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Encyclopedia > Gravel
Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm)
Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm)

Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. In geology, gravel is any loose rock that is at least two millimeters (2mm) in its largest dimension (about 1/12 of an inch) and no more than 75 millimeters (about 3 inches). Sometimes gravel is restricted to rock in the 2-4 millimeter range, with pebble being reserved for rock 4-75 millimeters (some say 64 millimeters). The next smaller size class in geology is sand, which is 0.063 mm to 2 mm in size. The next larger size is cobble, which is 75 (64) millimeters to 256 millimeters (about three to ten inches). One cubic foot (28.32 dm3) of gravel typically weighs about 100 pounds (45 kg) [1]. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 610 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 610 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Particle size, also called grain size, refers to the diameter of individual grains of sediment, or the lithified particles in clastic rocks. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This balancing rock, Steamboat Rock stands in Garden of the Gods park in Colorado Springs, CO The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... Sea wave polishing pebbles into rounded corners Pebbles For other uses, see Pebble (disambiguation). ... Patterns in the sand Sand is a granular material made up of fine rock particles. ... Cobble is a geologic term for a rock or rock fragment with a grain size with dimensions between 64–256 mm (2. ...

A gravel road in Terre Haute, Indiana.
A gravel road in Terre Haute, Indiana.
Gravel being unloaded from a barge

In Britain, gravel always refers to smooth, rounded, river-worn material, never to angular stones or crushed rock. British gravel ranges in size from 4 mm to about 30 mm, the smaller sizes up to 8 mm are usually called 'pea gravel'. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... gravel being unshiped File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ...


Gravel is an important commercial product, used in many applications.


Many roadways are surfaced with gravel, especially in rural areas where there is little traffic. Globally, far more roads are surfaced with gravel than with concrete or tarmac; Russia alone has over 400,000 km of gravel-surfaced roads. Mountain road with hairpin turns in the French Alps For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ... This article is about the American English usage of pavement as the durable surfacing of roads and walkways. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China An artists rendering of an aerial view of the Maryland countryside: Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank, 1918-1986), Aerial Series: Ploughed Fields, Maryland, 1974, acrylic and mixed materials on apertured double canvas, 52... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Contents

Geological Formation

Large gravel deposits are a common geological feature, being formed as a result of the weathering and erosion of rocks. The action of rivers and waves tends to pile up gravel in large accumulations. This can sometimes result in gravel becoming compacted and concreted into the sedimentary rock called conglomerate. Where natural gravel deposits are insufficient for human purposes, gravel is often produced by quarrying and crushing hard-wearing rocks, such as sandstone, limestone, or basalt. Quarries where gravel is extracted are known as gravel pits. Southern England possesses particularly large concentrations of them due to the widespread deposition of gravel in the region during the Ice Ages. A conglomerate with iron oxide cementing material Conglomerate, Submarine Landslide located at Point Reyes, Marin County California. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ...


Etymology

The word comes from the French gravelle, meaning 'coarse sand'.


Types of gravel

Gravel with stones sized roughly between 5 and 15 millimeter.
Gravel with stones sized roughly between 5 and 15 millimeter.
Disused gravel pit in Lower Saxony, Germany

Multiple types of gravel have been recognized, including: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution (3039 × 2014 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution (3039 × 2014 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Kiesgrube. ... Image File history File links Kiesgrube. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ...

  • Bank gravel: gravel intermixed with sand or clay.
  • Bench gravel: a bed of gravel located on the side of a valley above the present stream bottom, indicating the former location of the stream bed when it was at a higher level.
  • Creek rock: This is generally rounded, semi-polished stones, potentially of a wide range of types, that are dredged or scooped from river beds and creek beds. It is also often used as concrete aggregate and less often as a paving surface.
  • Crushed Rock: Rock that is mechanically broken into small pieces then sorted by filtering through different size mesh.
  • Crushed stone: This is generally limestone or dolomite that has been crushed and graded by screens to certain size classes. It is widely used in concrete and as a surfacing for roads and driveways, sometimes with tar applied over it. Crushed stone may also be made from granite and other rocks. A special type of limestone crushed stone is dense grade aggregate, or DGA, also known as crusher run. This is a mixed grade of mostly small crushed stone in a matrix of crushed limestone powder.
  • Fine gravel: gravel consisting of particles with a diameter of 1 to 2 mm.
  • Lag gravel: a surface accumulation of coarse gravel produced by the removal of finer particles.
  • Pay gravel: also known as "pay dirt"; a nickname for gravel with a high concentration of gold and other precious metals. The metals are recovered through gold panning.
  • Piedmont gravel: a coarse gravel carried down from high places by mountain streams and deposited on relatively flat ground, where the water runs more slowly.
  • Plateau gravel: a layer of gravel on a plateau or other region above the height at which stream-terrace gravel is usually found.
  • River run gravel: naturally deposited gravel found in and next to rivers and streams.

This bridge across the Danube River links Hungary with Slovakia. ... This balancing rock, Steamboat Rock stands in Garden of the Gods park in Colorado Springs, CO The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... A mesh is similar to fabric or a web in that it has many connected or weaved pieces. ... -1... Dolomite crystals from Touissite, Morocco Dolomite is the name of both a carbonate rock and a mineral consisting of calcium magnesium carbonate (formula: CaMg(CO3)2) found in crystals. ... Concrete being poured, raked and vibrated into place in residential construction in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Tar can be produced from corn stalks by heating in a microwave. ... Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park, valley of the Merced River Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... A sluice box used in placer mining Placer mining (pronounced plass-er) is a open-pit or open-cast form of mining by which certain valuable minerals are extracted from the earth without tunneling. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

See also

Look up Aggregate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ... Silt is soil or rock derived granular material of a specific grain size. ... Patterns in the sand Sand is a granular material made up of fine rock particles. ... Sea wave polishing pebbles into rounded corners Pebbles For other uses, see Pebble (disambiguation). ... Cobble is a geologic term for a rock or rock fragment with a grain size with dimensions between 64–256 mm (2. ... Boulder In geology, a boulder is a rock with grain size of usually no less than 256 mm (10 inches) diameter. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gravel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (626 words)
Gravel is rock that is of a certain grain size range.
Sometimes gravel is restricted to rock in the 2-4 millimeter range, with pebble being reserved for rock 4-75 millimeters (some say 64 millimeters).
Where natural gravel deposits are insufficient for human purposes, gravel is often produced by quarrying and crushing hard-wearing rocks, such as sandstone, limestone, or basalt.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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