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Encyclopedia > Gray matter
Gray matter
The formation of the spinal nerve from the dorsal and ventral roots. (Grey matter labeled at center right.)
Latin substantia grisea
Dorlands/Elsevier s_27/12766773

Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of nerve cell bodies, glial cells (astroglia and oligodendrocytes), capillaries, and short nerve cell extensions/processes (axons and dendrites). Image File history File links Spinal_nerve. ... Image File history File links Medulla_spinalis_-_Substantia_grisea_-_English. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Elseviers logo. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... An axon or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. ... In biology, a dendrite is a slender, typically branched projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, which conducts the electrical stimulation received from other cells to the body or soma of the cell from which it projects. ...

Contents

Composition

Grey matter is composed of unmyelinated neurons as opposed to white matter (myelinated neurons). White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. ... In neuroscience, myelin is an electrically insulating phospholipid layer that surrounds the axons of many neurons. ...


Distribution

Grey matter is distributed at the surface of the cerebral hemispheres (cerebral cortex) and of the cerebellum (cerebellar cortex), as well as in the depth of the cerebral (thalamus; hypothalamus; subthalamus, basal ganglia - putamen, globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens; septal nuclei), cerebellar (deep cerebellar nuclei - dentate nucleus, globose nucleus, emboliform nucleus, fastigial nucleus), brainstem (substantia nigra, red nucleus, olivary nuclei, cranial nerve nuclei) and spinal white matter (anterior horn, lateral horn, posterior horn). The human brain as viewed from above, showing the cerebral hemispheres. ... Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The hypothalamus (from Greek ὑποθαλαμος = under the thalamus) is a region of the mammalian brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities. ... The subthalamus, or ventral thalamus, is part of the diencephalon. ... The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei in the brain interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. ... The putamen is a structure in the middle of the brain, forming the striatum together with the caudate nucleus. ... The globus pallidus (Latin for pale body) is a sub-cortical structure in the brain. ... The nucleus accumbens (also known as the accumbens nucleus or nucleus accumbens septi) is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum. ... The septal nuclei are structures in the middle anteroventral cerebrum that are composed of medium-sized neurons and which are grouped into medial, lateral, and posterior groups. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ... The substantia nigra, (Latin for black substance, Soemering) or locus niger is a heterogeneous portion of the midbrain, separating the pes (foot) from the tegmentum (covering), and a major element of the basal ganglia system. ... The red nucleus is a structure in the rostral midbrain involved in motor coordination. ... In anatomy, the olivary bodies or simply olives (Latin oliva and olivae, singular and plural, respectively) are a pair of prominent oval structures in the medulla oblongata, the lower portion of the brainstem. ... A cranial nerve nucleus is a collection of neurons (gray matter) in the brain stem that is associated with one or more cranial nerves. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. ... The anterior horn is the anterior division of the lateral ventricle of the brain. ... In the thoracic region, the postero-lateral part of the anterior column projects lateralward as a triangular field, which is named the lateral column (lateral cornu, lateral horn). ... The posterior horn of the spinal cord is dorsal(more towards the back) to the anterior horn. ...


Function

The function of grey matter is to route sensory or motor stimulus to interneurons of the CNS for creation of response to stimulus through chemical synapse activity. An interneuron is a neuron that communicates only to other neurons. ... Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical synapse. ...


Grey matter structures (cortex, deep nuclei) process information originating in the sensory organs or in other grey matter regions. This information is conveyed via specialized nerve cell extensions (long axons), which form the bulk of the cerebral, cerebellar, and spinal white matter. Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... An axon, or nerve fiber, is a long slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, which conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. ... A sketch of the human brain by artist Priyan Weerappuli, imposed upon his sketch of the profile of Michaelangelos David In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. ...


References in fiction

Hercule Poirot created by the crime writer Agatha Christie referred to his "little grey cells" when he was actually referring to his brain, thought process and skills to deduce the motive or murderer in question so can also be used as a slang word for brains or the use of them. David Suchet as Hercule Poirot in The Dream Hercule Poirot (pronounced ) is a fictional Belgian detective who featured in the novels of Agatha Christie. ... Agatha Mary Clarissa, Lady Mallowan, DBE (15 September 1890 – 12 January 1976), also known as Dame Agatha Christie, was an English crime fiction writer. ...


See also

White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. ... Neuropil is the feltwork of unmyelinated neuronal processes (axonal and dendritic) within the gray matter of the central nervous system Traditionally, when pathologists looked at brain tissue they concentrated on neurons (the active functioning cells of the brain), glial cells and axons (especially in white matter, which is mostly composed... Grey Matter Heterotopia (singular heterotopion)[1] is a neurological disorder caused by clumps of grey matter being located in the wrong part of the brain. ... The Rexed laminae comprise a system of ten layers of grey matter (I-X), identified in the early 1950s by Bror Rexed to label portions of the spinal cord. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gray Matter - Gabriel Knight meets Matrix - Golem.de (489 words)
Gray Matter ist das erste Adventure, das Jensen seit der Veröffentlichung von Gabriel Knight 3 in Angriff nimmt.
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Gray Matter hat deshalb eine deutlich philosophischere Sichtweise.
Grey matter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (206 words)
Grey matter is the major part of the nervous system in which the nerve impulses for all kinds of mental functions are produced and then sent away to be carried to their target organs by white matter.
The cerebrum and the subcortical nuclei, such as the putamen and the caudate nucleus, are composed of grey matter.
Not to be confused with dark matter, a concept in theoretical physics.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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