forms of truculence at any time—anything from constant dominance from other pack members to inimical, physical harassment. Submissive individuals are better suited for constant displays of active and passive submission than they are for living alone. Any form of camaraderie is preferable to solitude and, indeed, submissive wolves tend to choose low rank over potential starvation. Despite the aggression to which they are often subjected, omega wolves have also been observed to be among the most playful wolves in the pack, often enticing all of the members in a pack into chasing games and other forms of play. In general, omega wolves exist to help relieve pack tension.


The size of the pack may change over time and is controlled by several factors, including habitat, personalities of individual wolves within a pack, and food supply. Packs can contain between 2 and 20 wolves, though 8 is a more typical size.[33] New packs are formed when a wolf leaves its birth pack, finds a mate, and claims a territory. Lone wolves searching for other individuals can travel very long distances seeking out suitable territories. Dispersing individuals must avoid the territories of other wolves because intruders on occupied territories are chased away or killed.


Wolves acting unusually within the pack, such as epileptic pups or thrashing adults crippled by a trap or a gunshot, are usually killed by other members of their own pack.[7] Epilepsy (often referred to as a seizure disorder) is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. ...


Body language

See also: Dog communication
This facial expression is defensive and gives warning to other wolves to be cautious.
This facial expression is defensive and gives warning to other wolves to be cautious.
This facial expression shows fear.
This facial expression shows fear.

Wolves can communicate visually through a wide variety of expressions and moods ranging from subtle signals, such as a slight shift in weight, to more obvious ones, such as rolling on their backs to indicate complete submission.[34] Its important to look at the dogs whole body and not just the mouth or tail before deciding what the dog is trying to communicate. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1242x1332, 1199 KB) A taxidermied Grey Wolf on display at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1242x1332, 1199 KB) A taxidermied Grey Wolf on display at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1831x1258, 1842 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Gray Wolf Värmland Category: Wolf images ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1831x1258, 1842 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Gray Wolf Värmland Category: Wolf images ... Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal. ...

  • Dominance – A dominant wolf stands stiff legged and tall. The ears are erect and forward, and the hackles bristle slightly. Often the tail is held vertically and curled toward the back. This display asserts the wolf's rank to others in the pack. A dominant wolf may stare at a submissive one, pin it to the ground, "ride up" on its shoulders, or even stand on its hind legs.
  • Submission (active) – During active submission, the entire body is lowered, and the lips and ears are drawn back. Sometimes active submission is accompanied by muzzle licking, or the rapid thrusting out of the tongue and lowering of the hindquarters. The tail is placed down, or halfway or fully between the legs, and the muzzle often points up to the more dominant animal. The back may be partly arched as the submissive wolf humbles itself to its superior; a more arched back and more tucked tail indicate a greater level of submission.
  • Submission (passive) – Passive submission is more intense than active submission. The wolf rolls on its back and exposes its vulnerable throat and underside. The paws are drawn into the body. This posture is often accompanied by whimpering.
  • Anger – An angry wolf's ears are erect, and its fur bristles. The lips may curl up or pull back, and the incisors are displayed. The wolf may also arch its back, lash out, or snarl.
  • Fear – A frightened wolf attempts to make itself look small and less conspicuous; the ears flatten against the head, and the tail may be tucked between the legs, as with a submissive wolf. There may also be whimpering or barks of fear, and the wolf may arch its back.
  • Defensive – A defensive wolf flattens its ears against its head.
  • Aggression – An aggressive wolf snarls and its fur bristles. The wolf may crouch, ready to attack if necessary.
  • Suspicion – Pulling back of the ears shows a wolf is suspicious. The wolf also narrows its eyes. The tail of a wolf that senses danger points straight out, parallel to the ground.
  • Relaxation – A relaxed wolf's tail points straight down, and the wolf may rest sphinx-like or on its side. The wolf may also wag its tail. The further down the tail droops, the more relaxed the wolf is.
  • Tension – An aroused wolf's tail points straight out, and the wolf may crouch as if ready to spring.
  • Happiness – As dogs do, a wolf may wag its tail if in a joyful mood. The tongue may loll out of the mouth.
  • Hunting – A wolf that is hunting is tensed, and therefore the tail is horizontal and straight.
  • Playfulness – A playful wolf holds its tail high and wags it. The wolf may frolic and dance around, or bow by placing the front of its body down to the ground, while holding the rear high, sometimes wagged. This resembles the playful behavior of domestic dogs.

For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Throat (disambiguation). ... A man snarling A snarl is a facial expression, where the upper lip is raised, and the nostrils widen. ... For other uses, see Sphinx (disambiguation). ... Look up Frolic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Howling and other vocalisations

Howling adult wolf at the UK Wolf Conservation Trust
Howling adult wolf at the UK Wolf Conservation Trust

Howling helps pack members keep in touch, allowing them to communicate effectively in thickly forested areas or over great distances. Howling also helps to call pack members to a specific location. Howling can also serve as a declaration of territory, as shown in a dominant wolf's tendency to respond to a human imitation of a "rival" wolf in an area the wolf considers its own. This behavior is stimulated when a pack has something to protect, such as a fresh kill. As a rule of thumb, large packs will more readily draw attention to themselves than will smaller packs. Adjacent packs may respond to each others' howls, which can mean trouble for the smaller of the two. Wolves therefore tend to howl with great care.[35] Wolves will also howl for communal reasons. Some scientists speculate that such group sessions strengthen the wolves' social bonds and camaraderie—similar to community singing among humans.[35] During such choral sessions, wolves will howl at different tones and varying pitches, making it difficult to estimate the number of wolves involved. This confusion of numbers makes a listening rival pack wary of what action to take. For example, confrontation could be disastrous if the rival pack gravely underestimates the howling pack's numbers. A wolf's howl may be heard from up to ten miles away, depending on weather conditions. Observations of wolf packs suggest that howling occurs most often during the twilight hours, preceding the adults' departure to the hunt and following their return. Studies also show that wolves howl more frequently during the breeding season and subsequent rearing process. The pups themselves begin howling soon after emerging from their dens and can be provoked into howling sessions easily over the following two months. Such indiscriminate howling usually is intended for communication, and does not harm the wolf so early in its life.[35] Howling becomes less indiscriminate as wolves learn to distinguish howling pack members from rival wolves. The Arabian and Iranian wolf subspecies are unusual as they are not known to howl.[7][36] The UK Wolf Conservation Trust is a non-profit organisation based in Berkshire, England. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... Harry Belafonte singing, photograph by C. van Vechten Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice, which is often contrasted with speech. ... In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ... Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ... For other uses, see Twilight (disambiguation). ... Reproduction is the creation of one thing as a copy of, product of, or replacement for a similar thing, e. ...


Growling, while teeth are bared, is the most visual warning wolves use. Wolf growls have a distinct, deep, bass-like quality, and are often used to threaten rivals, though not necessarily to defend themselves. Wolves also growl at other wolves while being aggressively dominant. Wolves bark when nervous or when they want to warn other wolves of danger but do so very discreetly and will not generally bark loudly or repeatedly as dogs do. Instead they use a low-key, breathy "whuf" sound to immediately get attention from other wolves. Wolves also "bark-howl" by adding a brief howl to the end of a bark. Wolves bark-howl for the same reasons they normally bark. Generally, pups bark and bark-howl much more frequently than adults, using these vocalizations to cry for attention, care, or food. A lesser known sound is the rally. Wolves will gather as a group and, amidst much tail-wagging and muzzle licking, emit a high-pitched wailing noise interspersed with something similar to (but not the same as) a bark. Rallying is often a display of submission to an alpha by the other wolves.[37] Wolves also whimper, usually when submitting to other wolves. Wolf pups whimper when they need a reassurance of security from their parents or other wolves. Growling is the low, guttural vocalization produced by predatory animals to express anger. ... Bass (IPA: [], rhyming with face), when used as an adjective, describes tones of low frequency or range. ... Barking is a noise most commonly produced by dogs. ...


Scent marking

Wolves scent-roll to bring scents back to the pack.
Wolves scent-roll to bring scents back to the pack.

Wolves, like other canines, use scent marking to lay claim to anything—from territory to fresh kills.[32] Alpha wolves scent mark the most often, with males doing so more than females. The most widely used scent marker is urine. Male and female alpha wolves urine-mark objects with a raised-leg stance (all other pack members squat) to enforce rank and territory. They also use marks to identify food caches and to claim kills on behalf of the pack. Defecation markers are used for the same purpose as urine marks, and serve as a more visual warning, as well.[32] Defecation markers are particularly useful for navigation, keeping the pack from traversing the same terrain too often and also allowing each wolf to be aware of the whereabouts of its pack members. Above all, though, scent marking is used to inform other wolves and packs that a certain territory is occupied, and that they should therefore tread cautiously. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Scent marking can take two forms, the first the scent used to indicate territory, the second a scent that is released when the ferret is either happy or scared. ... For the death metal band, see Defecation (band). ...


Wolves have scent glands all over their bodies, including at the base of the tail, between toes, and in the eyes, genitalia, and skin.[32] Pheromones secreted by these glands identify each individual wolf. A dominant wolf will "rub" its body against subordinate wolves to mark such wolves as being members of a particular pack. Wolves may also "paw" dirt to release pheromones instead of urine marking.[38] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis...


Dietary habits

Wolves feed primarily on medium to large sized ungulates, including sheep, goats, chamois, pigs, deer, antelope, caribou, horses, moose, yak, and bison. Other recorded large prey include marine mammals such as seals[6] and beached whales.[39] Solitary wolves depend more on smaller animals, which they capture by pouncing and pinning with their front paws, though lone wolves have been recorded to bring down prey as large as bison unaided.[8] Some wolf packs in Alaska have been observed to feed on salmon.[40] They also prey on rodents, game birds and other small animals. A single wolf can eat up to 3.2-3.5 kg of food at a time, though they can eat as much as 13-15 kg when sufficiently hungry.[6] A wolf's yearly requirement is 1.5 tons of meat.[6] Wolves can go without sustenance for long periods of time, with one Russian record showing how one specimen survived for 17 days without food.[7] Research has shown that 2 weeks without food will not weaken a wolf's muscle activity.[6] After eating, wolves will drink large quantities of water to prevent uremic poisoning.[7] A wolf's stomach can hold up to 7.5 litres of water.[6] Orders & Clades Order Perissodactyla Eparctocyona Order Arctostylonia (extinct) Order Mesonychia (extinct) Cetartiodactyla Order Cetacea Order Artiodactyla Bulbulodentata (extinct) Family Hyopsodontidae Meridiungulata (extinct) Order Litopterna Notoungulata (extinct) Order Toxodontia Order Typotheria Ungulates (meaning roughly being hoofed or hoofed animal) are several groups of mammals most of which use the tips of... Species See text. ... Genera Capricornis Nemorhaedus Rupicapra Oreamnos Budorcas Ovibos Hemitragus Ammotragus Pseudois Capra Ovis Pantholops A goat antelope is any of the species of mostly medium-sized herbivores that make up the subfamily Caprinae or the single species in subfamily Panthalopinae. ... Binomial name Rupicapra rupicapra (Linnaeus, 1758) The chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) is a large, goat-like animal that lives in the European Alps and Carpathians. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article is about the ruminant animal. ... This article is about the herbivorous mammals. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus The reindeer, known as caribou in North America, is an Arctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Yak (disambiguation). ... Species †B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus †B. latifrons †B. occidentalis †B. priscus Bison in winter. ... A marine mammal is a mammal that is primarily ocean-dwelling or depends on the ocean for its food. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... A mass stranding of Pilot Whales on the shore of Cape Cod, 1902. ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ... Game is any animal hunted for food. ... Acute renal failure (ARF) is a rapid loss of renal function due to damage to the kidneys, resulting in retention of nitrogenous (urea and creatinine) and non-nitrogenous waste products that are normally excreted by the kidney. ...

An American Bison standing its ground, thereby increasing its chance for survival.
An American Bison standing its ground, thereby increasing its chance for survival.

Wolf packs show little strategic cooperation in hunting unlike lions, though wolf pairs have been shown to strategize when attacking large prey.[8] When hunting large prey, wolves typically attempt to conceal themselves as they approach the selected animal. Often, they will wait for the prey to pastourise, when it is distracted. Wolves generally do not engage in long chases, and will usually stop a pursuit after a chase of 10-180 metres, though there has been one documented case of a wolf chasing a moose for 36 km.[6] Wolves typically kill large prey by tearing at their haunches and perinium areas, causing massive bleeding.[6] Sometimes, the wolves will bite the throat, severing the windpipe or jugular.[41] A single bite can cause a wound up to 10-15 cm in length. A large deer in optimum health will succumb to three bites at the perinium area after a chase of 150 metres. Once the prey collapses, the wolves will tear open the abdominal cavity and commence feeding on the animal, sometimes whilst it is still alive.[6] On some occasions, wolves will not press an attack, and will wait for their prey to die from their wounds before commencing feeding.[42] Pack status is reinforced during feeding. The breeding pair usually eats first, starting with the heart, liver and lungs. Wolves of intermediate rank will prevent low ranking animals from feeding until the dominant pair finishes eating.[21] The stomach is eaten, though the contents are left untouched. The leg muscles are eaten next, with the hide and bones being the last to be eaten.[8] Though commonly portrayed as targeting solely sick or infirm animals,[27] there is little evidence that they limit themselves to such targets. Research from the former Soviet Union for example shows that in some cases, 93% of all killed prey may have no illnesses or infirmities. In the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, wolves were shown to select pregnant female domestic caribou and calves rather than infirm specimens, with some reports showing that wolves bypassed emaciated, sickly animals altogether in favour of well fed ones.[6] However, most healthy, fit individuals will not run from wolves and will instead choose to stand their ground, thus increasing the possibility of injury to the attacking wolves. The wolves are more likely to yield when confronted by bold prey. Wolves are generally inefficient at killing large, assertive prey, with success rates as low as 20% which is due, in part, to the large size and defensive capabilities of their prey.[43] Wolves have on occasion been observed to engage in acts of surplus killing. An example of this was reported by a Conservation Officer for the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, stating that during a spring snow storm, two wolves killed 21 deer, consuming only two.[44] Surplus killing in the wild peaks in winter months when heavy snow impedes the movements of large hooved prey.[6] Image File history File links Canis_lupus_pack_surrounding_Bison. ... Image File history File links Canis_lupus_pack_surrounding_Bison. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... In anatomy, the hip is the bony projection of the femur which is known as the greater trochanter, and the overlying muscle and fat. ... In anatomy, the perineum is the region between the genital area and the anus in both sexes. ... For other uses, see Bleeding (disambiguation). ... The trachea (IPA treik-i-a), or windpipe, is a tube extending from the larynx to the bronchi in mammals, and from the pharynx to the syrinx in birds, carrying air to the lungs. ... External and internal jugular veins bring deoxygenated blood from head region back to heart. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... Flag Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Russian: ), or Nenetsia, is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug of Arkhangelsk Oblast). ... Surplus killing is the behavior predators exhibit when they kill more prey than they can immediately use. ...


Wolves will on occasion supplement their diet with vegetation, with some areas of the former Soviet Union reporting that wolves cause serious damage to watermelon plantations.[6] In certain localities in Eurasia where there is little natural prey, wolves will forage in garbage dumps. There are few cases of wolves in North America relying on garbage for food.[8] For the political designation, see Eco-socialism. ... Landfill can also refer to Land reclamation. ...


Interspecific predatory relationships

Wolves typically dominate other canid species in areas where they are sympatric. In North America, wolves are generally intolerant of coyotes in their territory; two years after their re-introduction to the Yellowstone National Park, the wolves were responsible for a near 50% drop in coyote populations through both competition and predation.[45] Wolves have been reported to dig coyote pups from their dens and kill them. Wolves typically do not consume the coyotes they kill. There are no records of coyotes killing wolves[8], though they have been known to gang up on wolves if they outnumber them.[45] Near identical interactions have been observed in Greece between wolves and golden jackals.[46] Wolves may kill foxes, though not as frequently as they do with coyotes. Racoon dogs are also reportedly preyed upon.[8] For other uses, see Coyote (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Golden Jackal range The Golden Jackal (Canis aureus), also called the Asiatic or Common Jackal, is a mammal of the order carnivora native to North and East Africa, Southeastern Europe and South Asia to Burma. ... A red fox The foxes comprise 23 species of omnivorous canids, found worldwide. ... Binomial name Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray, 1834) The Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides nycto- = Gr. ...


Cougars are encountered in North America. Wolves are usually hostile toward cougars and will kill kittens if given the opportunity. The wolf's relation to adult cougars is more complex. A pack often takes advantage of cougars, stealing kills and sometimes killing mature adults. Interactions between solitary wolves and cougars are rarer, but the two species have killed each other.[47] National Park Service cougar specialist Kerry Murphy stated that the cougar usually is at an advantage on a one to one basis, considering it can effectively use its claws, as well as its teeth, unlike the wolf which relies solely on its teeth. Yellowstone officials have reported that attacks between cougars and wolves are not uncommon. Multiple incidents of cougars taking wolves and vice versa have been recorded in Yellowstone National Park. However, researchers in Montana have found that wolves regularly kill cougars in the area, though they did not specify whether or not this was a pack situation.[48] For other uses, see Cougar (disambiguation), Puma (disambiguation), or Panther. ...

Reconstruction of a wolf pack confronting a Grizzly bear by Adolph Murie (1944)
Reconstruction of a wolf pack confronting a Grizzly bear by Adolph Murie (1944)

Brown bears are encountered in both Eurasia and North America. The majority of interactions between wolves and brown bears usually amount to nothing more than mutual avoidance. Serious confrontations depend on the circumstances of the interaction, though the most common factor is defence of food and young. Brown bears will use their superior size to intimidate wolves from their kills and when sufficiently hungry, will raid wolf dens. Brown bears usually dominate wolves on kills, though they rarely prevail against wolves defending den sites. Wolves in turn have been observed killing bear cubs, to the extent of even driving off the defending mother bears.[8] Deaths in wolf/bear skirmishes are considered very rare occurrences, the individual power of the bear and the collective strength of the wolf pack usually being sufficient deterrents to both sides.[49] American black bears occur solely in the Americas, and interactions with wolves are much rarer than with brown bears, due to differences in habitat preferences. The majority of black bear encounters with wolves occur in the species' northern range, with no interactions being recorded in Mexico. Wolves have been recorded to kill black bears on numerous occasions without eating them. Unlike brown bears, black bears frequently lose against wolves in disputes over kills.[8] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the Brooklyn-based indie rock band, see Grizzly Bear (band). ... Bears are big and have big ass, thats why bears are hot, and thats why cats are not. ... Binomial name Pallas, 1780 Synonyms Euarctos americanus The American Black Bear (Ursus americanus) is the most common bear species native to North America. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


In areas where wolves and tigers share ranges, such as the Russian Far East, the two species typically display a great deal of dietary overlap, resulting in intense competition. Wolf and tiger interactions are well documented in Sikhote-Alin, which until the beginning of the 20th century, held very few wolves. It is thought by certain experts that wolf numbers increased in the region after tigers were largely eliminated during the Russian colonization in the late 1800s and early 1900s. This is corroborated by native inhabitants of the region claiming that they had no memory of wolves inhabiting Sikohte-Alin until the 1930's, when tiger numbers decreased.[50] Tigers depress wolf numbers, either to the point of localized extinction or to such low numbers as to make them a functionally insignificant component of the ecosystem. Wolves appear capable of escaping competitive exclusion from tigers only when human persecution decreases the latters numbers.[51] Today wolves are considered scarce in tiger inhabited areas, being found in scattered pockets, and usually as loners or small groups. First hand accounts on interactions between the two species indicate that tigers occasionally chase wolves from their kills, while wolves will scavenge from tiger kills. Tigers are not known to prey on wolves, though there are four records of tigers killing wolves without consuming them.[50] For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: ; IPA: ) is a term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... Sikhote-Alin is the home to Amur tigers, the largest felines in the world. ...


Wolves may occasionally encounter striped hyenas in the Middle East, Central and Southern Asia, mostly in disputes over carcasses. Though hyenas usually dominate wolves on a one to one basis, wolf packs have been reported to displace lone hyenas from carcasses.[52] Wolf remains have been found in cave hyena den sites, though it is unknown if the wolves were killed or scavenged upon.[53] Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Striped Hyena range The Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is closely related to the Brown Hyena. ... The Cave Hyena is an extinct variety of hyena native to Eurasia, ranging from Northern China to Spain and into the British Isles. ...


Taxonomy

The gray wolf is a member of the genus Canis, which comprises between 7 and 10 species. It is one of six species termed 'wolf', the others being the Red Wolf (Canis rufus), the Indian Wolf (Canis indica), the Himalayan Wolf (Canis himalayaensis), the Eastern Wolf (Canis lycaon) and the Ethiopian Wolf (Canis simensis), although concerning a couple of these there is still some uncertainty as to whether they should be considered subspecies of Canis lupus or species in their own right. Recent genetic research suggests that the Indian Wolf, originally considered only as a subpopulation of the Iranian Wolf (Canis lupus pallipes), represents a distinct species (Canis indica). Similar results were obtained for the Himalayan wolf, which is traditionally placed into the Tibetan Wolf (Canis lupus laniger) [54]. For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species Canis adustus Canis aureus Canis dirus (extinct) Canis latrans Canis lupus Canis mesomelas Canis simensis   † also includes dogs. ... For other uses, see Red Wolf (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Canis lupus pallipes (Reginald Innes Pocock, 1941) Present distribution of Indian wolf in light blue The Indian Wolf (Canis lupus pallipes), also known as the Indian Gray Wolf or the Peninsular Gray Wolf, is the small subspecies of the Grey Wolf. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus himalayensis R. K. Aggarwal, Y.V Jhala , 2007 [1] The Himalayan Wolf, originally thought to belong to Tibetan wolf, may represent a distinct canid species, Canis himalayensis[1]. Now have rank subspecies of Gray Wolf, and get Taxonomy ID. It is native to a small region... Trinomial name Canis lupus lycaon The Eastern Wolf, Eastern Canadian Wolf , Eastern Timber Wolf or Algonquin Wolf (Canis lupus lycaon) or, according to some taxonomists Canis lycaon is a mammal of the Canidae family. ... Binomial name Canis simensis Ruppell, 1840 Map of the range of the Ethiopian Wolf. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus himalayensis R. K. Aggarwal, Y.V Jhala , 2007 [1] The Himalayan Wolf, originally thought to belong to Tibetan wolf, may represent a distinct canid species, Canis himalayensis[1]. Now have rank subspecies of Gray Wolf, and get Taxonomy ID. It is native to a small region... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


With respect to common names, spelling differences result in the alternative spelling grey wolf. As the first-named and most widespread of species termed "wolf", gray wolves are often simply referred to as wolves. It was one of the many species originally described by Carolus Linnaeus in his eighteenth-century work, Systema Naturae, and it still bears its original classification, Canis lupus.[55] The binomial name is derived from the Latin Canis, meaning "dog", and lupus, "wolf".[56] Spelling differences redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...

Desert dwelling grey wolf subspecies, such as this Arabian wolf, tend to be smaller than their more northern cousins.
Desert dwelling grey wolf subspecies, such as this Arabian wolf, tend to be smaller than their more northern cousins.

Classifying gray wolf subspecies can be challenging. Although scientists have proposed a host of subspecies, wolf taxonomy at this level remains controversial.[57] Indeed, only a single wolf species may exist. Taxonomic modification will likely continue for years to come. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixels, file size: 1. ... This article is about the zoological term. ...


Current theories propose that the gray wolf first evolved in Eurasia during the early Pleistocene. The rate of changes observed in DNA sequence date the Asiatic lineage to about 800,000 years, as opposed to the American and European lineages which stretch back only 150,000.[58] The gray wolf migrated into North America from the Old World, probably via the Bering land bridge, around 400,000 years ago. The gray wolf then coexisted with the Dire Wolf (Canis dirus). Although more heavily built and possessing a stronger bite, the dire wolf's dentition was less adept at crushing bones as the grey wolf was.[20] The Dire Wolf ranged from southern Canada to South America until about 8,000 years ago when climate changes are thought to have caused it to become extinct. After that the gray wolf is thought to have become the prime canine predator in North America. For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other uses, see Old World (disambiguation). ... Nautical chart of Bering Strait, site of former land bridge between Asia and North America The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1,000 miles (1,600 km) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at... Binomial name Leidy, 1858 For the BattleMech also known as Dire Wolf, see Daishi (BattleMech). ...


Subspecies

Main article: Subspecies of Canis lupus

At one point, up to 50 gray wolf subspecies were recognized. Though no true consensus has been reached, this list can be condensed to 13–15 general extant subspecies. Modern classifications take into account the DNA, anatomy, distribution, and migration of various wolf colonies. As of 2005, 37 subspecies are currently described, including the dingo and the domestic dog.[59] 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Dingo (disambiguation). ...


Relation to the dog

Comparative drawing of dog and wolf anatomy by Ernest Thompson Seton. Note the proportionately larger head of the wolf

Much debate has centered on the relationship between the wolf and the domestic dog, though most authorities see the wolf as the dog's direct ancestor. Because the canids have evolved recently and different canids interbreed readily, untangling the relationships has been difficult. However, molecular systematics now indicate very strongly that domestic dogs and wolves are closely related, and the domestic dog is now normally classified as a subspecies of the wolf: Canis lupus familiaris. All skeletal dog remains found from the upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods are from relatively small specimens, therefore pointing to either the Arabian or Iranian wolf as the most likely progenitor.[60] North American domestic dogs are believed to have originated from Old World wolves. No known dog breed is derived from wolves indigenous to North America. The first people to colonize North America 12,000 to 14,000 years ago brought their dogs with them from Asia, and apparently did not separately domesticate the wolves they found in the New World.[61] It has been suggested that Dog#Ancestry and history of domestication, Dog#Neoteny in the rapid evolution of diverse dog breeds be merged into this article or section. ... Ernest Thompson Seton (August 14, 1860 - October 23, 1946) was a noted author and founding pioneer of the Boy Scouts of America. ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i. ... It has been suggested that molecular phylogeny be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the zoological term. ...


Compared to equally sized wolves, dogs tend to have 20% smaller skulls and 10% smaller brains, as well as proportionately smaller teeth than other canid species.[13] The premolars and molars of a dog are much more crowded and compacted than those of a wolf. Dog's teeth also have less complex cusp patterns, and their tympanic bulla is much smaller than in wolves.[60] Dogs require fewer calories to function than wolves. The dog's diet of human refuse in antiquity made the large brains and jaw muscles needed for hunting unnecessary. It is thought by certain experts that the dog's limp ears are a result of atrophy of the jaw muscles.[13] The paws of a dog are half the size of those of a wolf, and their tails tend to curl upwards, another trait not found in wolves.[7] Dogs are not monogamous, and breeding in feral packs is not restricted to a dominant breeding pair. Male dogs differ from male wolves by the fact that they play no role in raising their puppies, and do not kill the young of other females to increase their own reproductive success.[18] Dogs differ also from wolves by the fact that they do not regurgitate food for their young, nor the young of other dogs in the same territory.[13] Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body. ... In monogamy (Greek: monos = single/only and gamos = marriage) a person has only one spouse at a time (as opposed to polygamy). ...


Interspecific hybridization

Main article: Canid hybrid
A wolf-dog hybrid with malamute ancestry
A wolf-dog hybrid with malamute ancestry

Wolves can interbreed with domestic dogs and produce fertile offspring. Wolf-dog hybrids are generally said to be naturally healthy animals, and are affected by less inherited diseases than most breeds of dog. Wolfdogs are usually healthier than either parent due to heterosis.[62] According to the National Wolfdog Alliance, 40 U.S. states effectively forbid the ownership, breeding and importation of wolfdogs, while others impose some form of regulation upon ownership.[63] Most European nations, as well as many U.S. counties and municipalities, also either outlaw the animal entirely or put restrictions on ownership.[64][65]. Although wolves in the wild will usually kill dogs, matings of dogs and wild wolves has been confirmed in some populations through genetic testing. As the survival of most Continental wolf packs is severely threatened, scientists fear that the creation of wolf-dog hybrid populations in the wild is a threat to the continued existence of some isolated wolf populations. Hybridization in the wild usually occurs near human habitations where wolf density is low and dogs are common. However, extensive wolf-dog hybridization is not supported by morphological evidence, and analyses of mtDNA sequences have revealed that such matings are rare.[8] In some cases, the presence of dewclaws is considered a useful, but not absolute indicator of dog gene contamination in wild wolves. Dewclaws are the vestigial fifth toes of the hind legs common in domestic dogs but thought absent from pure wolves, which only have four hind toes.[11] Observations on wild wolf hybrids in the former Soviet Union indicate that wolf hybrids in a wild state may form larger packs than pure wolves, and have greater endurance when chasing prey.[6] Canid hybrids are the result of interbreeding between different species of the canine (dog) family (Canidae). ... A Wolf-dog hybrid (also called a wolf hybrid or wolfdog) is a canid hybrid resulting from the mating of a wolf (Canis lupus) and a dog (Canis lupus familiaris). ... Breed standards (external links) FCI, AKC, ANKC, CKC KC(UK), NZKC, UKC The Alaskan Malamute is a large northern dog breed originally developed for use as a sleddog. ... A Wolf-dog hybrid (also called a wolf hybrid or wolfdog) is a canid hybrid resulting from the mating of a wolf (Canis lupus) and a dog (Canis lupus familiaris). ... Heterosis is increased strength of different characteristics in hybrids; the possibility to obtain a better individual by combining the virtues of its parents. ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... The dogs front dewclaw grows on the side of the foot, above the other four toes but below the rear heelpad. ...


Wolves and coyotes can interbreed and produce fertile offspring, a fact which calls into question their status as two separate species.[66] The offspring, known as a coywolf, is generally intermediate in size to both parents, being larger than a pure coyote, but smaller than a pure wolf. A study showed that of 100 coyotes collected in Maine, 22 had half or more wolf ancestry, and one was 89 percent wolf. A theory has been proposed that the large eastern coyotes in Canada are actually hybrids of the smaller western coyotes and wolves that met and mated decades ago as the coyotes moved toward New England from their earlier western ranges.[67] The coywolf is a term used to refer to hybrids between a Coyote (Canis latrans) and the Gray wolf (Canis lupus) or the Red wolf (Canis rufus). ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...


Current status

Europe

Greenland has a population of 50-100 wolves which are afforded protection in approximately 90% of their range, though no compensation is paid for livestock damages.[8]


Portugal has a stable wolf population of 200-300 which is afforded full protection. Compensation is paid for livestock damages.[8]


Spain's wolf population is estimated at 2000 and growing. Wolves are considered a game species, though they are protected in the southern regions of the country. Compensation is paid for livestock damages, though this varies according to regional laws.[8]


In Italy, wolves are a protected species, with current estimates indicating that there are 500-800 wolves living in the wild. The largest concentrations of wolves occur in the alps and the Italian national parks of Pollino, Abruzzo, Lazio e Molise and Appennino Tosco-Emiliano. Isolated individuals have been sighted in the vicinity of human populated areas such as Tuscany, Rome, Bologna, Parma and Tarquinia. Currently, their populations are said to have been increasing at a rate of 6% a year since the 1970s, though 15% of the total Italian wolf population is reported to succumb annually to illegal poaching and road accidents.[68] Compensation is paid by regional governments for livestock damages.[8] Alp redirects here. ... A view in the National Park of Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise. ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bologna (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Italian city. ... Tarquinia, formerly Corneto and in Antiquity Tarquinii, is an ancient city in the province of Viterbo, Lazio, Italy. ...


Wolves migrated from Italy to France as recently as 1992, and the current French wolf population is said to be composed of 40-50 individuals and growing.[8] Under the Berne Convention, wolves are listed as an endangered species and killing them is illegal. Official culls are permitted to protect farm animals so long as there is no threat to the national population as a whole.[69] Compensation is paid for livestock damages.[8] Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats 1979, also known as the Bern Convention (or Berne Convention), came into force on June 1, 1982. ...


Wolves were first spotted in Germany in 1998, and are thought to have migrated from western Poland.[70] Currently, there are around 35 wolves in 4 packs now roaming the heaths of the eastern German region of Lusatia, and they are now still expanding their range to the west and north.[71] Under German law, wolves are a protected species, though there are no livestock damage compensation programmes.[8] Lusatia (German: , Upper Sorbian: , Lower Sorbian: , Polish: , Czech: ) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern Czech Republic. ...


The number of wolves in Switzerland is uncertain, having been guessed at 1-2 individuals. Wolves are afforded protection, and livestock damage compensation is paid by Cantons.[8] Valais Ticino Graubünden (Grisons) Geneva Vaud Neuchâtel Jura Berne Thurgau Zurich Aargau Lucerne Solothurn Basel-Land Schaffhausen Uri Schwyz Glarus St. ...


Norway currently has a stable, protected population of 15-20 wolves which is increasing. Compensation is paid for livestock damages.[8]


Sweden has a protected population of 70-80 wolves and growing, and compensation is paid for livestock damages.[8]


Finland has a stable population of 100 wolves which is increasing. Wolves are legally hunted only in areas with high reindeer densities. Compensation for livestock losses are paid by the state and insurance companies.[8]


Poland has an increasing population of 700-800 wolves which are afforded legal protection except in the Bieszczady Mountains. Compensation for livestock losses is not paid.[8] Bieszczady. ...


Estonia is thought to have a wolf population of 500, though it is decreasing as the species is outlawed, and no livestock compensation is in effect, as the insurance is considered too expensive.[8]


Lithuania has over 600 wolves which are increasing in number. The species is not protected, and only insured livestock receives compensation.[8]


Latvia has an unprotected, yet stable population of 900 wolves. No compensation is paid for livestock damages.[8]


Belarus is home to an increasing population of 2,000-2,500 wolves.[8] With the exception of specimens in nature reserves, wolves in Belarus are largely unprotected. They are designated a game species, and bounties ranging between €60 and €70 are paid to hunters for each wolf killed. This is a considerable sum in a country where the average monthly wage is €230.[72] No compensation is paid for livestock losses.[8]


Ukraine has an unprotected, yet stable population of 2,000 wolves. No compensation is paid for livestock losses.[8]


The Czech Republic has a stable and protected population of 20 wolves, though there are no livestock damage compensation programmes.[8]


Slovakia has a stable population of 350-400 wolves which is protected, though with some exceptions. No compensation is paid for livestock losses.[8]


Croatia has a population of 100-150 wolves and increasing. As of May 1995, they are a protected species, and compensation is paid for livestock losses.[8]


The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is thought to have a population of 400 wolves, though they are decreasing in number and are afforded no legal protection. Compensation for livestock losses is not paid.[8] The location of the FBiH entity as part of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Europe. ...


Serbia and Montenegro has a stable population of 500 wolves, though it is unknown if they are afforded any protection and no compensation is paid for livestock damages.[8]


Hungary has a stable population of 50 wolves which are protected, though with some exceptions. No compensation is paid for livestock damages.[8]


Romania has a increasing population of 2,500 wolves which are granted legal protection, though no compensation is paid for livestock damages.[8]


Bulgaria has a stable population of 800-1,000 wolves which are granted no legal protection.[8] Wolves are considered a nuisance and have an active bounty on them.[73] No compensation is paid for livestock damages.[8]


Greece has a stable population of 200-300 wolves which are legally protected. Compensation is paid for livestock losses, with over 80% of it from insurance.[8]


The Republic of Macedonia has an increasing, yet unprotected population of 1,000 wolves, with no livestock compensation programmes.[8] For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...


Albania has a protected population of 250 wolves which are increasing in number, though no compensation is paid for livestock losses.[8]


Turkey has an unknown number of wolves thought to be as high as 1,000. It is not known if they are increasing or decreasing, and no legal protection nor livestock damage compensation is granted.[8]


Although wolves in Russia have no legal protection, they number 25,000-30,000, and are increasing in number.[8] No livestock damage compensation is paid.[8]


Asia

Syria has an unprotected, unknown number of wolves, thought to be roughly numbering 200. No livestock damage compensation is paid.[8]


Lebanon has a population of 50 wolves which are afforded no legal protection, nor is livestock damage compensation is paid.[8]


Israel has a stable population of 150 unprotected wolves. No livestock damage compensation is paid.[8]


Jordan has an unprotected, unknown number of wolves, thought to be roughly numbering 200. No livestock damage compensation is paid.[8]


Saudi Arabia has a stable population of 300-600 wolves which are given no legal protection. No livestock damage compensation is paid.[8]


India has a decreasing population of roughly 1,000 wolves which are legally protected. No livestock damage compensation is paid.[8]


The People's Republic of China considers wolves a "catastrophe" and claims that they live in only twenty percent of their former habitat in the northern regions of the country.[74] Wolves in China appear to be decreasing in all their ranges. Currently, Cheiludjiang has roughly 500 wolves, Xinjiang has 10,000 and Tibet has 2,000.[8] In 2006, the Chinese government began plans to auction licenses to foreigners to hunt wild animals, including wolves.[75] No livestock damage compensation is paid.[8] For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mongolia has a stable population of 10,000-20-000 wolves which are given no legal protection, nor is livestock damage compensation is paid.[8]


Kazakhstan has a stable population of about 30,000 wolves.[8] About 2,000 are killed yearly for a $40 bounty, though the animal’s numbers have risen sharply.[76] No livestock damage compensation is paid.[8]


Turkmenistan has a stable population of 1,000 wolves which are unprotected. No livestock damage compensation is paid.[8]


Uzbekistan has a stable population of 2,000 wolves which are unprotected. No livestock damage compensation is paid.[8]


Kirgizstan has a stable population of 4,000 wolves which are unprotected. No livestock damage compensation is paid.[8] Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан, variously transliterated), officially the Kyrgyz Republic, and sometimes known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. ...


Tadjikistan has a stable population of 3,000 wolves which are unprotected. No livestock damage compensation is paid.[8] The Republic of Tajikistan (Тоҷикистон), formerly known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, is a country in Central Asia. ...


There are currently no recent or reliable estimates on wolf populations in Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Nepal and Bhutan.[8]


North America

The United States as a whole has up to 9,000 wolves which are increasing in number in all their ranges. Wolf recovery has been so successful that the United States Fish & Wildlife Service removed the western grey wolf from the federal endangered species list on March 28, 2008.[77][8] Due to the controversy over wolf shootings, a coalition of environmental groups is planning to sue the federal government to put the gray wolf back on the Endangered Species list. [78] Alaska has a stable population of 6,000-7,000 wolves which are legally hunted from August to April as a big game species.[8][79] Aerial hunting of wolves and other predators is used as a method to boost moose populations for hunters in Alaska[80]. This practice is controversial. Biologists have cited possibly flawed scientific logic in opposing aerial hunting, but the citizens of Alaska have twice voted against aerial hunting[80] Minnesota has a population of 2,500 wolves which are legally protected, though they are occasionally culled for depredation control. Minnesota is currently the only US state to have a livestock damage compensation programme.[8] Minnesota has been granted complete control over its wolf population, and its wolf management plan establishes a minimum population of 1600 wolves.[81] Montana has population of 70 wolves which are legally protected.[8] Idaho has a population of 185 wolves which though protected, is considered merely experimental and nonessential.[8] Wyoming has 165 wolves, which like in Idaho, are considered merely experimental.[8] Michigan has 200 wolves which are legally protected.[8] Wisconsin, like Michigan, has a population of 200 legally protected wolves.[8] The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... This list contains only the bird and mammal species described as endangered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... -1... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Canada has over 52,000-60,000 wolves which are legally considered a big game species, though they are afforded protection in 3% of Canada's territory. The Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon have 5,000 wolves each, British Columbia has 8000 wolves, Alberta 4,200, Saskatchewan 4,300, Manitoba 4,000-6,000, Ontario 9,000, Quebec 5,000 and Labrador 2,000. Canada currently has no livestock damage compensation programmes.[8] For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... This article is about the Canadian territory. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Saskatchewan (disambiguation). ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ...


Mexico has been wolf-free since the 1970s when the U.S. and Mexican governments cooperated to capture all remaining wild Mexican wolves and initiate a captive-breeding program in an attempt to save the local subspecies.[82] The Mexican Wolf was reintroduced into the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest in Arizona in 1998 as part of a captive breeding program.[79] There are now at least 59 wild Mexican wolves in the American southwest.[79][82] At 2 million acres (8,000 km²), the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests runs along the Mogollon Rim (pronounced muggy-own rim) and the White Mountains in east_central Arizona and extending into New Mexico, USA. Both forests are managed as one unit by USDA Forest Service. ...


Relationships with humans

Humans historically have had a complex relationship with wolves. In many parts of the world, wolves were respected and revered, while in others they were feared and held in distaste. The latter viewpoint was notably accentuated in European folklore beginning in the Christian era, though wolves did feature as heraldic animals on the Arms and crests of numerous noble families. Many languages have names meaning "wolf", examples including: Scandinavian Ulf, Albanian "Ujk", Hebrew Ze'ev, Hungarian Farkas, Serbian Vuk, Ukrainian Vovk, Romanian Lupu, Lupescu/Lupulescu and Bulgarian Vǎlko. Wolves also figure prominently in proverbs. Many Chinese proverbs use wolves as a description towards any ill-willed person with a hidden agenda like Wolf hearted (狼子野心) which could also connote to the impossibility of taming bad people, while Wolf heart; dog lungs (狼心狗肺) refers to an ungrateful person who later betrays someone who previously helped them. The Kazakh language has up to 20 proverbs referring to wolves, while the Russian language has 253.[6] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... Heraldry is the science and art of describing of coats-of-arms, also referred to as achievements or armorial bearings. ... So far as the United Kingdom, the Americas and the Commonwealth are concerned, there is no such thing as a family crest. ... The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Look up proverb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , Russian pronunciation: ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages, and the largest native language in Europe. ...


In folklore and mythology

Main article: Wolves in folklore, religion and mythology
For more details on this topic, see Werewolf.
For more details on this topic, see Wolves in heraldry.

In Altaic mythology of the Turkic and Mongolian peoples, the wolf is a revered animal. The shamanic Turkic peoples even believed they were descendants of wolves in Turkic legends. The legend of Asena is an old Turkic myth that tells of how the Turkic people were created. In Northern China a small Turkic village was raided by Chinese soldiers, but one small baby was left behind. An old she-wolf with a sky-blue mane named Asena found the baby and nursed him, then the she-wolf gave birth to half wolf, half human cubs therefore the Turkic people were born. Also in Turkic mythology it is believed that a gray wolf showed the Turks the way out of their legendary homeland Ergenekon, which allowed them to spread and conquer their neighbours.[83][84] In modern Turkey this myth inspired extrme-right nationalist groups known as "Grey Wolves". For other uses, see Werewolf (disambiguation). ... This page describes the ancient heroes who founded the city of Rome. ... Capitoline Wolf (Italian: Lupa Capitolina) is a 5th century BC Etruscan bronze statue, cast in the lower Tiber valley,[1] located since Antiquity in Rome. ... Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Michelangelos design for Capitoline Hill, now home to the Capitoline Museums. ... The mythologies and religions of the Turco-Mongol peoples (Turkic and Mongolian peoples, both groups speakers of Altaic languages) are related and have exerted strong influence on one another. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Asena is the name of a female wolf in Turkic mythology. ... This article is about the Turkish political group. ...


The genesis story of the Turks and Mongols is paralleled in the Roman myth of Romulus and Remus, the traditional founders of Rome. The twin babies were ordered to be killed by their great uncle Amulius. The servant ordered to kill them, however, relented and placed the two on the banks of the Tiber river. The river, which was in flood, rose and gently carried the cradle and the twins downstream, where under the protection of the river deity Tiberinus, they would be adopted by a she-wolf known as Lupa in Latin, an animal sacred to Mars. This page describes the ancient heroes who founded the city of Rome. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... In Roman mythology, Amulius was the brother of Numitor and son of Procas. ... Tiber River in Rome The River Tiber (Italian Tevere), the third longest river in Italy (disputed — see talk page) at 406 km (252 miles) after the Po and the Adige, flows through the Campagna and Rome in its course from Mount Fumaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which it reaches in... In Roman mythology, Tiberinus was added to the Oceanids, as the genius of the river Tiber. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Mars, painting by Diego Velazquez Mars was the Roman warrior god, the son of Juno and Jupiter, husband of Bellona, and the lover of Venus. ...


In Norse mythology, Fenrir or Fenrisulfr is a gigantic wolf, the son of Loki and the giantess Angrboða. Fenrir is bound by the gods, but is ultimately destined to grow too large for his bonds and devour Odin during the course of Ragnarök. At that time he will have grown so large that his upper jaw touches the sky while his lower touches the earth when he gapes. He will be slain by Odin's son, Viðarr, who will either stab him in the heart or rip his jaws asunder according to different accounts. Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Fenrir may refer to: Fenrisulfr, a Norse mythological wolf. ... For other uses, see Loki (disambiguation). ... Angrboda (Old Norse Angrboða Harm-foreboding) appears in Norse Mythology as a giantess. ... This is the article about the chief god in North Germanic tradition; for other uses see Odin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ragnarök (disambiguation). ... In Norse mythology, Vidar (Víðar, Viðarr, Widar) is the Son of Odin and the giantess Grid (Jotun). ...


The Bible contains 13 references to wolves, usually as metaphors for greed and destructiveness. In the New Testament, Jesus is quoted to have used wolves as illustrations to the dangers His followers would have faced should they follow him (Matthew 10:16, Acts 10:29, Matthew 7:15)[85] For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


In Japan, grain farmers once worshiped wolves at shrines and left food offerings near their dens, beseeching them to protect their crops from wild boars and deer. Talismans and charms adorned with images of wolves protected against fire, disease, and other calamities and brought fertility to agrarian communities and to couples hoping to have children. The Ainu people believed that they were born from the union of a wolflike creature and a goddess.[39] Ainu ) IPA: (also called Ezo in historical texts) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, the Kuril Islands, and much of Sakhalin. ...


Wolves also figure prominently in the folklore and mythology of some Native American tribes. In the Cardinal directions of the Plains Indians, the wolf represented the west, while for the Pawnee, it represented the southeast. According to the Pawnee creation myth, the wolf was the first creature to experience death. The Wolf Star (Sirius), enraged at not having been invited to attend a council on how the Earth should be made, sent a wolf to steal the whirlwind bag of The Storm that Comes out of the West, which contained the first humans. Upon being freed from the bag, the humans killed the wolf, thus bringing death into the world. The Pawnee, being both an agricultural and hunting people, associated the wolf with both corn and the bison; the "birth" and "death" of the Wolf Star was to them a reflection of the wolf's coming and going down the path of the Milky Way known as Wolf Road. Wolves however were not always portrayed positively in Native American cultures. The Netsilik Inuit and Takanaluk-arnaluk believed that the sea-woman Nuliayuk's home was guarded by wolves. The Naskapi's believed that the caribou afterlife is guarded by giant wolves which kill careless hunters venturing too near. The Navajo people feared witches in wolf's clothing called "Mai-cob".[7] For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Cardinal point redirects here. ... The three chiefs--Piegan, by Edward S. Curtis The Plains Indians are the Indians who lived on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America. ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... This article is about the brightest star in the night sky of Earth. ... For other uses, see Milky Way (disambiguation). ... The Netsilik Inuit (Netsilingmiut) live predominately in the communities of Kugaaruk and Gjoa Haven of the Kitikmeot Region, Nunavut and to a smaller extent in Taloyoak and the north Qikiqtaaluk Region. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus The reindeer, known as caribou in North America, is an Arctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... The Navajo people (or Diné) of the Southwestern United States are the largest Native American tribe in North America, with 298,197 people claiming to be full or partial Navajo in the 2000 U.S. census. ...


Attacks on humans

Main article: Wolf attacks on humans
Two of the Wolves of Périgord, responsible for the deaths of 18 people on February 1766, on display at the chateau of Razac in Thiviers
Two of the Wolves of Périgord, responsible for the deaths of 18 people on February 1766, on display at the chateau of Razac in Thiviers

Under normal circumstances, wild wolves are generally timid around humans. Wolves usually try to avoid contact with people, to the point of even abandoning their kills when an approaching human is detected, though there are several reported circumstances in which wolves have been recorded to act aggressively toward humans.[86][87] The frequency with which wolves have been recorded to kill people is much lower than in most other large carnivorous mammals in general, indicating that though potentially dangerous, wolves are among the least threatening for their size and predatory potential.[86] Thiviers is a market town and commune in the Dordogne département of France. ...


Attacks due to provocation have occured, usually involving shepherds defending their flocks, though none have been recorded to be fatal. Unprovoked attacks by non-rabid wolves are rare, though they have happened. The majority of victims of unprovoked healthy wolves tend to be women and children.[86] Historically, attacks by healthy wolves tended to be clustered in space and time, indicating that human-killing was not a normal behavior for the average wolf, but was rather a specialized behavior that single wolves or packs developed and maintained until they were killed.[88] Records from the former Soviet Union indicate that the largest number of attacks on children in areas with high wolf densities occurred in summer during July and August, the period when female wolves begin feeding their cubs solid food. Sharp falls in the frequency of attacks were noted in the Autumn months of September and October, coinciding with drops in temperature which caused most children to remain indoors for longer periods.[6]


Habituation is a known factor contributing to some wolf attacks which results from living in close proximity to human habitations, which can cause wolves to lose their fear of humans and consequently approach too closely, much like urban coyotes. Habituation can also happen when people intentionally encourage wolves to come up to them, usually by offering them food, or unintentionally, when people do not sufficiently intimidate them.[86] This is corollated by accounts demonstrating that wolves in protected areas are more likely to show boldness toward humans than ones in areas where they are actively hunted.[8] In psychology, habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition of a stimulus. ... Boldness is an opposite of shyness. ...


The majority of fatal wolf attacks have historically involved rabies, which was first recorded in wolves in the 13th century. Though wolves are not reservoirs for the disease, they can catch it from other species. Wolves develop an exceptionally severe aggressive state when infected and can bite numerous people in a single attack. Before a vaccine was developed, bites were almost always fatal. Today, wolf bites can be treated, but the severity of rabid wolf attacks can sometimes result in outright death, or a bite near the head will make the disease act too fast for the treatment to take effect. Unlike healthy wolves which typically limit themselves to attacking women or children, attacks by rabid wolves are made at random, with adult men being killed on occasion. Rabid attacks tend to cluster in winter and spring. With the reduction of rabies in Europe and North America, few rabid wolf attacks have been recorded, though some still occur annually in the middle east.[86] Rabid attacks can be distinguished from predatory attacks by the fact that rabid wolves limit themselves to biting their victims rather than consuming them. Plus, the timespan of predatory attacks can sometimes last for months or years, as opposed to rabid attacks which end usually after a fortnight.[86][88] Much like some big cats,[89] old or crippled wolves unable to tackle their normal prey have also been recorded to attack humans.[6] Big cat refers to the medium-to-large wild felids of The Americas, Africa, Asia, and Europe. ...


People who corner or attack wolves typically receive quick bites to the hands or feet, though the attack is usually not pressed. In both rabid and predatory attacks, victims are usually attacked around the head and neck in a sustained manner,[86] though healthy wolves rarely attack frontally, having been shown to prefer to attack from behind.[6] Some specialised man-eaters have been recorded to kill children by knocking them over from behind and biting the back of their heads and necks.[90] The body of a victim of a healthy wolf is often dragged off and consumed unless disturbed.[86]


Livestock and pet predation

Waiting for a Chinook, by C.M. Russell, depicting wolves harassing a cow.

Wolves usually attack livestock when they are pastourising, though it is not uncommon for some wolves to break into fenced enclosures.[6] Sheep are the most frequently recorded victims in Europe, in India it is goats, in Mongolia it is horses, while North American records show wolves having a greater tendency to attack cattle and turkeys.[8] Wolves usually disregard size or age on medium sized prey such as sheep and goats. Injuries may include a crushed skull, severed spine, disembowelment and massive tissue damage. Wolves will also kill sheep by attacking the throat, similar to the manner in which coyotes kill sheep. Wolf kills can be distinguished from coyote kills by the far greater damage the underlying tissue. Surplus killing often occurs when within the confines of human made livestock shelters.[91] One specimen known as the "Aquila Wolf" in Arizona was known to have killed 65 sheep in one night and 40 at another time.[42] Sometimes, the animals survive, but are left with severe mutilations, sometimes warranting euthanasia.[42] Livestock with prior experience of a wolf attack may develop behavioural problems, with some animals having been reported to run through barbed wire fences upon hearing wolves, or refusing to go out into pastures, causing severe weight loss.[6] Animals severely injured by wolves often appear dazed and are reluctant to move due to the deep pain.[91] Wolf depredations increase in September and October when females teach their cubs how to hunt.[6] It is often difficult to confirm kills, seeing as wolves often eat all of the animal they have killed if it is below the size of a calf.[42] Some non- or less-lethal methods of protecting livestock from wolves have been under development for the past decade. Such methods include rubber ammunition and use of guard animals.[92] Recorded wolf howls have also been shown to be effective in at least one incident.[21] Image File history File links Chinook2. ... Image File history File links Chinook2. ... Charles Marion Russell (1864, Oak Hill, Missouri – 1926, Great Falls, Montana), also known as C.M. Russell, was one of the great artists of the American West. ... Species See text. ... This article is about the domestic species. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... Typical modern agricultural barbed wire. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Non-lethal round. ...


The extent of livestock losses to wolves vary regionally; from being statistically insignificant, to having critical effects on local economies. In North America, loss of livestock by wolves makes up only a small percentage of total losses. In the United States, wolf predation is low compared to other human or animal sources of livestock loss.[93] Since the state of Montana began recording livestock losses due to wolves back in 1987, only 1,200 sheep and cattle have been killed. 1,200 killings in twenty years is not very significant when in the greater Yellowstone region 8,300 cattle and 13,000 sheep die from natural causes. According to the International Wolf Center, a Minnesota-based organization:

To put depredation in perspective, in 1986 the wolf population was at about 1,300–1,400, there were an estimated 232,000 cattle and 16,000 sheep in Minnesota's wolf range. During that year 26 cattle, about 0.01% of the cattle available, and 13 sheep, around 0.08% of the sheep available, were verified as being killed by wolves. Similarly, in 1996 an estimated 68,000 households owned dogs in wolf range and only 10, approximately 0.00015% of the households, experienced wolf depredation.

Wolf Depredation, International Wolf Center, Teaching the World about Wolves[94]

Furthermore, Jim Dutcher, a film maker who raised a captive wolf pack observed that wolves are very reluctant to try meat that they have not eaten or seen another wolf eat before possibly explaining why livestock depredation is unlikely except in cases of desperation.[95] Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ...


The results however differ in Eurasia. Greece for example reports that between April 1989 and June 1991, 21000 sheep and goats plus 2729 cattle were killed. In 1998 it was 5894 sheep and goats, 880 cattle and very few horses. [46] A study on livestock predation taken in Tibet showed that the wolf was the most prominent predator, accounting for 60% of the total livestock losses, followed by the snow leopard (38%) and lynx (2%). Goats were the most frequent victims (32%), followed by sheep (30%), yak (15%), and horses (13%). Wolves killed horses significantly more and goats less than would be expected from their relative abundance.[96] In 1987, Kazakhstan reported over 150,000 domestic livestock losses to wolves, with 200,000 being reported a year later.[6] This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Binomial name (Schreber, 1775) Range map Synonyms Uncia uncia The Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia), sometimes known as the ounce, is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central Asia from Afghanistan to Lake Baikal and eastern Tibet. ... This article is about the year 1987. ...


In some areas, dogs are a major food source for wolves. Reports from Croatia indicate that dogs are killed more frequently than sheep. Wolves in Russia apparently limit feral dog populations. In Wisconsin, more compensation has been paid for dog losses than livestock.[8] Some wolf pairs have been reported to predate on dogs by having one wolf lure the dog out into heavy brush where the second animal waits in ambush.[6] In some instances, wolves have displayed an uncharacteristic fearlessness of humans and buildings when attacking dogs, to an extent where they have to be beaten off or killed.[97] Specially bred Livestock guardian dogs have been used to repell wolves from pastures, though their primary function has more to do with intimidating the wolves rather than fighting them.[98] Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Wolf hunting

Main article: Wolf hunting
A 19th century painting depicting the conclusion of a wolf hunt
A 19th century painting depicting the conclusion of a wolf hunt

Wolves are usually hunted for sport, for their skins, to protect livestock, and in some rare cases to protect humans. Wolves are usually hunted in heavy brush and are considered especially challenging to hunt, due to their elusive nature and sharp senses.[99] Wolves are notoriously shy and difficult to kill, having been stated to be almost as hard to still hunt as cougars, and being far more problematic to dispatch with poison, traps or hounds. Wolves though generally do not defend themselves as effectively as cougars or bears.[100] In Sport hunting, wolves are usually taken in late Autumn and early Winter, when their pelts are of the highest quality and because the heavy snow makes it easier for the wolves to be tracked.[99] Wolves have occasionally been hunted for food, the meat having been variously described as being tough[39] and tasting like chicken.[101] Main article: Gray Wolf Wolf hunting is the practice of hunting wolves, especially the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus). ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... For other uses, see Cougar (disambiguation), Puma (disambiguation), or Panther. ... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Autumn (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Winter (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The hunting of grey wolves, while originally actively endorsed in many countries, has become a controversial issue in some nations. Opponents see it as cruel, unnecessary and based on misconceptions, while proponents argue that it is vital for the conservation of game herds and as pest control.[102] A man in Shanghai asks for money, holding a monkey with a rope around its neck and missing a limb. ... The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... A crop duster applies low-insecticide bait that is targeted against Western corn rootworms Pest control refers to the regulation or management of another species defined as a pest, usually because it is believed to be detrimental to a persons health, the ecology or the economy Pest control is...


Reintroduction

Main article: Wolf reintroduction

A reintroduced gray wolf in Yellowstone National Park Wolf reintroduction involves the artificial reestablishment of a population of wolves into areas where they had been previously extirpated. ...

North America

Gray wolf endangered species sheet
Gray wolf endangered species sheet

In North America, debate about wolf reintroduction is ongoing and often heated, both where reintroduction is being considered and where it has already occurred. Where wolves have been successfully reintroduced, as in the greater Yellowstone area and Idaho, reintroduction opponents continue to cite livestock predation, surplus killing, and economic hardships caused by wolves.[103] Opponents in prospective areas echo these same concerns. However, the Yellowstone and Idaho reintroductions demonstrate how compromise can be used to satisfy relevant interests. These reintroductions were the culmination of over two decades of research and debate. Ultimately, the economic concerns of the local ranching industry were dealt with when Defenders of Wildlife decided to establish a fund that would compensate ranchers for livestock lost to wolves, shifting the economic burden from industry to the wolf proponents themselves.[104] As of 2005, there are over 450 Mackenzie Valley wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and over 1,000 in Idaho. Both populations have long since met their recovery goals and the reintroduction experiment has been a resounding success. Lessons learned from this ordeal may yet prove useful where wolf reintroduction continues to create a sharp divide between industry and environmental interests, as it has in Arizona (where the Mexican Wolf was released beginning in 1998). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1030, 235 KB) From [1]. File links The following pages link to this file: Gray Wolf Category: Wolf images ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1030, 235 KB) From [1]. File links The following pages link to this file: Gray Wolf Category: Wolf images ... Reintroduction is the deliberate release of animals from captivity into the wild. ... Yellowstone redirects here. ... -1... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... Surplus killing is the behavior predators exhibit when they kill more prey than they can immediately use. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... discussion redirects here. ... Ranching is the raising of cattle or sheep on rangeland, although one might also speak of ranching with regard to less common livestock such as elk, bison or emu. ... Defenders of Wildlife is dedicated to the protection of all native wild animals and plants in their natural communities. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus occidentalis Mackenzie Valley wolf range The Mackenzie Valley Wolf (Canis lupus occidentalis) also known as the Rocky Mountain Wolf, Alaskan Timber Wolf or Canadian Timber Wolf is perhaps the largest subspecies of Gray Wolf in North America. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus baileyi (Nelson & Goldman, 1929) Mexican wolf range The Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) is the rarest, most genetically distinct subspecies of the Gray Wolf in North America. ...


Though many hunters, prior to and even after reintroduction, claimed that wolves would wipe out entire populations of elk, deer and other ungulates, the food chain within the Yellowstone ecosystem has been re-ordered to deliver a banquet that favors a more varied array of species. Prior to wolf reintroduction, high numbers of elk were linked to declines in aspen and willow communities, which negatively affected beaver and moose. Pre-wolf coyote numbers were much larger, affecting small rodent populations, foxes, and the production of pronghorn antelope. Scavengers had slimmer pickings. Today, with wolves taking elk, reducing their numbers, and leaving more carcasses on the landscape, grizzlies and wolverines have easier access to more meat, meaning a better chance for larger litters of cubs and pups. Coyote numbers have been significantly reduced, meaning more mice and pocket gophers for foxes and avian predators like hawks and eagles.[105] Reports have been published placing the value of revenue from wolf-watching as upward of $25 million. For other uses, see Elk (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ruminant animal. ... Ungulates (meaning roughly hoofed or hoofed animal) make up several orders of mammals, of which six survive: Artiodactyla: even-toed ungulates, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, antelope, and many others Cetacea: whales and dolphins (which evolved from hoofed land animals) Perissodactyla: odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinos Proboscidea: elephants... Yellowstone National Park is a U.S. National Park located in the states of Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. ... Northside High Schools mascot is the Grizzly Bear (or the Grizzlies) Metal Grizzly statue in front of high school. ... Binomial name Gulo gulo (Linnaeus, 1758) The wolverine (Gulo gulo) is the largest terrestrial species of the Mustelidae or weasel family, and is also called the glutton or carcajou. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


Native American attitudes toward wolf reintroductions varied. Although the Nez Perce welcomed the reintroduction of wolves in Idaho, the Apaches of the southwestern US and Kalispells of Washington opposed any reintroduction, as wolves held little spiritual significance in their cultures.[8] The Nez Perce (IPA: ) are a tribe of Native Americans who live in the Pacific Northwest region (Columbia River Plateau) of the United States. ... For other uses, see Apache (disambiguation). ... Kalispell is a city located in Flathead County, Montana. ...


United Kingdom

The British Government signed conventions in the 1980s and 1990s agreeing to consider reintroducing wolves and to promote public awareness about them. Being party to European conventions, the British government is obliged to study the desirability of reintroducing extinct species and to consider reintroducing wolves. Although there are indications that wolves are recolonizing areas in Western Europe, they are unable to return to their former ranges in Britain without active human assistance. The Scottish Highlands are one of the few large areas in western Europe with a relatively small human population, thus ensuring that wolves would suffer little disturbance from human activity. One popular argument in favour of the reintroduction is that the Highlands' red deer populations have overgrown. A reintroduction of wolves would aid in keeping their numbers down, thus allowing native flora some respite. Other arguments include the generation of income and local employment in the Highlands through wolf-related ecotourism. This could replace the declining and uneconomical Highland sheep industry. Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... This article is about the species of deer. ...


Wolves as pets

Many countries, states and local regions have specific regulations governing the acquisition and management of wolves. In Britain, the keeping of wolves is strictly controlled and a licence is needed to own one. In the United States, the keeping of pure wolves is prohibited by the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973. Despite this, there are an estimated 100,000 wolves illegally kept in captivity in the United States, with some surveys concluding that the number could be as high as 2 million.[8] The Endangered Species Act (ESA) was first passed in 1973 and forms the basis of biodiversity and endangered species protection in the United States. ...


Captive wolf pups are usually taken from their mother at two weeks of age. Pups will typically develop behavioural problems if raised without another member of their own kind. Due to their wild nature, wolf cubs require more socialisation than dog puppies. Socialising cubs solely with humans runs the risk of the cubs devoting their attention to people rather than their own kind. Wolf pups typically stop responding to socialization at the age of 19 days, as opposed to dogs which can still be socialised at the age of 10 weeks.[13] Due to the fact that wolf milk contains more arginine than can be found in puppy milk substitutes, an arginine supplement is needed when feeding pups below the weaning age. Failure to do so can result in the pups developing cataracts.[8] As adults, wolves have been shown, most of the time, to be largely untrainable and unpredictable, and will sometimes display aggressive behaviour toward small animals and children. Captive wolves are generally shy and avoid eye contact with humans other than their owner, as well as not listening to any commands made by any other humans. They usually vacate rooms or hide when a new person enters the establishment.[106] Ordinary pet food is inadequate, seeing as an adult wolf needs 1-2.5 kg (2-5 lbs) of quality meat daily along with bones, skin and fur to meet its nutritional requirements. The exercise needs of a wolf exceed the average dog's demand. Because of this, captive wolves typically do not cope well in urban areas. Due to their talent at observational learning, adult captive wolves can quickly work out how to escape confinement[13], and need constant reminding that they are not the leader of their owner/caretaker, which makes raising wolves difficult for people who raise their pets in an even, rather than subordinate, environment. According to the American Zoological Association, the minimum housing recommended for a large canid is an enclosure of 4m x 4m (12 x 12 ft), increased by 50% for each additional canid. To prevent the wolf jumping over the enclosure, fences are specified to be necessarily at least 2m (6 ft) high and needing an overhang at the top. An inside skirt buried below ground is also required to prevent tunnelling. Some pet wolves are euthanised or might be released into the wild where they are likely to starve or be killed by resident wolf packs in regions where they are still present. Abandoned or escaped captive wolves can be more destructive and pose a greater danger to humans and livestock than wild wolves, seeing as their habituation to humans causes them to lose their natural shyness.[6] The Wolf of Gysinge is thought to have been one such animal. Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R)[1] is an α-amino acid. ... Grain milk is a milk substitute made from fermented grain or from flour. ... Cataract is also used to mean a waterfall or where the flow of a river changes dramatically. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gaze aversion. ... Observational learning or social learning is learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating behavior observed in others. ...


Captive wolves have also been shown to be unsuitable for working as dogs do. German wolf biologist Erik Zimen once attempted to form a dog sled team composed entirely of pure wolves. The attempt proved to be a complete failure, as the wolves were far more prone to fighting than sled dogs and ignored most commands.[13] A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... Dog sled A dog sled (or dogsled) is a sled pulled by one or more dogs used to travel over ice and through snow. ... Sled dogs, known also as sleigh dogs, sledge dogs or sleddogs are dogs that are used to pull a wheel-less vehicle on runners (a sled or sleigh) over snow or ice, by means of harnesses and lines. ...


Media

  • Wolf howl recording
    Rallying
    European wolves rallying — 157 KB
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

Image File history File links Wolf howls. ... Image File history File links Rallying. ...

See also

Man-eating wolves // This is a list of wolves in fiction. ... Started in June 1993, by a group of wolf biologists (including the world renowned wolf-man, L David Mech), the goal was to educate the public about the species Canis lupus, to further the species cause, and help survival efforts. ... The Wild Canid Survival and Research Center is a private nonprofit organization dedicated to preserving wolves and other wild canids through preservation, breeding, and research. ... The UK Wolf Conservation Trust is a non-profit organisation based in Berkshire, England. ... L. David Mech is an internationally recognized wolf expert, who is a senior research scientist for U.S. Department of the Interior (since 1970) and an adjunct professor at the University of Minnesota in St. ...

  • Wolf of Ansbach
  • Wolf of Gysinge
  • Wolf of Sarlat
  • Wolf of Soissons
  • Wolves of Ashta
  • Wolves of Hazaribagh
  • Wolves of Paris
  • Wolves of Périgord

Other extant and extinct canid species also known as wolves:

Dog breeds with recent wolf ancestry: Binomial name Dusicyon australis (Kerr, 1792) The Falkland Island Fox (Dusicyon australis, formerly named Canis antarcticus by Darwin), also known as the Warrah and occasionally as the Falkland Island Wolf or Antarctic Wolf and by Argentine writers as the Malvinas Zorro, was the only native land mammal of the Falkland... Binomial name Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815) The Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is the largest canid of South America, resembling a dog with reddish fur. ...

The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog is a relatively new breed of dog that traces its original lineage to an experiment conducted in 1955 in the former Czechoslovak Republic. ... The Saarlooswolfhond (Dutch for Saarloos Wolfdog) is a breed of large dogs with relatively wolflike appearance and behavior, such as strong pack instincts. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Mech & Boitani (2004). Canis lupus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 2006-05-05. Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern.
  2. ^ Nowak, R. 1992. Wolves: The great travelers of evolution. International Wolf 2(4):3 - 7.
  3. ^ Lindblad-Toh, K, et al. (2005). "Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog". Nature 438: 803–819. doi:10.1038/nature04338. 
  4. ^ a b "Grey Wolves". Yellowstone-Bearman (November 2002). Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  5. ^ "Persecution and Hunting". Endangered Species Handbook. Animal Welfare Institute. Retrieved on 2006-08-20.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Graves, Will (2007). Wolves in Russia: Anxiety throughout the ages, pp.222. ISBN 1550593323. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Lopez, Barry (1978). Of wolves and men, pp.320. ISBN 0743249364. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw L. David Mech & Luigi Boitani (2001). Wolves: Behaviour, Ecology and Conservation, p 448. ISBN 0226516962. 
  9. ^ Hodgson, Angie (July 1997). "Wolf Restoration in the Adirondacks?" (PDF). Wildlife Conservation Society. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  10. ^ "Gray Wolf Biologue". Midwest Region. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  11. ^ a b ""Claws reveal wolf survival threat"". Paul Rincon. BBC online. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  12. ^ a b c "Gray Wolf". Corwin's Carnival of Creatures. Animal Planet. Retrieved on 2006-05-24.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Coppinger, Ray (2001). Dogs: a Startling New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior and Evolution, p352. ISBN 0684855305. 
  14. ^ Macdonald, David (1992). The Velvet Claw, pp.256. ISBN 0563208449. 
  15. ^ Ellis, Shaun (2006). Le Loup : Sauvage et Fascinant, pp.225. ISBN 2749905389. 
  16. ^ "Wolf Pup Development". Wolf Basics. International Wolf Center (November 2004). Retrieved on 2006-08-23.
  17. ^ "About Wolves". The Wolf Spirits. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  18. ^ a b Serpell, James (1995). The Domestic Dog; its evolution, behaviour and interactions with people, p267. 0-521-42537-9. 
  19. ^ "The skull of Canis lupus". World of the Wolf. Natural Worlds. Retrieved on 2005-08-21.
  20. ^ a b Journal of Zoology Volume 267, Part 1, September 2005
  21. ^ a b c Shaun Ellis. (2007). A Man Among Wolves [DVD]. National Geographic.
  22. ^ a b "Mating system". Department of Biology, Davidson College. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h Dewey, Tanya (2002). "Canis lupus". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved on 2005-08-18.
  24. ^ "Gray Wolf". Discover Life in America. Retrieved on 2005-05-05.
  25. ^ "Wolves, Coyotes and Fox". MountainNature.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-23.
  26. ^ Fox, Michael W. (1984). The Whistling Hunters: Field Studies of the Asiatic Wild Dog (Cuon Alpinus), pp.150. ISBN 0873958438. 
  27. ^ a b "Gray Wolf Biology and Status". Wolf Basics (March 2005). Retrieved on 2006-08-23.
  28. ^ Harper, Liz (November 2002). "FAQ". Wolf Basics. International Wolf Center. Retrieved on 2005-08-21.
  29. ^ Huber, Đuro Huber; Josip Kusak, Alojzije Frković, Goran Gužvica. "Causes of cow mortality in Croatia in the period 1986-2001" (PDF). Veterinarski Arhiv 72 (3): 131–139. Retrieved on 2007-07-20. 
  30. ^ "Wolf Family Life". Wolf Trust. Retrieved on 2005-08-21.
  31. ^ John Vucetich (January 31, 2006). "Murder or Justified Canicide: East Pack kills alpha male of Chippewa Harbor Pack". The Wolves and Moose of Isle Royale. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  32. ^ a b c d "Frequently Asked Questions About Wolves". Wolf Park. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
  33. ^ "Wolf Pack Size and Food Acquisition". Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved on 2005-08-21.
  34. ^ "Communication". Wolfdancer Holding Company. Retrieved on 2005-08-21.
  35. ^ a b c Harrington, Fred H. (November 2000). "What's in a Howl?". NOVA Online. PBS. Retrieved on 2005-08-21.
  36. ^ "The Iranian Wolf". Wolf Song of Alaska. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  37. ^ Rally to Seneca + important information about Norwegian wolves, Wolfpaper Picture Archive (February 7, 2001)
  38. ^ "Species Wolf, Gray". Virginia Tech Conservation Management Institute (1996-03-14). Retrieved on 2006-08-23.
  39. ^ a b c Walker, Brett L. (2005). The Lost Wolves Of Japan, pp.331. ISBN 0295984929. 
  40. ^ Alaska’s Salmon-Eating Wolves
  41. ^ "Wolf Predation on Sheep in Alaska". Abundant Wildlife Society of North America. Retrieved on 2008-07-10.
  42. ^ a b c d "The Wolf: Myth, Legend and Misconception". Abundant Wildlife Society of North America. Retrieved on 2008-07-10.
  43. ^ "Wolves Find Happy Hunting Grounds In Yellowstone National Park". Science Daily (August 31, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-17.
  44. ^ "Wolves and Hunting". Abundant Wildlife Society of North America. Retrieved on 2008-07-10.
  45. ^ a b Jim Robbins (1998). "Weaving A New Web: Wolves Change An Ecosystem". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  46. ^ a b "Conservation Action Plan for the golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Greece". WWF Greece. Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
  47. ^ "Wolf Ecology: How wolves interact with other predators.". University of Alberta - Edmonton. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  48. ^ Ralph Maughan (April 12, 2003). "Park wolf pack kills mother cougar". Ralph Maughan's Wildlife Reports, The Wolf Recovery Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  49. ^ L. David Mech, Layne G. Adams, Thomas J. Meier, John W. Burch, and Bruce W. Dale. "The Wolves of Denali: Chapter 1". University of Minnesota Press. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  50. ^ a b "Tigers and Wolves in the Russian Far East: Competitive Exclusion, Functional Redundancy, and Conservation Implications". savethetigerfund.org. Retrieved on 2008-07-09.
  51. ^ Matthiessen, Peter (2005). Large Carnivores and the Conservation of Biodiversity: Biodiversity, pp.526. ISBN 1559630809. 
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The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USDA redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Canis lupus
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Wolf
  • High-Resolution Images of the Canis Lupus Brain
  • Return of gray wolf to Yellowstone park
  • The Fear of Wolves: A Review of Wolf Attacks on Humans
  • The International Wolf Center

Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dÄ“, IPA: ) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Species Canis adustus Canis aureus Canis dirus (extinct) Canis latrans Canis lupus Canis mesomelas Canis simensis   † also includes dogs. ... Binomial name Canis adustus Sundevall, 1847 The Side-striped jackal (Canis adustus) is a member of the family Canidae, native to central and Southern African. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Golden Jackal range The Golden Jackal (Canis aureus), also called the Asiatic or Common Jackal, is a mammal of the order carnivora native to North and East Africa, Southeastern Europe and South Asia to Burma. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus himalayensis R. K. Aggarwal, Y.V Jhala , 2007 [1] The Himalayan Wolf, originally thought to belong to Tibetan wolf, may represent a distinct canid species, Canis himalayensis[1]. Now have rank subspecies of Gray Wolf, and get Taxonomy ID. It is native to a small region... Trinomial name Canis lupus pallipes (Reginald Innes Pocock, 1941) Present distribution of Indian wolf in light blue The Indian Wolf (Canis lupus pallipes), also known as the Indian Gray Wolf or the Peninsular Gray Wolf, is the small subspecies of the Grey Wolf. ... For other uses, see Coyote (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Red Wolf (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Schreber, 1775 Black-backed Jackal range The Black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas), also known as the Silver-backed jackal is a mammal of the order carnivora. ... Binomial name Canis simensis Ruppell, 1840 Map of the range of the Ethiopian Wolf. ... Binomial name Cuon alpinus (Pallas, 1811) The Dhole (Cuon alpinus) is a species of wild dog of the Canidae family. ... Binomial name Cuon alpinus (Pallas, 1811) The Dhole (Cuon alpinus) is a species of wild dog of the Canidae family. ... Binomial name (Temminck, 1820) African Wild Dog range The African Wild Dog, Lycaon pictus, also known as the African Hunting Dog, Cape Hunting Dog, Painted Dog, or Painted Wolf, is a carnivorous mammal of the Canidae family. ... Binomial name (Temminck, 1820) African Wild Dog range The African Wild Dog, Lycaon pictus, also known as the African Hunting Dog, Cape Hunting Dog, Painted Dog, or Painted Wolf, is a carnivorous mammal of the Canidae family. ... Binomial name Atelocynus Microtis (Sclater, 1883) Short-eared Dog (Atelocynus microtis) also known as Small Eared Zorro or Short-eared Fox can be found in South America. ... Binomial name Atelocynus Microtis (Sclater, 1883) Short-eared Dog (Atelocynus microtis) also known as Small Eared Zorro or Short-eared Fox can be found in South America. ... Binomial name Alopex lagopus ({{{author}}}, {{{date}}}) The Crab Eating Fox (Cerdocyon thous), also called the Common Fox or forest fox is a medium-sized fox and is found in South America. ... Binomial name Alopex lagopus ({{{author}}}, {{{date}}}) The Crab Eating Fox (Cerdocyon thous), also called the Common Fox or forest fox is a medium-sized fox and is found in South America. ... Lycalopex is a genus created by Burmeisteri in 1854 for the Hoary Fox (Pseudalopex vetulus). ... Binomial name Pseudalopex culpaeus (Molina, 1782) The culpeo is a South American species of wild dog. ... Binomial name Martin, 1837 Synonyms Dusicyon fulvipes Pseudalopex griseus fulvipes Darwins Fox or Darwins Zorro (Pseudalopex fulvipes) is a small endangered canine from the genus Pseudalopex, also know as Chiloé Zorro or Zorro Chilote in Spanish (zorros is false fox, more related to true dogs and included to... Binomial name Pseudalopex gymnocercus ( Fischer, 1814) Pampas Fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus), also known as Azaras fox, is a medium sized fox native to South America. ... Binomial name Pseudalopex sechurae Thomas, 1900 The Sechuran Fox (Pseudalopex sechurae), also called Peruvian Desert Fox and sechuran zorro is a South American species of canid. ... Binomial name Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) Please note that the Blanfords Fox, or Afghan fox, is also known as Hoary Fox. The Hoary Fox, Pseudalopex vetulus, or Hoary zorro, is a species of zorro (false fox) endemic to Brazil. ... Binomial name Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815) The Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is the largest canid of South America, resembling a dog with reddish fur. ... Binomial name Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815) The Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is the largest canid of South America, resembling a dog with reddish fur. ... Binomial name Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842) The Bush Dog (Speothos venaticus) is a canid found in Central and South America, including Panama, Venezuela, Bolivia, Peru (West of the Andes), Ecuador, the Guyanas, Paraguay, North-East Argentina (Misiones province), and Brazil (from the Amazon rainforest to the state of Santa Catarina). ... Binomial name Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842) The Bush Dog (Speothos venaticus) is a canid found in Central and South America, including Panama, Venezuela, Bolivia, Peru (West of the Andes), Ecuador, the Guianas, Paraguay, northeast Argentina (Misiones province), and Brazil (from the Amazon rainforest to the state of Amazonas). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Arctic Fox range The Arctic Fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the White Fox or Snow Fox, is a fox of the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Arctic Fox range The Arctic Fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the White Fox or Snow Fox, is a fox of the order Carnivora. ... Species Vulpes bengalensis Vulpes cana Vulpes chama Vulpes corsac Vulpes ferrilata Vulpes lagopus Vulpes macrotis Vulpes pallida Vulpes rueppelli Vulpes velox Vulpes vulpes Vulpes zerda Vulpes is a genus of the Canidae family. ... For the American comedian, see Redd Foxx. ... Binomial name (Say, 1823) The Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) is a small fox found in the western grasslands of North America, such as Colorado, New Mexico and Texas. ... This article is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Binomial name Vulpes corsac (Linnaeus, 1768) The Corsac Fox (Vulpes corsac) is a species of fox. ... Binomial name Vulpes chama (A Smith, 1833) The Cape Fox (Vulpes chama), also called Cama Fox or Silver-backed Fox is a small fox. ... Binomial name Vulpes pallida (Cretzschmar, 1827) The Pale Fox (Vulpes pallida) is a species of fox which inhabits the Sahel from Senegal in the west to Sudan in the east. ... Binomial name Vulpes bengalensis (Shaw, 1800) // Range and Habitat The Indian fox (Vulpes bengalensis) is a fox endemic to the Indian subcontinent and is found from the Himalayan foothills and Terai of Nepal through southern India and from southern and eastern Pakistan to eastern India and southeastern Bangladesh Appearance Vulpes... Tibetan Fox (Vulpes ferrilata) Lives at a high plateau of Tibet, bordering on China and India. ... Binomial name Vulpes cana (Blanford, 1877) Range of Blanfords Fox Please note that two a. ... Binomial name Vulpes rueppelli (Schinz, 1825) Rüppells Fox or Sand Fox (Vulpes rueppelli) is a species of fox living in North Africa and the Middle East, from Morocco to Afghanistan. ... Binomial name (Zimmermann, 1780) Fennec range Synonyms Fennecus zerda Zimmermann, 1780 The fennec is a small fox found in the Sahara Desert of North Africa (excluding the coast) and in some parts of Arabia, which has distinctive oversized ears. ... Species Urocyon cinereoargenteus Urocyon littoralis The genus Urocyon is a genus contains two (possibly three) Western Hemisphere foxes in the family Canidae, the Gray Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and the closely-related Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis). ... For other uses, see Gray Fox (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Urocyon littoralis (Baird, 1857) The Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis) is a small fox that is native to six of the eight Channel Islands of California. ... Binomial name Urocyon sp. ... Binomial name Otocyon megalotis (Desmarest, 1822) The Bat-eared Fox is a canid of the African savanna. ... Binomial name Otocyon megalotis (Desmarest, 1822) The Bat-eared Fox is a canid of the African savanna. ... Binomial name Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray, 1834) The Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a member of the canid family and is considered to be a species of dog although it is often confused with raccoons and badgers. ... It has been suggested that tanuki be merged into this article or section. ... Game is any animal hunted for food or not normally domesticated (such as venison). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... North American redirects here. ... Binomial name Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bobwhite Quail or Northern Bobwhite, Colinus virginianus, is a ground-dwelling bird native to North America. ... Binomial name Alectoris chukar (Gray, JE, 1830) The chukar, Alectoris chukar, is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. ... Binomial name Perdix perdix (Linnaeus, 1758) The Grey Partridge (Perdix perdix) is a gamebird in pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies Tympanuchus cupido attwateri Tympanuchus cupido cupido† Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus The Greater Prairie Chicken, Tympanuchus cupido, is a large bird in the grouse family. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Winter only (blue), summer only (light green), and year-round (dark green) range Subspecies See text The Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) is a member of the dove family Columbidae. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), otherwise known as the Ring-necked Pheasant or Chinese Pheasant is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. ... Binomial name Lagopus mutus (Montin, 1781) The Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) is a small (31-35 cm) bird in the grouse family. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) The Ruffed Grouse, Bonasa umbellus, is a medium-sized grouse occurring in forests across Canada and the Appalachian and northern United States including Alaska. ... Binomial name Tympanuchus phasianellus (Linnaeus, 1758) Introduction The Sharp-tailed Grouse, Tympanuchus phasianellus, is a medium-sized prairie grouse similar in size to the Greater Prairie-Chicken, males weigh an average of 33. ... Binomial name Gallinago gallinago Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies (Wilsons Snipe) The Common Snipe, Gallinago gallinago, is a small, stocky shorebird. ... Binomial name Falcipennis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Spruce Grouse, Falcipennis canadensis, is a medium-sized grouse. ... Species Eurasian Woodcock, Amami Woodcock, Bukidnon Woodcock, Dusky Woodcock, Sulawesi Woodcock, Moluccan Woodcock, American Woodcock, The woodcock are a group of seven very similar wading bird species in the genus Scolopax, characterised by a long slender bill and cryptic brown and blackish plumage. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name Anas rubripes Brewster, 1902 The American Black Duck (Anas rubripes) is a large-sized dabbling duck. ... For the outerwear manufacturer, see Canada Goose (clothing). ... Binomial name Aythya valisineria (Wilson, 1814) The Canvasback (Aythya valisineria) is a larger-sized diving duck. ... Binomial name Anas strepera Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies (Common Gadwall) (Washington Island Gadwall) - extinct The Gadwall (Anas strepera) is a common and widespread duck which breeds in the northern areas of Europe and Asia and central North America. ... Binomial name Aythya marila (Linnaeus, 1761) The Greater Scaup (Aythya marila), or just Scaup in Europe, is a small diving duck. ... Binomial name Aythya affinis (Eyton, 1838) The Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) is a small diving duck. ... For other uses, see Mallard (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Anas acuta Linnaeus, 1758 The Pintail or Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) is a common and widespread duck which breeds in the northern areas of Europe and Asia and across most of Canada, Alaska and the mid-western United States. ... Binomial name Aythya americana (Eyton, 1838) The Redhead (Aythya americana) is a medium-sized diving duck. ... Binomial name Anser rossii Cassin, 1861 Synonyms The Rosss Goose (Anser rossii) is a North American species of goose. ... Binomial name Anser caerulescens (Linnaeus, 1758) The Snow Goose (Anser caerulescens) is a North American species of goose. ... Binomial name Aix sponsa Linnaeus, 1758 Nesting (light green), wintering (blue) and year-round (dark green) ranges of . ... Binomial name Shaw, 1804 Synonyms Desmarest Cuvier[1] Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis)[2] is one of three species of mountain sheep in North America and Siberia; the other two species being Ovis dalli, that includes Dall Sheep and Stones Sheep, and the Siberian Snow sheep Ovis nivicola. ... Binomial name Pallas, 1780 Synonyms Euarctos americanus The American Black Bear (Ursus americanus) is the most common bear species native to North America. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ... Bears are big and have big ass, thats why bears are hot, and thats why cats are not. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... Caribou redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cougar (disambiguation), Puma (disambiguation), or Panther. ... For other uses, see Elk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Zimmermann, 1780 The White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the Virginia deer, or simply as the whitetail, is a medium-sized deer found throughout most of the continental United States, southern Canada, Mexico, Central America, northern portions of South America as far south as Peru, and... Rocky Mountain Goat and Mountain Goats redirect here. ... Binomial name (Rafinesque, 1817) The mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is a deer whose habitat is in the western half of North America. ... Binomial name (Zimmermann, 1780) Range map. ... Binomial name Nelson, 1884 The Dall Sheep (originally Dalls Sheep, sometimes called Thinhorn Sheep), Ovis dalli, is a wild sheep of the mountainous regions of northwest North America, ranging from white to slate brown and having curved yellowish brown horns. ... This article is about the animal. ... restoring version with Binomial name (Daudin, 1801) American Alligator range map The American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is one of the two living species of Alligator, a genus within the family Alligatoridae. ... For other uses, see Bobcat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coyote (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Sciurus niger Linnaeus, 1758 The Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger) is the largest species of tree squirrels native to North America. ... For other uses, see Gray Fox (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Gmelin, 1788 The eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) is a tree squirrel native to the eastern and midwestern United States and to the southerly portions of the eastern provinces of Canada. ... Genera Several; see text Didelphimorphia is the order of common opossums of the Western Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ... For the river, see Raccoon River. ... For the American comedian, see Redd Foxx. ... Binomial name Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777 The Snowshoe Hare (Lepus americanus) is a species of hare found in North America. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into hunting. ... Theodore Roosevelt in 1885 with his highly-decorated deer-skin hunting suit, and Tiffany-carved hunting knife and rifle. ... Duck hunters spring from their blind to take a shot at an incoming bird. ... Main article: Gray Wolf Wolf hunting is the practice of hunting wolves, especially the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus). ... Upland hunting is an American term for a form of bird hunting in which the hunter pursues upland birds including quail, pheasant, grouse, prairie chicken, chuckar, grey partridge, and others. ... In heraldry, a charge is an image occupying the field on an escutcheon (or shield). ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ... This article is about the ruminant animal. ... The winged lion of Mark the Evangelist for centuries has been the national emblem and landmark of Venice (detail from a painting by Vittore Carpaccio, 1516) The lion is a common charge in heraldry. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... This article is about the ruminant animal. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Rooster (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... The Polish coat of arms has an eagle as the main subject. ... For other uses, see Pelican (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rook. ... For other uses, see Griffin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Basilisk (disambiguation). ... The biscione as a symbol of Milan, seen here at the Central Station The biscione, together with the Imperial eagle, on the coat of arms of the Duchy of Milan The Biscione (‘large grass snake’), also known as the Vipera (‘viper’ or in Milanese as the Bissa), is a heraldic... Cockatrice A cockatrice is a legendary creature, an ornament in the drama and poetry of the Elizabethans (Breiner). ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... The Enfield is a beast sometimes used in heraldry, said to have the head of a fox, the chest of a greyhound, the body of a lion, the hindquarters and tail of a wolf, and forelegs like an eagles talons. ... For other uses, see Griffin (disambiguation). ... Roman griffon, Turkey The griffin (also spelled gryphon, griffon or gryphin) is a legendary creature with the body of a lion, the head of an eagle and the ears of a horse or a donkey. ... Manticore illustration from The History of Four-footed Beasts (1607) For other uses, see Manticore (disambiguation). ... A martlet is a type of heraldic bird similar to the swallow, but having no feet. ... For other uses, see Griffin (disambiguation). ... For other mythic firebirds, see Fire bird (mythology). ... A 16th-century image of a salamander from M. M. Pattison Muirs The Story of Alchemy and the Beginnings of Chemistry The salamander an amphibian of the order Urodela. ... The gentle and pensive maiden has the power to tame the unicorn, fresco, Palazzo Farnese, Rome, probably by Domenico Zampieri, ca 1602 For other uses, see Unicorn (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wyvern (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758 The Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), also known as dolphin fish or dorado, are a species of surface-dwelling fish found in tropical and subtropical waters. ... Species  E. americanus –       grass and redfin pickerels  E. lucius – northern pike  E. masquinongy – muskellunge  E. niger – chain pickerel   – Amur pike Esox Linnaeus, 1758, is a genus of freshwater fish, the only member of the pike family (family Esocidae) of order Esociformes. ... Species  E. americanus –       grass and redfin pickerels  E. lucius – northern pike  E. masquinongy – muskellunge  E. niger – chain pickerel   – Amur pike Esox Linnaeus, 1758, is a genus of freshwater fish, the only member of the pike family (family Esocidae) of order Esociformes. ... Genera See text. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Toad (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gray Wolf - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6428 words)
The Gray Wolf, being a keystone predator, is an integral component of the ecosystems to which it typically belongs.
Wolf growls have a distinct, deep, bass-like quality, and are used much of the time as a threat, though they are not always necessarily used for defense.
In brief, the gray wolf, which, at one point, could be found in any ecosystem on every continent in the Northern Hemisphere, was persistently one of the first species to go once a significant population of humans settled in a given area.
Gray Wolf - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article (4935 words)
The Gray Wolf (Canis lupus), known in Europe as the Grey Wolf, is a mammal of the Canidae family.
The wolf usually has golden-yellow eyes, longer legs, larger paws, more-pronounced jaws, a longer muzzle, and a brain that is typically 30 percent larger than that of a dog.
In Proto-Indo-European society, the wolf was probably associated with the warrior class, and the term was subject to taboo deformation, the Latin lupus being an example of a mutated form of the original Proto-Indo-European *wlkwos.
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