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Encyclopedia > Gray Davis
Gray Davis

Official state portrait. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


In office
January 4, 1999 – November 17, 2003
Lieutenant(s) Cruz Bustamante
Preceded by Pete Wilson
Succeeded by Arnold Schwarzenegger

Born December 26 1942 ( 1942-12-26) (age 64)
New York, New York
Political party Democratic
Spouse Sharon Ryer Davis
Alma mater Stanford University
Profession Politician
Religion Roman Catholic

Joseph Graham Davis Jr. (born December 26, 1942), better known as Gray Davis, is an American politician who served as California’s 37th Governor from 1999 to 2003. Davis is a Democrat who was often known as a moderate. Prior to serving as Governor, Davis served as the Chief of Staff to Governor Jerry Brown (1975-1981), a California State Assemblyman (1983-1987), the California State Controller (1987-1995), and the Lieutenant Governor of California (1995-1999). Davis holds a BA in History from Stanford University and a J.D. from Columbia Law School. He was awarded a Bronze Star for service as a Captain in the Vietnam War Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lieutenant Governor of California is a statewide constitutional officer elected separately from the Governor that serves as the vice-executive of California. ... Cruz Miguel Bustamante (born January 4, 1953) is an American politician. ... Peter Barton Wilson (born August 23, 1933) is an American Republican politician from California. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German pronunciation (IPA): ) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, actor, and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... “Stanford” redirects here. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... For the whistleblower, see Gerald W. Brown. ... The California State Assembly chamber California State Assembly Chamber in the State Capitol The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature. ... The State Controller is the Chief Financial Officer of the State of California. ... The Lieutenant Governor of California is a statewide constitutional officer elected separately from the Governor that serves as the vice-executive of California. ... A B.A. issused as a certificate Bachelor of Arts (B.A., BA or A.B.), from the Latin Artium Baccalaureus is an undergraduate bachelors degree awarded for either a course or a program in the liberal arts or the sciences, or both. ... HIStory - Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double-disc album (one half greatest hits, one half studio album) by American musician Michael Jackson released in June of 1995 by the Epic Records division of Sony BMG. The first disc, (HIStory Begins) contains fifteen hit singles from the past... “Stanford” redirects here. ... J.D. redirects here; for alternate uses, see J.D. (disambiguation) J.D. is an abbreviation for the Latin Juris Doctor, also called a Doctor of Law or Doctorate of Jurisprudence, and is the law degree typically awarded by an accredited U.S. law school after successfully completing three years... Columbia Law School, located in the New York City borough of Manhattan, is one of the professional schools of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League, and one of the leading law schools in the United States. ... The Bronze Star Medal is a United States Armed Forces individual military decoration and is the fourth highest award for bravery, heroism or meritorious service. ... A Captain in armies, air forces and marine forces, is a rank an army or air force rank with a NATO rank code of OF-2. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


During his time as Governor, Davis made education his top priority and California spent eight billion dollars more than was required under Proposition 98 during his first term. Under Davis, California standardized test scores increased for five straight years. Davis signed the nation's first state law requiring automakers to limit auto emissions. Davis supported laws to ban assault weapons. He is also credited with improving relations between California and Mexico.[1] Davis began his tenure as Governor with strong approval ratings, but those ratings declined as voters blamed Davis for the California electricity crisis and the California budget crisis that followed the Dot.com bubble burst. Voters were also alienated by Davis’s record breaking fundraising efforts and negative campaigning.[2] California Proposition 98 requires a minimum percentage of the state budget to be spent on K-14 education (K-12 schools and community colleges) in California. ... The California electricity crisis (also known as the Western Energy Crisis) of 2000 and 2001 followed a failed partial-deregulation, in 1996, of the electricity market in the state. ... Negative campaigning is trying to win an advantage by referring to negative aspects of an opponent or of a policy rather than emphasizing ones own positive attributes or preferred policies. ...


On October 7, 2003, he became the second governor to be recalled in American history. Davis was succeeded by Republican Arnold A. Schwarzenegger on November 17, 2003 after the recall election. Davis spent 1,778 days as Governor and he signed 5,132 bills out of 6,244 and vetoed 1,100 bills[3]. Since being recalled, Davis has worked as a guest lecturer at UCLA's School of Public Policy, as an attorney at Loeb & Loeb, and as a Board of Directors of the animation company DiC Entertainment. is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German pronunciation (IPA): ) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, actor, and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 2003 California recall was a special election permitted under California law. ... Binomial name Ucla xenogrammus Holleman, 1993 The largemouth triplefin, Ucla xenogrammus, is a fish of the family Tripterygiidae and only member of the genus Ucla, found in the Pacific Ocean from Viet Nam, the Philippines, Palau and the Caroline Islands to Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Christmas Island), and the... The DiC Incredible World logo used from late 2001 to present. ...

Contents

Early life & political career

Born in New York City, Davis moved to California with his family as a child in 1954. He was the first of the family's five children: three boys and two girls. He was raised a Roman Catholic. Davis and his family were one of the millions of Americans to migrate to the southwest and California as part of the post World War II sun belt migration. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Sun Belt, highlighted in red This article is about the region of the United States. ...

Davis served as a Captain in the Vietnam War.

His education included experience at public, private and Catholic schools, allowed him -- as an adult -- an opportunity to compare all three systems later as a lawmaker[4]. Davis graduated from a North Hollywood military academy, the Harvard School for Boys (now part of Harvard-Westlake School). Davis's family was upper middle class and was led by his demanding mother [5]. Davis was nicknamed Gray by his mother[6]. Davis's father was an alcoholic [7]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... North Hollywood is a district in the San Fernando Valley region of the City of Los Angeles, California. ... A military academy is a military educational institution. ... Harvard-Westlake School is a secular, independent, coeducational college preparatory day school located in North Hollywood, Los Angeles, California with approximately 1,600 students enrolled in grades 7 through 12. ...


His strong academic accomplishments earned him acceptance to Stanford University [8]. He played on the Stanford golf team with a two handicap [9]. After Davis entered Stanford University, his father left the family, forcing Davis to join the ROTC to stay in school. The deal included a promise to enter the regular Army after completing his education. He earned a BA in history at Stanford, where he was admitted to the Zeta Psi fraternity, graduating in 1964 with distinction. He then returned to New York to attend Columbia Law School where he won the Moot Court award. He graduated from Columbia in 1967 and then clerked at the law firm of Beekman & Bogue in New York City. “Stanford” redirects here. ... “Stanford” redirects here. ... The Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) is a training program of the United States armed forces present on college campuses to recruit and educate commissioned officers. ... A B.A. issused as a certificate Bachelor of Arts (B.A., BA or A.B.), from the Latin Artium Baccalaureus is an undergraduate bachelors degree awarded for either a course or a program in the liberal arts or the sciences, or both. ... HIStory - Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double-disc album (one half greatest hits, one half studio album) by American musician Michael Jackson released in June of 1995 by the Epic Records division of Sony BMG. The first disc, (HIStory Begins) contains fifteen hit singles from the past... The Zeta Psi Fraternity of North America Inc. ... “NY” redirects here. ... Columbia Law School, located in the New York City borough of Manhattan, is one of the professional schools of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League, and one of the leading law schools in the United States. ...


After completing the program in 1967 he entered active duty in the United States Army, serving in the Vietnam War during its height until 1969[10]. Davis saw a lot of time on the battlefield during his time in Vietnam [11]. Davis returned home as a captain with a Bronze Star for meritorious service. Friends who knew him at the time said Davis -- like many war veterans -- came back a changed man, interested in politics and more intense, according to the Sacramento Bee[12]. He returned from Vietnam more "serious and directed" [13]. Davis was suprised to discover that the majority of those serving in Vietnam were Latinos, African Americans, and southern whites with very few from schools like Stanford and Columbia; Davis believed that the burden of the war should be felt equally and he resolved early on to go about changing America so that would change.[14] Davis is a life member of the American Legion and the Veterans of Foreign Wars[15]. The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Sacramento Bee is a daily newspaper published in Sacramento, California. ... Latino refers to people living in the US of Latin American nationality and their US-born descendants. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Veterans of Foreign Wars, or VFW, is an American organization whose members are current or former members of the U.S. armed forces. ...


Davis volunteered for the campaign of John V. Tunney for the US Senate in 1970.[16] He started a statewide neighborhood crime watch program while serving as chairman of the California Council on Criminal Justice[17]. His initial political experience included working to help Tom Bradley win election as Los Angeles' first black mayor in 1973. The historical significance of Bradley's victory further inspired Davis to pursue a career in politics.[18] Davis ran for State Treasurer in 1974 but lost when the more popular Jesse Unruh filed to run on the deadline.[19] John Varick Tunney (born June 26, 1934), American politician, is a former U.S. Senator and Representative. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tom Bradley is a common name shared by a number of individuals: Tom Bradley, American author Tom Bradley, Former Mayor of Los Angeles, California Tom Bradley, British Member of Parliament and trade union leader (Transport Salaried Staffs Association). ... The California State Treasurer is responsible for the states investment and finance. ... Jesse Marvin Unruh (1922 - 1987) -- also known as Big Daddy Unruh -- was a Democratic politician. ...


Davis returned to California and entered politics, serving as Executive Secretary and Chief of Staff to Governor Edmund G. "Jerry" Brown Jr. from 1975 to 1981. Davis was not as liberal as Brown, and some said he offset Brown's style by projecting a more intense, controlled personality[20]. While Brown was campaigning for President in 1980, Davis ran California in Brown's absense though Davis would later claim that we always did what he thought Brown would have done.[21][22] For the whistleblower, see Gerald W. Brown. ... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ...


He met his future wife, the former Sharon Ryer, while on an airplane tending to official business in 1978. Ryer, a flight attendant for Pacific Southwest Airlines, was miffed when Davis held up the departure of the flight from Sacramento to Los Angeles. Davis apologized and asked her out, and they later married in 1983, with California Supreme Court justice Rose Bird officiating. PSA logo from the 1980s Pacific Southwest Airlines (PSA) (IATA: PS, ICAO: PSA, and Callsign: PSA) was an airline headquartered in San Diego, California. ... The Supreme Court of California is the state supreme court in California. ... Rose Elizabeth Bird (November 2, 1936–December 4, 1999) served for 10 years as the 25th Chief Justice (and first female Chief Justice)of the California Supreme Court until removed from that office by the voters. ...


He was elected to the office of Assemblyman from the 43rd district, representing parts of Los Angeles County including West Los Angeles and Beverly Hills [23] from 1983 to 1987. Davis championed a popular campaign to help find missing children by placing their pictures on milk cartons and grocery bags[24]. [25]. The California State Assembly chamber California State Assembly Chamber in the State Capitol The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature. ... Los Angeles County is a county in California and is the most populous county in the United States. ... West Los Angeles, also called the Westside, is generally considered to be the portion of Los Angeles, California and its suburbs that lies east of the Pacific Ocean including Brentwood, west of La Brea Avenue (varying definitions set the boundary at Fairfax Avenue or even the eastern border of Beverly... For other uses, see: Beverly Hills (disambiguation). ...


Prior to Governorship

State Controller

In 1986, Davis ran against six other contenders in his race for State Controller; several of those candidates, including Democrat John Garamendi and Republican Bill Campbell, were arguably better known at the time [26]. Davis served as State Controller for eight years until 1995. As California's chief fiscal officer, he saved taxpayers more than half a billion dollars by cracking down on Medi-Cal fraud, rooting out government waste and inefficiency, and exposing the misuse of public funds [27]. He was the first Controller to withhold paychecks from all state elected officials, including himself, until the Governor and the Legislature passed an overdue budget; and he found and returned more than $1.8 billion in unclaimed property to California citizens, including forgotten bank accounts, insurance settlements, and stocks [28]. The State Controller is the Chief Financial Officer of the State of California. ... John Raymond Garamendi (born January 24, 1945) is a U.S. politician and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Bill Campbell is the current Chairman of the Board and former CEO of Intuit. ...


1992 Run for Senate

Davis lost by a landslide to Dianne Feinstein in his 1992 run for the US Senate.

Davis ran against Dianne Feinstein for the democratic nomination for the United States Senate in the 1992 special election to fill the Senate seat vacated by Pete Wilson who was elected Governor of California in 1990. The race is often sited as an example of Davis's history of negative campaign tactics [29]. The Davis campaign featured an ad that compared Feinstein to the incarcerated hotelier Leona Helmsley [30]. Some experts consider that ad to be the most negative in state history [31]. The ad backfired with Davis losing to Feinstein by a significant margin for the nomination although this loss did not stop Davis from using negative campaign ads in the future, including in his race for Lieutenant Governor [32]. Davis blamed his campaign managers for the defeat and vowed not to let major decisions in future campaigns be decided by his campaign staff [33]. When Feinstein urged voters to vote no during the recall election, she was constantly reminded through questions, video, and the media about the 1992 primary [34]. See http://feinstein. ... See http://feinstein. ... Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein (born June 22, 1933) is currently the senior U.S. Senator from California, having held office as a senator since 1992. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein (born June 22, 1933) is currently the senior U.S. Senator from California, having held office as a senator since 1992. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the... Peter Barton Wilson (born August 23, 1933) is an American Republican politician from California. ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... Leona Helmsley (July 4, 1920 – August 20, 2007) was a billionaire New York City hotel operator and real estate investor. ...


Lieutenant Governor

Many democrats came to believe that Davis's political career was over after Davis's landslide defeat in his run for the Senate but Davis created a new campaign team and won a landslide victory in his race for Lieutenant Governor [35]. Davis was Lieutenant Governor until 1999. In his successful campaign for Lieutenant Governor in 1994, he received more votes than any other Democratic candidate in America [36]. Davis ran as a moderate candidate against Republican Cathie Wright [6]. Davis used ads to depict Wright as a Republican that was too conservative for California. [37] Davis had a large advantage in campaign funds [38]. The Lieutenant Governor of California is a statewide constitutional officer elected separately from the Governor that serves as the vice-executive of California. ... The Lieutenant Governor of California is a statewide constitutional officer elected separately from the Governor that serves as the vice-executive of California. ...


As Lieutenant Governor, Gray Davis focused on efforts to keep jobs in California and encourage new and fast-growing industries to locate and expand in the state [39]. He also fought to keep college education affordable for California's middle-class families, pushing through the largest student-fee reduction in California history. As the state's second-highest officeholder, he also served as President of the State Senate, Chair of the Commission for Economic Development, Chair of the State Lands Commission, Regent of the University of California and Trustee of the California State University [40]. Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... The California State University (CSU) is one of three public higher education systems in the state of California, the other two being the University of California system and the California Community College System. ...


1998 Campaign for Governor

Davis defeated Jane Harman in the 1998 gubenatorial primary.
Davis defeated Jane Harman in the 1998 gubenatorial primary.

In the June primary election, Davis surprised political observers by handily defeating two better funded Democratic opponents: multimillionaire airline executive Al Checchi and Jane Harman, whose husband is a multimillionaire[41][42]. Davis's campaign slogan during the primary was "Experience Money Can't Buy." Early primary polls showed Davis in third for the democratic nomination[43]. Davis surprised many political insiders with his landslide come from behind victory [44] [45]. Davis even finished ahead of the unopposed Republican nominee in California's first blanket gubernatoral primary. California gubernatorial election, 1998 November 3, 1998 Primaries Candidates: External links results Official results by county Candidate Statements Candidate Statements - primaries Categories: | | | ... Download high resolution version (640x838, 95 KB)Jane Harman source: http://www. ... Download high resolution version (640x838, 95 KB)Jane Harman source: http://www. ... Jane Lakes Harman (born June 28, 1945), is a six-term Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives, representing the 36th District of California (map). ... Jane Lakes Harman (born June 28, 1945), is a six-term Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives, representing the 36th District of California (map). ... In United States politics, the blanket primary was a system used for selecting party candidates in a primary election. ...

Davis defeated Dan Lungren in the 1998 gubenatorial race.
Davis defeated Dan Lungren in the 1998 gubenatorial race.

Davis won the 1998 general election for Governor with 57.9% of the vote, defeating Republican Dan Lungren who had 38.4%. Davis aimed to portray himself as a moderate centrist democract and to label Lungren a Republican too conservative for California[46]. After his victory, Davis declared that he would work to end the "divisive politics" of his predessecor Pete Wilson[47]. In his campaign, Davis emphasized the need to improve California's public schools, which voters had cited as their top concern in this election[48]. Released by campaign File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Released by campaign File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Dan Lungren Daniel Edward Lungren (born September 22, 1946), a Republican from California, was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 2004, representing the states 3rd Congressional district (map). ... Dan Lungren Daniel Edward Lungren (born September 22, 1946), a Republican from California, was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 2004, representing the states 3rd Congressional district (map). ... Peter Barton Wilson (born August 23, 1933) is an American Republican politician from California. ...


First term

Popular start & Education

In 1998, Davis was elected the Golden State's first Democratic governor in 16 years. The San Jose Mercury News called him "perhaps the best-trained governor-in-waiting California has ever produced"[49]. Davis was strongly viewed as a possible Democratic candidate for President in 2004.[50] In March 1999, Davis enjoyed a 58% approval rating and just 12% disapproval.[51] His numbers peaked in February 2000 with 62% approval and 20% disapproval, coinciding with the peak of the dot-com boom in California.[52][53] Davis held his strong poll numbers into January 2001. For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Dot-com (also dotcom or redundantly dot. ...


Davis's first official act as governor was to call a special session of the state legislature to address his plan for all California children to be able to read by age 9.

"I ran for governor because of my passion for education," Davis told CNN the Sunday night before the recall election on Larry King Live [7].

Davis used California's growing budget surplus to improve education. He signed legislation that provided for a new statewide accountability program and for the Academic Performance Index and supported the high school exist exam [8]. He signed legislation that authorized the largest expansion of the Cal Grant program [9]. Under the Davis administration, California began recognizing students for outstanding academic achievement in math and sciences on the new Golden State Exam. Davis's Governors Scholarship program provided $1,000 scholarships to those students who scored in the top 1% in two subject areas on the state's annual statewide standardize test. Larry King Live is a nightly CNN interview program hosted by broadcaster and writer Larry King. ...


Davis signed into law legislation that began the Eligibility in the Local Context (ELC) program that guaranteed admission to a UC to students that finished in the top 4% of their high school class [10]. Public schools received $8 billion over the minimum required by Proposition 98 during Davis's first term. Davis increased spending on recruiting more and better-qualified teachers. He campaigned to lower the approval threshold for local school bonds from two-thirds to 55 percent in a statewide proposition that passed. Davis earmarked $3 billion over four years for new textbooks and, between 1999 and 2004, has increased state per-pupil spending from $5,756 to $6,922 [54]. UC may refer to: MC++, also μC++ and uC++, an extension of the C++ programming language designed for concurrent programming Microcontroller, as uC derived from μC, a computer-on-a-chip used to control electronic devices Ultra Cricket, a play-by-e-mail cricket game created by Tim Astley Ulcerative... California Proposition 98 requires a minimum percentage of the state budget to be spent on K-14 education (K-12 schools and community colleges) in California. ...


In 2001, Gov. Gray Davis signed Senate Bill 19, which establishes nutritional standards for food at elementary schools and bans the sale of carbonated beverages in elementary and middle schools[55].


Relations with Mexico

Davis sought to improve relations with Mexican President Vincente Fox.
Davis sought to improve relations with Mexican President Vincente Fox.

Early in 1999, Davis sought to improve relations with Mexico. Davis believed that California under Pete Wilson had left millions of dollar of potential trade revenues "on the table" [11]. Ironically, because of Davis' later hard criticisms of Bush during the energy crisis, Davis wanted California to have relations with Mexico that were more similar to Texas under then Governor George Walker Bush [12]. Controversy over the California Mexico border and California Proposition 187 had strained the relationship between the two parties [13]. Davis met with Mexican President Ernesto Zedillo to improve relations with California's southern neighbor and major trading partner within Davis' first 30 days in office [14] [15]. Davis later met with President Vicente Fox and participated in his inauguration. The Governor met with Mexican Presidents eight times. Under the Davis administration, California and Baja California signed a "Memorandum of Understanding" expanding cooperation in several policy areas [16]. Under Davis, Mexico became California's leading export market for the first time in history and California's trade with Mexico surpasses all of Mexico's trade with Latin America, Europe and Asia combined [17]. Because of the growth in the California economy, Davis opened and expanded trade offices around the world, including in Mexico. But most of these offices were eliminated in 2003 California budget due to difficult fiscal times [18]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Vicente Fox Quesada (born July 2, 1942) is the current president of Mexico. ... Peter Barton Wilson (born August 23, 1933) is an American Republican politician from California. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and the 43rd and current President of the United States. ... California Proposition 187 was a 1994 ballot initiative designed to deny illegal immigrants social services, health care, and public education. ... Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (born December 27, 1951) was President of Mexico from 1994 to 2000. ... Vicente Fox Quesada (born July 2, 1942) was the President of Mexico from 2000 to 2006. ... Baja California (literally lower California in Spanish) is the northernmost state of Mexico. ...


Domestic Partnerships

Davis recognized domestic partnerships registry in 1999 and, in 2001, gave partners a few of the rights enjoyed by spouses such as making health care decisions for an incapacitated partner, acting as a conservator and inheriting property [19]. He also signed a bill to prevent disqualification from a jury based on sexual orientation. He signed a bill allowing employees to use family leave to care for a domestic partner though he didn't make good on his promise to convene a task force on civil unions [56].


Guns and Public Safety

He signed laws in 1999 banning so-called assault weapons by characteristic rather than brand name, as well as limiting handgun purchases to one a month, requiring trigger locks with all sales of new firearms and reducing the sale of cheap handguns. Davis' ban included a ban on high-powered weapons and so-called "Saturday Night Specials" [20] [21] In 2001, signed bill requiring gun buyers to pass a safety test.[57]. The package was tough enough to get Davis' mug in Time magazine [58]. A supporter of the death penalty and tougher sentencing laws, Davis blocked nearly all parole recommendations by the parole board [59].


Health, Environment, Business, & Transportation

Davis significantly expanded number of low-income children with state-subsidized health coverage [22]. He signed laws to allow patients to get a second opinion if their HMO denies treatment and, in limited cases, the right to sue [23]. Davis signed legislation that provided HMO patients a bill of rights, including help-line to resolve disputes and independent medical review of claims [24]. Under Davis, staff-to-patient ratios in nursing homes improved. However, Davis didn't expanded low-cost health care to parents of needy children due to budget constraints or prevent millions of health care dollars being returned to federal government unused [60]. HMO can mean the following: Health maintenance organization Houses in multiple occupation Home Media Option (Tivo) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Davis allowed nondisabled low-income people with HIV to be treated under Medi-Cal. He signed law allowing people participating in needle exchange programs to be immune from criminal prosecution. He increased state spending on AIDS prevention [61]. Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Medi-Cal is the name of the Medicaid program in the State of California. ...


Under Governor Davis, California's anti-tobacco campaign became one of the largest and most effective in the nation [25]. R. J. Reynolds and Lorillard Tobacco sued over California's antismoking campaign but their lawsuit was dismissed in July 2003. Davis also authorized new hard-hitting anti-smoking ad that graphically depicts the damage caused by secondhand smoke [26]. Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. ... Richard Joshua R.J. Reynolds (1850-1918) was an American businessman and founder of the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company. ... Tobacco smoking is the act of smoking tobacco products, especially cigarettes and cigars. ...


In September 2002, Governor Davis signed bills to ensure age verification was obtained for cigarettes and other tobacco products sold over the Internet or through the mail, ensured that all state taxes are being fully paid on tobacco purchases, and increased the penalty for possessing or purchasing untaxed cigarettes [27]. He also signed legislation to expand smoke-free zones around public buildings [28][29]. A cigarette will burn to ash on one end. ...


Davis approved legislation creating a telemarketing do-not-call list in 2003 [30]. Under Davis, benefits for injured and unemployed workers increased. The minimum wage increased by $1 to $6.75 [31]. Davis backed higher research and development tax credit. He pushed for elimination of the minimum franchise tax paid by new businesses during the first two years of operation [62].


While Davis's record was environmental by increasing spending on land acquisition and maintenance of the state's park system, signing legislation that attempts to cut greenhouse gas emissions by having automakers produce more efficient vehicles, cutting fees to state parks, and opposing offshore drilling, he did not back tougher restrictions on timber companies as some environmentalists desired [63]. Under the Davis administration, California purchased 10,000 acres (40 km²) for urban parks [32].


Davis signed the first state law in the US in July 2002 to require automakers to limit auto emissions. The law required the California Air Resources Board to obtain the "maximum feasible" cuts in greenhouse gases emitted by all non-commercial vehicles in 2009 and beyond[64]. Automakers claimed the law would lead smaller and more expensive cars sold in California[65]. The law still faces legal challenges and must be granted a waiver by the EPA [33]. EPA redirects here. ...


On March 25, 1999, Davis issued an executive order calling for the remove MTBE (a toxic gasoline additive) from the state's gas [34]. In 2001, in order for gas prices to remain reasonable in California while removing MTBE, Davis asked President Bush to order the EPA to grant California a waiver on the federal minimum oxygen requirement [35]. Without a waiver, California would have to import a much larger amount of ethanol per year and gas prices were projected to increase drastically. Bush did not grant the waiver, and in 2002, Davis issued an executive order reversing his earlier executive order [36]. An executive order is an edict issued by a member of the executive branch of a government, usually the head of that branch. ... MTBE is highly flammable and is widely used as an oxygenate. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and the 43rd and current President of the United States. ... EPA redirects here. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound, and is best known as the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ...

Governor Davis in the California Drivers Guide.

Davis's actions when it came to regulating business suggested that Davis was a more moderate Governor. He worked to kill a comprehensive bill opposed by banks and insurance companies to protect consumers' personal financial information. "What you saw in the campaign was what you got," said professor Bruce Cain. "He's tried to negotiate a course between the different interest groups and keep Democrats on a more centrist, business-oriented track" [66]. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...


Davis approved $5.3 billion over five years for more than 150 transit and highway projects. One of those projects was construction on the new eastern section of the Bay Bridge. During 1999 and 2000, California spent millions on onetime projects like buying new rail cars and track improvements [67]. The Bay Bridge, with the skyline of San Francisco in the background. ...


Declining popularity

In May 2001, in the middle of the California electricity crisis, his numbers plunged to 42% approval, 49% disapproval [37]. By December 2001, Davis' approval ratings spiked up to 51% [38]. His numbers declined back to the May 2001 level and remained about the same over the next year [39]. On April 2003 when he had only 24% approval, 65% disapproval [40] [41]. Voters cited disapproval of the state's record $34.6 billion budget shortfall, growing unemployment, and dubious campaign contributor connections [42]. The California electricity crisis (also known as the Western Energy Crisis) of 2000 and 2001 followed a failed partial-deregulation, in 1996, of the electricity market in the state. ...


Davis had tried to maintain a middle-of-the-road approach, but ultimately alienated many of the state's liberals who viewed him as too conservative, and many conservatives who viewed him as too liberal [43]. Many were upset that in trying to balance the budget, Davis cut spending for schools while increasing spending for prisons despite the fact that in the coming years, a federal court ruling would declare the conditions in California prisons so poor and overcrowded that they were unconstitutional [44]. Some critics attributed the proposal to the California Correctional Peace Officer Associations donations to Davis' re-election campaign [45]. Californians were also upset that he did not announce the record budget deficit until after his re-election [46] [47]. Some critics accused Davis of overstating the budget deficit, so he could cut spending and raise taxes beyond what was necessary and then claim victory when the deficit cleared up [48].


Negative sentiment was express on talk radio [49]. The top-rated John and Ken Show in Los Angeles called Davis Gumby in response to his changing positions on issues, while Mr. KABC and Al Rantel (also in Los Angeles) coined the term Governor Lowbeam as a reference to his mishandling of the electricity crisis and his term as Chief of Staff for Jerry Brown, who was often mocked as Governor Moonbeam [50]. Many talk radio programs played a role in collecting signatures to force a recall election [51] [52]. Talk radio is a radio format which features discussion of topical issues. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Gumby and Pokey This article is about the animated character. ... Marc Germain as Mr. ... Al Rantel (born October 14, 1955) is a conservative talk show host on KABC radio, Los Angeles, California. ...


California electricity crisis

Soon after taking office, Davis was able to fast-track the first power plant construction in twelve years in April 1999 [53], but the plant did not come on line before the electricity crisis though in-state production was not the cause. The California electricity crisis (also known as the Western Energy Crisis) of 2000 and 2001 followed a failed partial-deregulation, in 1996, of the electricity market in the state. ...


Energy producers restricted their supply to the point where they spikes in power usage would cause blackouts. Rolling blackouts affecting 97,000 customers hit the San Francisco Bay area on June 14, 2000, and San Diego Gas & Electric Company filed a complaint alleging market manipulation by some energy producers in August 2000 [54]. On December 7, 2000, suffering from low supply and idled power plants, the California Independent System Operator (ISO), which manages the California power grid, declared the first statewide Stage 3 power alert, meaning power reserves were below 3 percent. Rolling blackouts were avoided when the state halted two large state and federal water pumps to conserve electricity [55]. An Independent System Operator (ISO) is an organization formed at the direction or recommendation of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). ...

Windmill field outside Palm Springs. Hot temperatures were thought to be pushing California to rolling blackouts though it was later discovered that market minipulation was the cause.
Windmill field outside Palm Springs. Hot temperatures were thought to be pushing California to rolling blackouts though it was later discovered that market minipulation was the cause.

In January 17, 2001, the electricity crisis caused Davis to declare a state of emergency. Speculators, led by Enron Corporation, were collectively making large profits while the state teetered on the edge for weeks, and finally suffered rolling blackouts on January 17 and 18 [56]. Davis stepped in to buy power at highly unfavorable terms on the open market, since the California power companies were technically bankrupt and had no buying power. California agreed to pay $43 billion for power over the next 20 years [57]. Newspaper publishers sued Davis to force him to make public the details of the energy deal [68]. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Enron Corporation was an energy company based in Houston, Texas. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ...


During the electricity crisis, the Davis administration implemented a power conservation program that included television ads and financial incentives to reduce energy consumption. These efforts, the fear of rolling blackouts, and the increased cost of electricity resulted in a 14.1% reduction in electricity usage from June 2000 to June 2001 [58].


Gray Davis critics often charge that he did not respond properly to the crisis, while his defenders attribute the crisis solely to the corporate accounting scandals and say that Davis did all he could. Some critics on the left, such as Arianna Huffington, alleged that Davis was lulled to inaction by campaign contributions from energy producers.[69] Some of Davis' energy advisors were formerly employed by the same energy speculators who made millions from the crisis. In addition, the Democrat-controlled legislature would sometimes push Davis to act decisively by taking over power plants which were known to have been gamed and place them back under control of the utilities . Some conservatives argued that Davis signed overpriced energy contracts, employed incompetent negotiators, and refused to allow prices to rise for residences statewide much like they did in San Diego, which they argue could have given Davis more leverage against the energy traders and encouraged more conservation.[70] The electricity crisis is considered one of the major factors that lead to Davis' recall. Accounting scandals, or corporate accounting scandals are political and business scandals which arise with the disclosure of misdeeds by trusted executives of large public corporations. ... Arianna Huffington (born Arianna Stassinopoulos (Greek: Αριάννα Στασινόπουλου) on July 15, 1950 in Athens, Greece) is an author and nationally syndicated columnist in the United States. ... Campaign finance refers to the means by which money is raised for political election campaigns. ...


In a speech at UCLA on August 19, 2003, Davis apologized for being slow to act during the energy crisis, but then forcefully attacked the Houston-based energy suppliers: "I inherited the energy deregulation scheme which put us all at the mercy of the big energy producers. We got no help from the Federal government. In fact, when I was fighting Enron and the other energy companies, these same companies were sitting down with Vice President Cheney to draft a national energy strategy" [59]. Binomial name Ucla xenogrammus Holleman, 1993 The largemouth triplefin, Ucla xenogrammus, is a fish of the family Tripterygiidae and only member of the genus Ucla, found in the Pacific Ocean from Viet Nam, the Philippines, Palau and the Caroline Islands to Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Christmas Island), and the... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Houston redirects here. ... Enron Creditors Recovery Corporation (formerly Enron Corporation) (former NYSE ticker symbol: ENE) was an American energy company based in Houston, Texas. ... A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ...

Headline in the Houston Chronicle, Lay and Skilling were convicted of market manipulation.

When the Enron verdicts was rendered years later, convicting Enron and other companies of market manipulation, Davis responded with the following quote: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Houston Chronicle is a daily newspaper in Houston, Texas, United States. ...

Ken Lay and Jeffrey Skilling, more than anyone, are the reason I'm talking to you now from this law firm [71].

On November 13, 2003, shortly before leaving office, Davis officially brought the energy crisis to an end by issuing a proclamation ending the state of emergency he declared on January 17, 2001. The state of emergency allowed the state to buy electricity for the financially strapped utility companies. The emergency authority allowed Davis to order the California Energy Commission to streamline the application process for new power plants. During that time, California issued licenses to 38 new power plants, amounting to 14,365 megawatts of electricity production when completed [60]. Kenneth Lee Lay (born April 15, 1942) is an American businessman and former CEO of Enron Corporation. ... Jeffrey Keith Jeff Skilling (born November 25, 1953) was the CEO of Enron Corporation in 2001. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The California Energy Commission is California’s primary energy policy and planning agency. ...


In 2006, the Los Angeles Times published an article that credited Davis' signing of the long term projects for preventing future blackouts and providing California a cheap supply of energy with the increasing costs of energy [72]. This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ...


Budget Crisis

During the economic boom years of the Davis administration, the California budget expanded to cover Davis's new programs. California's low national K-12 education rankings and Davis's campaign pledge to help education, along with the large majority that elected Davis to his first term and his early popularity, suggest that a majority of Californians supported increases in education spending during the early part of his first term when California was in budget surplus. Polls also showed that increased spending in education was supported by the California voters [61]. Under the Davis administration, taxes were cut by over $5.1 billion that included a $3.5 billion cut in sales tax and a reducation in the vechile licensing fees [62] [63]. The cut in sales taxes was mandated due to a 1991 law that required sales taxes to be reduced a quarter percent when budget reserves exceed 4 percent of the state general fund for two straight fiscal years which they did in 1999 and 2000 [64]. Davis also vetoed $5.1 billion in appropriations during that span [65].


While California's economy was expanding, California was producing record budget surpluses under Davis even after his tax cuts and new spending. According to the California Department of Finance, California had a 10% surplus at the end of 1999 and California was projected to have a 4% surplus at the end fiscal year 2000 [66]. These surplus monies were left in the treasury. Davis claimed to be catious with state finances.

"I’m trying to chart a prudent course and keep us somewhere in the middle. I don’t want to jump the gun on spending; I don’t want to jump the gun on tax relief," said Davis concerning the budget surpluses on October 26, 2000

[67].


Then, the dot-com boom that had been fueling California's record tax revenues burst unexpectedly because of the large number of high tech firms in California and California's dependence on state income taxes. Because of the loss of state revenue associated with Proposition 13, California became more dependent on state income taxes. When the dot-com boom turned to bust, state revenues fell while ongoing spending commitments created deficits that still trouble California's state budget. Restoring the licensing fees to pre tax cut levels to close the budget gap and stabilize the state's credit rating became unpopular [73] [68]. redirect California_Proposition_13_(1978) ...


2002 Reelection

Davis began fundraising for his 2002 reelection campaign early in his governorship. In 1999, Davis raised $13.2 and in 2000 Davis raised $14.2 million, both unprecedented sums at the time so early in an elected term [74]. Davis's 1999 and 2000 contributions included contributions from Pacific Gas & Electric and Edison International [75]. Davis also received large contributions from labor groups, environmental groups, and individuals [76]. California gubernatorial election, 2002 November 5, 2002 Gray Davis was re-elected to a second 4 year term as California governor. ...

Arnoldwatch.org, part of their home page is pictured here, was one group that was critical of Davis's fundraising efforts.
Arnoldwatch.org, part of their home page is pictured here, was one group that was critical of Davis's fundraising efforts.

Davis' fundraising efforts attracted much attention. University of California Berkeley's Institute of Government Studies claimed that Davis' fundraising skills were "second to none in the political arena" [77]. One article in the San Francisco Chronicle claimed that Davis was raising $34,000 a day [78]. Senator John McCain called Davis' 2001 goal of $26 million "disgraceful" [79]. Although Davis' fundraising pace was criticized by his many detractors, Arnold Schwarzenegger would later collect contributions at a quicker rate during the early years of his governorship [80]. Now Arnoldwatch.org, a project of the Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights which is a nonpartisan organization that is critical of both Democrats and Republicans, called Davis a "pay to play" politician and a "sellout" [81]. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as Cal, UC Berkeley, UCB, or simply Berkeley) is a prestigious, public, coeducational university situated in the foothills of Berkeley, California to the east of San Francisco Bay, overlooking the Golden Gate and its bridge. ... “McCain” redirects here. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German pronunciation (IPA): ) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, actor, and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ...


During the 2002 election campaign, Davis took the unusual step of taking out campaign ads during the Republican primaries against Los Angeles mayor Richard Riordan. Davis claimed that Riordan had attacked his record and that his campaign was defending his record [69]. Polls showed that, as a moderate, Riordan would be a more formidable challenger in the general election than a conservative candidate. Polls even showed that Riordan would defeat Davis [70]. Davis attacked Riordian with negative ads in the primary. The ads questioned Riordan's pro-choice stance by questioning Riordan's support of pro-life politicians and judges [71] [72]. The ads pointed out Riordan's position of wanting a moratorium on the death penalty as being to the left of Gray Davis, who strongly supported it [73] [74] [75]. A primary election is an election in which voters in a jurisdiction select candidates for a subsequent election (nominating primary). ... Richard J. Riordan (born May 1, 1930) is a Republican politician from California, U.S. who served as the California Secretary of Education from 2003–2005 and as Mayor of Los Angeles from 1993–2001. ...


Davis' negative ads against Riordan and a variety of other equally important factors explained on the 2002 election page, lead to Riordan's defeat in the Republican primary by the more staunchly conservative candidate Bill Simon. Bill Simon, in mid-2005 William E. Simon, Jr. ...


Davis was re-elected in the November 2002 general election following a long and bitter campaign against Simon, marked by accusations of ethical lapses on both sides and widespread voter apathy [76]. Simon was also hurt by a financial fraud scandal that tarnished Simon's reputation [82]. Davis' campaign featured several negative ads that highlighted Simon's financial fraud scandal [83]. The 2002 gubernatorial race was the most expensive in California state history with over $100 million spent [77]. Davis' campaign was better financed; Davis had over $26 in campaign reserves more than Simon in August 2006 [84]. Davis gained re-election with 47.4% of the vote to Simon's 42.4%. However, the Simon-Davis race led in the lowest turnout percentage in modern gubernatorial history, allowing a lower than normal amount of signatures required for a recall [78]. Davis won the election but majority of the voters disliked Davis and did not approve of his job performance [79] [80].


Other challenges

While polls attributed Davis' declining popularity to the energy and budget problems, some newspaper articles and commentators have identified other issues of Davis' tenure that limited his effectiveness and political appeal. Davis had some trouble in his relations with the California legislature. There were disagreements between the more moderate Davis and the more liberal Democrat-controlled Legislature [85]. In 1999, he told The San Francisco Chronicle's editorial board that the Legislature's job was to "implement my vision" but the legislature often had trouble understanding Davis' vision. Davis rarely took positions on bills before they reached his desk [86]. Democrat John L. Burton, the leader of the California State Senate, was Davis' chief antagonist [87]. In 2003, Republican leader Jim Brulte told The Los Angeles Times that Davis lacked the basics of political collegiality to pull him through hard times. "I never felt I got to know him ... I always felt a little sorry for him" [88]. John Burton was a California State Senator from 1997 until 2005. ... California State Senate chamber The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature. ... Jim Brulte (born April 13, 1956) is a Republican U.S. politician, who served as a California State Senator representing the 31st district, from 1996 to 2004. ...


Davis' moderate record made it difficult for him to appeal to any core constituency of the democratic party. During the recall, Davis failed to gain the full support he needed from his more liberal democratic base [89]. He got the reputation of being beholden to supporters and unable to satisfy them [90].


Davis' leadership and compromise building skills have also been questioned. Many of the challenges that California faced during the Davis' years required a strong force of personality to forge compromise but Davis lacked such skill[91]. Davis was also hurt by redistricting in 2000 that made most districts safe for the incumbent party, limiting some legislators need and willingness to compromise[92].


Davis' personality was often reported to be aloof and his political style cautious and calculated instead of charismatic and someone the voters and who worked with Davis could identify [93]. Davis' personality caused Davis to depend more on political skill such as fundraising to win elections [94]. Davis' management style and his tendency to micromanage his administration drove people out of his administration and made it difficult for people to present opposing views [95].


As Davis left office in 2003, the San Francisco Chronicle published an editorial discussing the legacy of Davis. The newspaper claimed that Davis lacked vision, allowing the legislature and its policies define his tenure, and focused on "robotic governing style" that focused on fundraising instead of personal relationships. The Chronicle commented that Davis was often on the right side of the issues but that being on the right side of the issues alienated the electorate. Davis lacked the charisma and seemed to be more passionate about winning campaigns than governing [96]. Davis never revealed emotion to the voters. [97]. He often could only spend time on his campaigns talking about his accomplishments instead of providing the voters with a vision [81].


Second Term

Davis's second term lasted only ten months because of the recall and it was dominated by the recall election. Davis signed into law several controversial measures during the closing weeks of the recall campaign, including one granting drivers' licenses to illegal immigrants. Davis also signed legislation to requires employers to pay for medical insurance for workers and legislation grant domestic partners many of the same rights as married people. He vetoed legislation giving illegal immigrants free tuition for community college. Many of Davis's opponents were furious over the signings of these measures during the final weeks of the Davis administration[98]. Some political observers say these efforts as an attempt to reenforce support from Hispanics, labor union members, and liberal wing democrats.[99] Ultimately, Davis did not have as much support from Hispanics and union members in the recall election as he did in his 2002 re-election.[100]

Governor-elect Arnold Schwarzenegger, President George W. Bush, and Governor Gray Davis speak to firefighters on November 4, 2003.
Governor-elect Arnold Schwarzenegger, President George W. Bush, and Governor Gray Davis speak to firefighters on November 4, 2003.

Davis was Governor during the southern California fires of 2003 more commonly known as the Cedar Fire. Davis declared a state of emergency in Los Angeles County, San Bernardino County, San Diego County, and Ventura County in October 2003 and deployed the national guard to help in disaster relief. By mid November, the greater South Los Angeles area had been declared a disaster area to help the area cope with flooding and weather related damage due to the fires destroying thousands of acres of vegetation[101]. The Cedar Fire was Davis' last major event during his tenure as Governor. With Schwarzenegger as the Governor elect, both Davis and Schwarzenegger worked to help in disaster relief. Schwarzenegger went to Washington D.C. and met Dick Cheney to lobby the federal government for more disaster relief funds. Californias Republican Governor-elect Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and outgoing Democratic Governor Gray Davis (right) listen as Republican U.S. President George W. Bush (center) speaks to firefighters on November 4, 2003 in El Cajon, California. ... Californias Republican Governor-elect Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and outgoing Democratic Governor Gray Davis (right) listen as Republican U.S. President George W. Bush (center) speaks to firefighters on November 4, 2003 in El Cajon, California. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German pronunciation (IPA): ) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, actor, and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ...


Recall

In July 2003, a sufficient number of citizen signatures were collected for a recall election. The initial drive for the recall was fueled by funds from the personal fortune of U.S. Rep. Darrell Issa, a Republican who originally hoped to replace Davis himself. The 2003 California recall special election constituted the first gubernatorial recall in Californian history, and only the second in U.S. history. The first occurred in North Dakota in 1921 and previous efforts in California failed to collect the required signatures. The 2003 California recall was a special election permitted under California law. ... A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office. ... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... Darrell E. Issa (pronounced Eye-suh) (born November 1, 1953) is an American politician and former CEO of a consumer electronics company. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ...


Early in the recall election, Davis called the recall election an “insult” to the eight million voters who had voted in the 2002 gubernatorial election [102]. The Davis campaign tried to run against the recall Yes/No vote instead of against the candidates that were trying to replace him [103]. Davis tried to depict the recall as a $66 million waste of money that could allow a candidate with a very small percentage of the vote to become Governor—potentially someone who was very liberal or conservative [104]. There are no primaries in a recall election. Davis tried to run “outside the recall circus” and to make himself appear gubernatorial and hard at work for California [105]. Early August polls showed that over 50% supported the recall.


In September 2003, Davis conceded that he had lost touch with the voters and he was trying to correct that with numerous townhall meetings [106]. Poll numbers in September showed a 3% drop in the number of California voters who were planning to vote yes on the recall [107]. According to some analysts and campaign aides, Davis's town hall meetings and conversations with voters were softening his image [108]. Many political insiders remarked that Davis had made several comebacks and that he should not be counted out of the race despite poll numbers that showed over 50% planning to vote yes on the recall [109] [110] [111].

Headlines of Gray Davis' defeat in UC Berkeley's newspaper, the Daily Californian.
Headlines of Gray Davis' defeat in UC Berkeley's newspaper, the Daily Californian.

During the recall, Davis blamed some of the state’s problems on his predecessor Pete Wilson [112]. Davis claimed that he would have rather raised taxes on the upper tax brackets instead of restoring vehicle registration fees and college student tuition [113]. California law requires legislation that raises taxes to gain a 2/3 majority in the legislature and Davis could not gain that majority in the California legislature because that majority would require many Republican votes and the Republican members were firmly against any tax increases. Raising fees only require a simple majority in the legislature. Image File history File links Gray_Davis_Terminated. ... Image File history File links Gray_Davis_Terminated. ... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as Cal, UC Berkeley, UCB, or simply Berkeley) is a prestigious, public, coeducational university situated in the foothills of Berkeley, California to the east of San Francisco Bay, overlooking the Golden Gate and its bridge. ... The Daily Californian (or Daily Cal) is an independent, student-run newspaper that serves the University of California, Berkeley campus and its surrounding community. ...


Davis tried to define the recall as a right-wing effort to rewrite history after losing the fall election last year [114]. In a major 19 minute campaign address that was broadcasted statewide, Davis called the recall a "right- wing power grab" by Republicans and he blamed Republicans in the legislature and in Washington for many of the states problems while at the same time he tried to take some of the responsibility for the states' problems [82].

"It's like the Oakland Raiders saying to Tampa Bay, 'We know you beat us, but we want to play the Super Bowl again,"' said Davis about the recall.

[115].


Davis became the first governor in California history to be recalled. On October 7, 2003, Davis was recalled with 55.4% of the votes in favor of the recall, and Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger was elected to replace him as governor. Davis' final day in office was November 16, 2003 [83]. is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German pronunciation (IPA): ) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, actor, and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ...


On the night of the recall, Davis conceded defeat and thanked California for having elected him in 5 statewide elections. Davis continued to tout what he defined as the accomplishments of his administration such as improvements in education, environmental protection, and health insurance for children [84]. Davis said he would help Schwarzenegger in the transition and he later urged his staff to do the same [85].


Life after politics

After leaving public office, Davis appeared on several shows, such as The Tonight Show and The Late Show with David Letterman, as well as a cameo as himself on CBS sitcom Yes, Dear. In December 2004 he announced that he was joining the law firm of Loeb & Loeb. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Late Show with David Letterman is an hour-long weeknight comedy and talk show broadcast by CBS from the Ed Sullivan Theater on Broadway in New York City. ... Peter Jackson in The Fellowship of the Ring (top), The Two Towers (middle) and The Return of the King (bottom). ... CBS Broadcasting, Inc. ... Yes, Dear is an American television sitcom which aired from 2000 to 2006 on CBS. It starred Anthony Clark, Jean Louisa Kelly, Mike OMalley and Liza Snyder. ...


At Loeb & Loeb, Davis spends 80% of his workdays practicing corporate law as "of counsel" to Loeb & Loeb in Century City, a firm where attorneys wear casual attire, even Davis, and which American Lawyer magazine called one of "best places" in the country to work [116].


Davis has also been in the media since being recalled. Aside from the aforementioned television cameos, he has done many news media interviews about his legacy. He appeared prominently in the documentary Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room.


The debate remains about his legacy and role regarding the energy woes that proved to be his downfall. According to CNN, Davis feels complete vindication because of the revelation that Enron manipulated the California energy market and because of Schwarzenegger's (then) low approval ratings. In a CNN interview on 5 August 2005, Davis noted that although he had been urged to run for Governor of California again by some Democrats, he had no interest in running. Asked about these Democrats' "draft" movement, he told CNN jokingly that, "I'm not running for Governor," he continued, "If I did, my wife would divorce me."


He was a guest lecturer at UCLA's School of Public Policy in 2006 along side Republican and former California State Senator Jim Brulte. He wrote an introduction for a journalist's book on the Amber Alert system for missing children, a cause he championed [117]. The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... California State Senate chamber The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature. ... Jim Brulte (born April 13, 1956) is a Republican U.S. politician, who served as a California State Senator representing the 31st district, from 1996 to 2004. ... Mrs. ...


On April 23, 2007, Davis was appointed to the Board of Directors of animation company DiC Entertainment, as a non-executive.[118] The DiC Incredible World logo used from late 2001 to present. ...


References

  1. ^ Headlines in search show improved relations
  2. ^ Ballon, Marc. "Davis Loyalists Give Gruz Cold Shoulder." JewishJournal.com. Copyright 2006-2007. http://www.jewishjournal.com/home/preview.php?id=11150. Accessed September 17, 2007.
  3. ^ Salladay, Robert. "STATE OF TRANSITION: End of the Davis era, Tempered temperament led state." The San Francisco Chronicle. Wednesday, November 12, 2003. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2003/11/12/MNGCC2VVFM1.DTL&hw=Davis+declares+energy+state+of+emergency&sn=001&sc=1000. Accessed on August 22, 2007.
  4. ^ CNN.com. "Davis: A shining resume, a resounding defeat." Wednesday, October 8, 2003 Posted: 12:03 PM EDT (1603 GMT). © 2005 Cable News Network LP, LLLP. A Time Warner Company. http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/10/07/davis.bio/. Accessed on August 22, 2007.
  5. ^ Chorneau, Tom. “Davis’ career one of survival despite long odds.” Associated Press State & Local Wire. Wednesday, September 10, 2003. Copyright 2003 Associated Press. Accessed on LexisNexis on August 11, 2007.
  6. ^ League of Women Voters, Smart Voters. "Full Biography for Gray Davis, November 5, 2002 Election." Created from information supplied by the candidate: August 19, 2002 18:12. Copyright © League of Women Voters of California Education Fund. www.smartvoter.org/2002/11/05/ca/state/vote/davis_g/bio.html. Accessed August 22, 2007
  7. ^ Chorneau, Tom. “Davis’ career one of survival despite long odds.” Associated Press State & Local Wire. Wednesday, September 10, 2003. Copyright 2003 Associated Press. Accessed on LexisNexis on August 11, 2007.
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  14. ^ [Davis&total=237&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=0 Interview with Gray Davis
  15. ^ http://www.californiagovernors.ca.gov/h/biography/governor_37.html
  16. ^ [Davis&total=237&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=0 Interview with Gray Davis
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  18. ^ [Davis&total=237&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=0 Interview with Gray Davis
  19. ^ [Davis&total=237&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=0 Interview with Gray Davis
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  21. ^ Interview of Gray Davis as Jerry Brown's chief of staff
  22. ^ Interview with Gray Davis Part II
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News articles

Political History

Political offices
Preceded by
'
Chief of Staff, Governor Jerry Brown
1974–1981
Succeeded by
'
Preceded by
Howard Berman
California State Assemblyman, 43rd District
1982–1986
Succeeded by
Terry Friedman
Preceded by
Kenneth Cory
California State Controller
1987–1995
Succeeded by
Kathleen Connell
Preceded by
Leo T. McCarthy
Lieutenant Governor of California
1995–1999
Succeeded by
Cruz Bustamante
Preceded by
Peter B. Wilson
Governor of California
1999 – 2003
Succeeded by
Arnold Schwarzenegger
Persondata
NAME Davis, Gray
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Davis, Joseph Graham, Jr. (full name)
SHORT DESCRIPTION California politician
DATE OF BIRTH December 26, 1942
PLACE OF BIRTH New York City, New York, United States
DATE OF DEATH living
PLACE OF DEATH

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Gray Davis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1750 words)
Davis, a Democrat, was succeeded by Republican Arnold A. Schwarzenegger on November 17, 2003.
Davis theorized that, as a moderate, Riordan could be a more formidable challenger in the general election than a conservative candidate, and sought to eliminate him in the primaries.
On October 7, 2003, Davis was recalled with 55.4% of the votes in favoring of the recall, and Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger was elected to replace him as governor.
Gray Davis - definition of Gray Davis in Encyclopedia (1234 words)
Davis was also criticized for continuing to raise spending in the state budget while revenues were dropping.
Davis knew that, as a moderate, Riordan would be a more formidable challenger in the general election than a conservative candidate, and sought to eliminate him in the primaries.
This strategy succeeded, and Davis was re-elected in November 2002 following a long and bitter campaign against Republican candidate Bill Simon, marked by accusations of ethical lapses on both sides and widespread voter apathy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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