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Encyclopedia > Gray's Anatomy
An illustration from the 1918 edition
An illustration from the 1918 edition

Henry Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body (or 'Gray's Anatomy' as it has more commonly become known) is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. The book was first published under the title Gray's Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical in Great Britain in 1858, and the following year in the United States. While studying the anatomical effects of infectious disease, Gray contracted Smallpox from his dying nephew and died shortly after the publication of the 1860 second edition, at the age of 34. Work on his much-praised book was continued by others and on November 24, 2004, the 39th British edition was released. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (650x831, 78 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (650x831, 78 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Origins of Gray's Anatomy

Henry Gray
Henry Gray

The English anatomist Henry Gray was born in 1825 or 1827. He studied the development of the endocrine glands and spleen and in 1853 was appointed Lecturer on Anatomy at St. George's Hospital Medical School in London. In 1855 he approached his colleague Dr Henry Vandyke Carter with his idea to produce an anatomy text book for medical students. His death came just 3 years after the publication of his Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical. Image File history File links Henry_Gray_bw_photo_portrait. ... Image File history File links Henry_Gray_bw_photo_portrait. ... Henry Gray Henry Gray (1825?–1861) was an English anatomist and surgeon and also elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) at the extremely young age of 33. ... St Georges, University of London (SGUL) is a specialist medical college of the University of London. ...


British and United States editions

Between 1860 and 1880 seven editions of the text book were published in Great Britain, with the 9th edition published in 1880. It was during this period that development of the book appears to have branched with the publishing of the first dedicated U.S. edition of the book, possibly in 1878 (details on this are scarce and hard to come by). While development of the British edition of the text continued (and new British editions continued to appear), different U.S. editions were also published. 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The 1878 U.S. edition appears to have started edition numbering afresh (despite the British version's prior publication in the U.S.). This "first" U.S. edition roughly corresponded to the eighth British edition, with consecutively numbered further U.S. editions appearing thereafter. This led to the existence, for many years, of two main "flavours" or "branches" of Gray's Anatomy: the U.S. and the British one. This can easily cause misunderstandings and confusion, especially when quoting from or trying to purchase a certain edition.


Most recent available editions

An illustration from the 1918 edition.
An illustration from the 1918 edition.

As of February 2005, the latest edition of Gray's Anatomy is the 39th edition, published on November 25, 2004 in the UK and November 24, 2004 in the U.S., which is also available in CD-ROM format. The publisher is Churchill Livingstone in the UK while it is C.V. Mosby in the U.S., and is published in New York City. The two books are almost identical, with minor changes made to take into account differences in British and American terminology (e.g. Adrenaline vs Epinephrine). Image File history File links Gray190. ... Image File history File links Gray190. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 2005 : ← - January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December - → Pope John Paul II is taken to a hospital suffering from a serious case of influenza. ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... Imprint of a medical publishing company owned by Elsevier Ltd, but previously owned by Harcourt and Pearsons. ... Epinephrine (INN) or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ...


A version of Gray's Anatomy called Gray's Anatomy for Students has also been published. It was published on October 5, 2004 in the United Kingdom and October 15, 2004 in the United States, by Churchill Livingstone. However, it should be noted that this is an entirely new book, written from scratch, sharing only the name of the classic. October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (279th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Imprint of a medical publishing company owned by Elsevier Ltd, but previously owned by Harcourt and Pearsons. ...


Older editions of the book continue to be reprinted and sold. On the World Wide Web, there are many offers for what seem to be reprints of the 1901 (probably U.S.) edition. Although such prints may serve artistic uses because their companion illustrations and anatomical cross sections are renowned for their rustic and often haunting presentation, they no longer represent up-to-date anatomical knowledge. WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (or the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents that runs over the Internet. ... A reprint is a re-publishing of material that has already been previously published. ... A 3-D view of a beverage-can stove with a cross section in yellow. ...


Henry Gray wrote the original version of Gray's Anatomy with an audience of medical students and physicians in mind, especially surgeons. For many decades however, precisely because Gray's textbook became such a classic, successive editors made major efforts to preserve its position as possibly the most authoritative text on the subject in the English language. Toward this end, a long term strategy appears to have been to have the book contain a fully comprehensive account of the anatomical and medical knowledge available at the time of publication of each edition. The senior editor of the latest edition of Gray's Anatomy is Susan Standring, who is Head of the Department of Anatomy and Human Sciences at King's College London. Henry Gray Henry Gray (1825?–1861) was an English anatomist and surgeon and also elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) at the extremely young age of 33. ... Medical school generally refers to a tertiary educational institution (or part of such an institution) which is involved in the education of future medical practitioners (medical doctors). ... The Doctor by Samuel Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Kings College London is the largest college of the University of London and one of a number of university institutions founded in England in the early 19th century: only the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge have royal charters predating that of Kings. ...


Keeping in mind the explosion of medical knowledge in the 20th century, it is easily appreciated that this led to a vast expansion of the book, which threatened to collapse under its own weight in a metaphorical and physical sense. From the 35th edition onward, increased efforts have been made to reverse this trend and keep the book readable by students. Nevertheless, the 38th edition contained 2092 pages in large format. This edition still might best serve as an "ultimate reference" and has been described as the Bible of anatomy. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Look up metaphor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Newer editions of Gray's Anatomy (and even several older ones) are (still) considered to be about the most comprehensive and detailed books of such type on the subject.


Gray's Anatomy in popular culture

Greys Anatomy is an Emmy and Golden Globe award-winning American primetime television medical drama. ... The Sisters of Mercy are a rock band that emerged out of the English post-punk scene in 1980-1981. ... Sweets and Sour Marge is an episode of The Simpsons. ... The Simpsons. ... Dr. Nick Riviera (voiced by Hank Azaria) is a character in the long-running animated TV show The Simpsons. ... Catch Me If You Can is a 2002 motion picture set in the 1960s. ... A janitors bucket with mop A janitor is a person who takes care of a building, such as a school, office building, or apartment block. ... Some Assembly Required is episode 2 of season 2 of Buffy the Vampire Slayer. ... Buffy the Vampire Slayer is an American cult television series that aired from March 10, 1997 until May 20, 2003. ... The Cider House Rules book cover This article relates to the novel, The Cider House Rules by John Irving. ... ER is a long-running, award winning American serial medical drama created by novelist Michael Crichton and set primarily in the emergency room of fictional County General Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. ... Dr. Peter Benton was a fictional surgeon on the television series ER from season one through season eight. ... Dr. John Carter is a fictional medical doctor from the television series ER. He is portrayed by Noah Wyle. ... A medical drama is a television drama in which events center upon a hospital, an ambulance staff, or any other medical environment. ... House, also known as House, M.D., is a critically-acclaimed American medical drama television series created by David Shore and executive produced by Shore and film director Bryan Singer. ... Dr. Gregory House is a fictional character and protagonist of the Fox medical drama House. ... Dr. James Wilson is a fictional character on the Fox medical drama House. ... The starship Voyager (NCC-74656), an Intrepid-class starship. ... In the Star Trek fictional universe, the Emergency Medical Hologram or EMH (full name: EMH Program AK-1 Diagnostic and Surgical Subroutine Omega-323) is a holographic program intended to support or replace medical personnel aboard a Starfleet vessel or installation in case of emergency. ... The Addams Family is the creation of American cartoonist Charles Addams. ... Gomez Addams is the fictional patriarch of The Addams Family, created by cartoonist Charles Addams for The New Yorker magazine in the 1930s. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Cover of Encyclopedia Brown: Boy Detective Leroy Encyclopedia Brown is a fictional boy detective, the main character in a long series of childrens books written by Donald J. Sobol since 1963. ... Gray in Grays Anatomy (1996). ... Grays Anatomy is an 80-minute movie directed by Steven Soderbergh in 1996 involving a dramatized monologue by actor/writer Spalding Gray. ... Steven Andrew Soderbergh (born January 14, 1963 in Atlanta, Georgia) is an American film producer, screenwriter, cinematographer, editor, and Oscar-winning director. ...

See also

The major systems of the human body are: Cardiovascular system: the blood circulation with heart, arteries and veins Digestive system: processing food with mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines. ... List of images and subjects in Grays Anatomy See also List of subjects in Grays Anatomy: Alphabetical Categories: | ...

External links and references

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Gray's Anatomy plates
  • Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Medicine and Surgery, 39th edition (2004), 1600 pages, Churchill-Livingstone, ISBN 0-443-07168-3 — the U.K version.
  • Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice, 39th edition (2004), 1627 pages, C.V. Mosby, ISBN 0-443-07168-3 — the U.S. version.
  • Publisher's page for the U.K. 39th edition (book, ISBN 0-443-07168-3)
  • Publisher's page for the U.S. 39th version (book, ISBN 0-443-07168-3)
  • Publisher's page for the 39th edition's CD-ROM format (CD-ROM, ISBN 0-443-06675-2)
  • http://www.bartleby.com/107/ — The complete 20th U.S. edition of Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body, published in 1918, the content of which is in the public domain.
  • http://www.graysanatomyonline.com/content/0443066760/suppfiles/HistoricalIntro.pdf — A comprehensive history of the British Edition of the book
  • Online version of Gray's Anatomy from Yahoo

  Results from FactBites:
 
Powell's Books - Grays Anatomy the Classic Collectors Edition by Henry Gray (282 words)
Gray's Anatomy has been an international bestseller for 100 years; its appeal is not only to physicians and students, but to artists and the medically curious.
It was Gray's Anatomy that occupied most of the embryonic physician's waking hours, whether at home or at the side of his cadaver.
There have been synopses of anatomy and there have been monographs on various regions of the body.
Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body (314 words)
Anatomy—branch of biology concerned with the study of body structure of various organisms, including humans
The Bartleby.com edition of Gray’s Anatomy of the Human Body features 1,247 vibrant engravings—many in color—from the classic 1918 publication, as well as a subject index with 13,000 entries ranging from the Antrum of Highmore to the Zonule of Zinn.
THOROUGHLY REVISED AND RE-EDITED BY WARREN H. PHILADELPHIA: LEA and FEBIGER, 1918
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